Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 48562 in total

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  1. Basri KN, Yazid F, Megat Abdul Wahab R, Mohd Zain MN, Md Yusof Z, Zoolfakar AS
    PMID: 34634732 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2021.120464
    Caries is one of the non-communicable diseases that has a high prevalence trend. The current methods used to detect caries require sophisticated laboratory equipment, professional inspection, and expensive equipment such as X-ray imaging device. A non-invasive and economical method is required to substitute the conventional methods for the detection of caries. UV absorption spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics analysis has emerged as a good potential candidate for such an application. Data preprocessing methods such as mean centre, autoscale and Savitzky-Golay smoothing were implemented to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of spectra data. Various classification algorithms namely K-nearest neighbours (KNN), logistic regression (LR) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were implemented to classify the severity of dental caries into International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) scores. The performance of the prediction model was measured and comparatively analysed based on the accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and specificity. The LDA algorithm combined with the Savitzky-Golay preprocessing method had shown the best result with respect to the validation data accuracy, precision, sensitivity and specificity, where each had values of 0.90, 1.00, 0.86 and 1.00 respectively. The area under the curve of the ROC plot computed for the LDA algorithm was 0.95, which indicated that the prediction algorithm was capable of differentiating normal and caries teeth excellently.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  2. Ranjbari M, Shams Esfandabadi Z, Shevchenko T, Chassagnon-Haned N, Peng W, Tabatabaei M, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2022 01 15;422:126724.
    PMID: 34399217 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126724
    Improper healthcare waste (HCW) management poses significant risks to the environment, human health, and socio-economic sustainability due to the infectious and hazardous nature of HCW. This research aims at rendering a comprehensive landscape of the body of research on HCW management by (i) mapping the scientific development of HCW research, (ii) identifying the prominent HCW research themes and trends, and (iii) providing a research agenda for HCW management towards a circular economy (CE) transition and sustainable environment. The analysis revealed four dominant HCW research themes: (1) HCW minimization, sustainable management, and policy-making; (2) HCW incineration and its associated environmental impacts; (3) hazardous HCW management practices; and (4) HCW handling and occupational safety and training. The results showed that the healthcare industry, despite its potential to contribute to the CE transition, has been overlooked in the CE discourse due to the single-use mindset of the healthcare industry in the wake of the infectious, toxic, and hazardous nature of HCW streams. The findings shed light on the HCW management domain by uncovering the current status of HCW research, highlighting the existing gaps and challenges, and providing potential avenues for further research towards a CE transition in the healthcare industry and HCW management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  3. Birkmann J, Jamshed A, McMillan JM, Feldmeyer D, Totin E, Solecki W, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2022 Jan 10;803:150065.
    PMID: 34525713 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150065
    Climate change is a severe global threat. Research on climate change and vulnerability to natural hazards has made significant progress over the last decades. Most of the research has been devoted to improving the quality of climate information and hazard data, including exposure to specific phenomena, such as flooding or sea-level rise. Less attention has been given to the assessment of vulnerability and embedded social, economic and historical conditions that foster vulnerability of societies. A number of global vulnerability assessments based on indicators have been developed over the past years. Yet an essential question remains how to validate those assessments at the global scale. This paper examines different options to validate global vulnerability assessments in terms of their internal and external validity, focusing on two global vulnerability indicator systems used in the WorldRiskIndex and the INFORM index. The paper reviews these global index systems as best practices and at the same time presents new analysis and global results that show linkages between the level of vulnerability and disaster outcomes. Both the review and new analysis support each other and help to communicate the validity and the uncertainty of vulnerability assessments. Next to statistical validation methods, we discuss the importance of the appropriate link between indicators, data and the indicandum. We found that mortality per hazard event from floods, drought and storms is 15 times higher for countries ranked as highly vulnerable compared to those classified as low vulnerable. These findings highlight the different starting points of countries in their move towards climate resilient development. Priority should be given not just to those regions that are likely to face more severe climate hazards in the future but also to those confronted with high vulnerability already.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  4. Harussani MM, Sapuan SM, Rashid U, Khalina A, Ilyas RA
    Sci Total Environ, 2022 Jan 10;803:149911.
    PMID: 34525745 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149911
    COVID-19 global pandemic, originated from Wuhan, resulted in a massive increase in the output of polypropylene (PP)-based personal protective equipment (PPE) for healthcare workers. The continuous demand of PPE across the world caused the PP based plastic wastes accumulation. Some alternative approaches that have been practiced apart from collecting the plastic waste in the landfills are incineration approach and open burning. However, there were many drawbacks of these practices, which promote the release of chemical additives and greenhouse gases into the environment. Therefore, a proper approach in treating the plastic wastes, which introduces conversion of plastic wastes into renewable energy is paramount. Along the way of extensive research and studies, the recovery of PP plastic to fuel-like liquid oil and solid char through thermal decomposition of pyrolysis process, helps in reducing the number of PP plastic wastes and produces good quality pyrolysis liquid oil and solid char to be used in fuel applications. This paper summarizes the pyrolysis process for massively produced PP plastic wastes, type of pyrolysis used and the main pyrolysis parameters affecting the product yields. Literature studies of pyrolysis of PP plastic and several key points to optimize solid char production for PP were thoroughly elaborated in this review paper.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  5. Kurniawan TA, Liang X, Singh D, Othman MHD, Goh HH, Gikas P, et al.
    J Environ Manage, 2022 Jan 01;301:113882.
    PMID: 34638040 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113882
    Due to its increasing demands for fossil fuels, Indonesia needs an alternative energy to diversify its energy supply. Landfill gas (LFG), which key component is methane (CH4), has become one of the most attractive options to sustain its continued economic development. This exploratory study seeks to demonstrate the added value of landfilled municipal solid waste (MSW) in generating sustainable energy, resulting from CH4 emissions in the Bantargebang landfill (Jakarta). The power generation capacity of a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant based on a mathematical modeling was investigated. This article critically evaluated the production of electricity and potential income from its sale in the market. The project's environmental impact assessment and its socio-economic and environmental benefits in terms of quantitative and qualitative aspects were discussed. It was found that the emitted CH4 from the landfill could be reduced by 25,000 Mt annually, while its electricity generation could reach one million kW ⋅h annually, savings on equivalent electricity charge worth US$ 112 million/year (based on US' 8/kW ⋅ h). An equivalent CO2 mitigation of 3.4 × 106 Mt/year was obtained. The income from its power sale were US$ 1.2 ×106 in the 1st year and 7.7 ×107US$ in the 15th year, respectively, based on the projected CH4 and power generation. The modeling study on the Bantargebang landfill using the LFG extraction data indicated that the LFG production ranged from 0.05 to 0.40 m3 per kg of the landfilled MSW. The LFG could generate electricity as low as US' 8 per kW ⋅ h. With respect to the implications of this study, the revenue not only defrays the cost of landfill's operations and maintenance (O&M), but also provides an incentive and means to further improve its design and operations. Overall, this work not only leads to a diversification of primary energy, but also improves environmental protection and the living standard of the people surrounding the plant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  6. Khoo SC, Ma NL, Peng WX, Ng KK, Goh MS, Chen HL, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2022 Jan;286(Pt 1):131477.
    PMID: 34303046 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131477
    Global solid waste is expected to increase by at least 70% annually until year 2050. The mixture of solid waste including food waste from food industry and domestic diaper waste in landfills is causing environmental and human health issues. Nevertheless, food and diaper waste containing high lignocellulose can easily degrade using lignocellulolytic enzymes thereby converted into energy for the development and growth of mushroom. Therefore, this study explores the potential of recycling biomass waste from coffee ground, banana, eggshell, tea waste, sugarcane bagasse and sawdust and diaper waste as raw material for Lingzhi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) cultivation. Using 2% of diaper core with sawdust biowaste leading to the fastest 100% mushroom mycelium spreading completed in one month. The highest production yield is 71.45 g mushroom; this represents about 36% production biological efficiency compared to only 21% as in commercial substrate. The high mushroom substrate reduction of 73% reflect the valorisation of landfill waste. The metabolomics profiling showed that the Lingzhi mushroom produced is of high quality with a high content of triterpene being the bioactive compounds that are medically important for treating assorted disease and used as health supplement. In conclusion, our study proposed a potential resource management towards zero-waste and circular bioeconomy for high profitable mushroom cultivation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  7. Fauzi AA, Jalil AA, Hassan NS, Aziz FFA, Azami MS, Hussain I, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2022 Jan;286(Pt 1):131651.
    PMID: 34346345 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131651
    Nanostructured photocatalysts commonly offered opportunities to solve issues scrutinized with the environmental challenges caused by steep population growth and rapid urbanization. This photocatalyst is a controllable characteristic, which can provide humans with a clean and sustainable ecosystem. Over the last decades, one of the current thriving research focuses on visible-light-driven CeO2-based photocatalysts due to their superior characteristics, including unique fluorite-type structure, rigid framework, and facile reducing oxidizing properties of cerium's tetravalent (Ce4+) and trivalent (Ce3+) valence states. Notwithstanding, owing to its inherent wide energy gap, the solar energy utilization efficiency is low, which limits its application in wastewater treatment. Numerous modifications of CeO2 have been employed to enhance photodegradation performances, such as metals and non-metals doping, adding support materials, and coupling with another semiconductor. Besides, all these doping will form a different heterojunction and show a different way of electron-hole migration. Compared to conventional heterojunction, advanced heterojunction types such as p-n heterojunction, Z-scheme, Schottky junction, and surface plasmon resonance effect exhibit superior performance for degradation owing to their excellent charge carrier separation, and the reaction occurs at a relatively higher redox potential. This review attends to providing deep insights on heterojunction mechanisms and the latest progress on photodegradation of various contaminants in wastewater using CeO2-based photocatalysts. Hence, making the CeO2 photocatalyst more foresee and promising to further development and research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  8. Abd Wahil MS, Ja'afar MH, Md Isa Z
    Biol Trace Elem Res, 2022 Jan;200(1):97-121.
    PMID: 33661472 DOI: 10.1007/s12011-021-02654-w
    Lead (Pb) is a heavy metal which is abundant in the environment and known to cause neurotoxicity in children even at minute concentration. However, the trace elements calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) are essential to children due to its protective effect on neurodevelopment. The primary objective of this study was to assess the role of Pb and trace elements in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among preschool children. A total of 81 ASD children and 74 typically developed (TD) children aged between 3 and 6 years participated in the study. Self-administered online questionnaires were completed by the parents. A first-morning urine sample was collected in a sterile polyethene urine container and assayed for Pb, Ca, Mg, Zn and Fe using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Comparisons between groups revealed that the urinary Pb, Mg, Zn and Fe levels in ASD children were significantly lower than TD children. The odds of ASD reduced significantly by 5.0% and 23.0% with an increment of every 1.0 μg/dL urinary Zn and Fe, respectively. Post interaction analysis showed that the odds of ASD reduced significantly by 11.0% and 0.1% with an increment of every 1.0 μg/dL urinary Zn and Pb, respectively. A significantly lower urinary Pb level in ASD children than TD children may be due to their poor detoxifying mechanism. Also, the significantly lower urinary Zn and Fe levels in ASD children may augment the neurotoxic effect of Pb.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  9. Chia SR, Nomanbhay SBHM, Chew KW, Munawaroh HSH, Shamsuddin AH, Show PL
    Chemosphere, 2022 Jan;287(Pt 1):131944.
    PMID: 34438210 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131944
    Depletion of non-renewable feedstock and severe wastewater pollution due to human activities have created negative impact to living organisms. The potential solution is to implement wastewater treatment and bioelectricity production through algae-based microbial fuel cell. The algae biomass produced from microbial fuel cell could be further processed to generate biofuels through their unique compositions. The consumption of nutrients in wastewater through algae cultivation and biomass produced to be utilized for energy supply have showed the potential of algae to solve the issues faced nowadays. This review introduces the background of algae and mitigation of wastewater using algae as well as the bioenergy status in Malaysia. The mechanisms of nutrient assimilation such as nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon, and heavy metals are included, followed by the application of algae in microbial fuel cell's chambers. Lastly, the status of algae for bioenergy production are covered.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  10. Ratnasari A, Syafiuddin A, Zaidi NS, Hong Kueh AB, Hadibarata T, Prastyo DD, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2022 Jan 01;292(Pt B):118474.
    PMID: 34763013 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118474
    The emergence and continual accumulation of industrial micropollutants such as dyes, heavy metals, organic matters, and pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) in the ecosystem pose an alarming hazard to human health and the general wellbeing of global flora and fauna. To offer eco-friendly solutions, living and non-living algae have lately been identified and broadly practiced as promising agents in the bioremediation of micropollutants. The approach is promoted by recent findings seeing better removal performance, higher efficiency, surface area, and binding affinity of algae in various remediation events compared to bacteria and fungi. To give a proper and significant insight into this technology, this paper comprehensively reviews its current applications, removal mechanisms, comparative efficacies, as well as future outlooks and recommendations. In conducting the review, the secondary data of micropollutants removal have been gathered from numerous sources, from which their removal performances are analyzed and presented in terms of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT), to specifically examine their suitability for selected micropollutants remediation. Based on kinetic, isotherm, thermodynamic, and SWOT analysis, non-living algae are generally more suitable for dyes and heavy metals removal, meanwhile living algae are appropriate for removal of organic matters and PhACs. Moreover, parametric effects on micropollutants removal are evaluated, highlighting that pH is critical for biodegradation activity. For selective pollutants, living and non-living algae show recommendable prospects as agents for the efficient cleaning of industrial wastewaters while awaiting further supporting discoveries in encouraging technology assurance and extensive applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  11. Dai C, Li S, Duan Y, Leong KH, Tu Y, Zhou L
    Sci Total Environ, 2021 Dec 20;801:149730.
    PMID: 34467938 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149730
    Pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment have raised wide attention in recent years due to their potential adverse effects and bioaccumulation in biota. China has been a major producer and consumer of pharmaceuticals, however, the potential human health risk of these chemicals is yet to be determined in China. In this study, we evaluated available exposure data for twenty pharmaceuticals in surface waters from Chinese five major river basins (the Yangtze, Haihe, Pearl, Songliao, and Yellow River Basins), and human health risk assessment was performed. Based on the concentration data and risk data, we conducted research on the source, cause, and control measures of the pharmaceuticals. The twenty pharmaceuticals were found to be ubiquitous in China with median concentrations between 0.09 and 304 ng/L. The estimated daily intake of pharmaceuticals from drinking water and eating fish was calculated. The intake via drinking water was significantly lower than that via eating fish. The risk quotients via water intake and fish consumption ranged from 0 to 17.2, with estrogen and sulfapyridine highest among the twenty pharmaceuticals. High risks of exposure were mainly in North China, including the Haihe and Songliao River Basins. This is the first analysis in Chinese major river basins that has filled the gaps in the research on the human health risks of pharmaceuticals. The results of the study provide basic information of pharmaceutical intake from drinking water and eating fish in China and provide insights into the risk management guidance of pharmaceuticals, and will facilitate the optimization of health advisories and policy making.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  12. Chan JCN, Lim LL, Wareham NJ, Shaw JE, Orchard TJ, Zhang P, et al.
    Lancet, 2021 12 19;396(10267):2019-2082.
    PMID: 33189186 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32374-6
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  13. Jamei M, Ahmadianfar I, Karbasi M, Jawad AH, Farooque AA, Yaseen ZM
    J Environ Manage, 2021 Dec 15;300:113774.
    PMID: 34560461 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113774
    The concentration of soluble salts in surface water and rivers such as sodium, sulfate, chloride, magnesium ions, etc., plays an important role in the water salinity. Therefore, accurate determination of the distribution pattern of these ions can improve better management of drinking water resources and human health. The main goal of this research is to establish two novel wavelet-complementary intelligence paradigms so-called wavelet least square support vector machine coupled with improved simulated annealing (W-LSSVM-ISA) and the wavelet extended Kalman filter integrated with artificial neural network (W-EKF- ANN) for accurate forecasting of the monthly), magnesium (Mg+2), and sulfate (SO4-2) indices at Maroon River, in Southwest of Iran. The monthly River flow (Q), electrical conductivity (EC), Mg+2, and SO4-2 data recorded at Tange-Takab station for the period 1980-2016. Some preprocessing procedures consisting of specifying the number of lag times and decomposition of the existing original signals into multi-resolution sub-series using three mother wavelets were performed to develop predictive models. In addition, the best subset regression analysis was designed to separately assess the best selective combinations for Mg+2 and SO4-2. The statistical metrics and authoritative validation approaches showed that both complementary paradigms yielded promising accuracy compared with standalone artificial intelligence (AI) models. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that W-LSSVM-ISA-C1 (correlation coefficient (R) = 0.9521, root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.2637 mg/l, and Kling-Gupta efficiency (KGE) = 0.9361) and W-LSSVM-ISA-C4 (R = 0.9673, RMSE = 0.5534 mg/l and KGE = 0.9437), using Dmey mother that outperformed the W-EKF-ANN for predicting Mg+2 and SO4-2, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  14. Keane A, Ng CW, Simms KT, Nguyen D, Woo YL, Saville M, et al.
    Int J Cancer, 2021 12 15;149(12):1997-2009.
    PMID: 34363620 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.33759
    The WHO has launched a global strategy to eliminate cervical cancer through the scale-up of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, cervical screening, and cervical cancer treatment. Malaysia has achieved high-coverage HPV vaccination since 2010, but coverage of the existing cytology-based program remains low. Pilot studies found HPV self-sampling was acceptable and effective, with high follow-up rates when a digital registry was used, and recently the Malaysian Government announced plans for a national HPV-based screening program. We therefore evaluated the impact of primary HPV screening with self-collection in Malaysia in the context of Malaysia's existing vaccination program. We used the "Policy1-Cervix" modeling platform to assess health outcomes, cost-effectiveness, resource use and cervical cancer elimination timing (the year when cervical cancer rates reach four cases per 100 000 women) of implementing primary HPV testing with self-collection, assuming 70% routine-screening coverage could be achieved. Based on available data, we assumed that compliance with follow-up was 90% when a digital registry was used, but that compliance with follow-up would be 50-75% without the use of a digital registry. We found that the current vaccination program would prevent 27 000 to 32 200 cervical cancer cases and 11 700 to 14 000 deaths by 2070. HPV testing with a digital registry was cost-effective (CER = $US 6953-7549 
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  15. Chia WY, Kok H, Chew KW, Low SS, Show PL
    Bioengineered, 2021 12;12(1):1226-1237.
    PMID: 33858291 DOI: 10.1080/21655979.2021.1910432
    The world at large is facing a new threat with the emergence of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Though imperceptible by the naked eye, the medical, sociological and economical implications caused by this newly discovered virus have been and will continue to be a great impediment to our lives. This health threat has already caused over two million deaths worldwide in the span of a year and its mortality rate is projected to continue rising. In this review, the potential of algae in combating the spread of COVID-19 is investigated since algal compounds have been tested against viruses and algal anti-inflammatory compounds have the potential to treat the severe symptoms of COVID-19. The possible utilization of algae in producing value-added products such as serological test kits, vaccines, and supplements that would either mitigate or hinder the continued health risks caused by the virus is prominent. Many of the characteristics in algae can provide insights on the development of microalgae to fight against SARS-CoV-2 or other viruses and contribute in manufacturing various green and high-value products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  16. Parthiban N, Boland F, Fadil Azim DH, Pawlikowska T, O'Shea MT, Jaafar MH, et al.
    Med Educ Online, 2021 Dec;26(1):1927466.
    PMID: 33999787 DOI: 10.1080/10872981.2021.1927466
    Background: Professionalism is the basis of trust in patient-physician relationships; however, there is very limited evidence focusing on attitudes towards professionalism among medical students. Hence, the main aim of our study was to investigate Malaysian medical students' attitudes towards professionalism with specific emphasis on the comparison between pre-clinical and clinical students. Our secondary aim was to compare the differences in perception of medical students in Malaysia (pre-clinical and clinical) with Asian medical students studying in Dublin, IrelandMethods: This study utilized the Professionalism Mini-Evaluation Exercise (P-MEX) instrument which consists of 25 items that represent four skill categories: Doctor-Patient Relationship skills, Reflective skills, Time Management and Inter-Professional Relationship skills. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the demographic information of students and given the ordinal nature of the data, Mann-Whitney U-tests were used.Results: Overall, students have positive attitudes to all the professionalism items with more than 80% of the students agreeing that each of the professionalism attributes is important or very important. There was evidence of a significant difference between Malaysian pre-clinical and clinical students in relation to 'avoiding derogatory language' only (p = 0.015). When comparing between Malaysian and Dublin Asian students, there was a statistically significant difference in relation to 'show interest in patient as a person' (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  17. Zohor Ali AA, Muhammad NA, Jamil TR, Ahmad S, Abd Aziz NA
    Addict Behav Rep, 2021 Dec;14:100350.
    PMID: 34041356 DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2021.100350
    Despite the wide accessibility to internet, pornography activities among youths are not well described in conservative countries like Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, elicit gender differences and identify associated factors of pornographic exposure including perceived realism among college students. This cross-sectional study was conducted among students aged 18 to 25 years from seven colleges in Penang, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demographic characteristics, pornography exposure, pattern of use, sexual exposure and perceived realism. Among 986 participants, the prevalence of lifetime pornography exposure was 74.5%. More males (71.7%) were exposed to pornography, had started at earlier age, were frequent users and using the internet alone at home (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  18. Sukumaran SD, Nasir SB, Tee JT, Buckle MJC, Othman R, Rahman NA, et al.
    J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem, 2021 Dec;36(1):130-137.
    PMID: 33243025 DOI: 10.1080/14756366.2020.1847100
    A series of C4-substituted tertiary nitrogen-bearing 2'-hydroxychalcones were designed and synthesised based on a previous mixed type acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Majority of the 2'-hydroxychalcone analogues displayed a better inhibition against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) than butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Among them, compound 4c was identified as the most potent AChE inhibitor (IC50: 3.3 µM) and showed the highest selectivity for AChE over BuChE (ratio >30:1). Molecular docking studies suggested that compound 4c interacts with both the peripheral anionic site (PAS) and catalytic anionic site (CAS) regions of AChE. ADMET analysis confirmed the therapeutic potential of compound 4c based on its blood-brain barrier penetrating. Overall, the results suggest that this 2'-hydroxychalcone deserves further investigation into the therapeutic lead for Alzheimer's disease (AD).
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  19. Gu Y, Liu L, Guo J, Xiao S, Fang F, Yu X, et al.
    Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol, 2021 Dec;49(1):30-37.
    PMID: 33467925 DOI: 10.1080/21691401.2020.1865992
    This research is focussed to quantify IGF1 by electroanalytical analysis on InterDigitated electrode surface and characterized by the microscopic observations. For the detection, antibody and aptamer were used to analyze the level of IGF1. The sandwich pattern (aptamer-IGF1-antibody) was designed on the chemically modified IDE surface and reached the limit of detection to 10 fM with 100 folds enhancement in the sensitivity. Different control experiments (absence of IGF1, binding with IGF2 and with non-complementary aptamer) were failed to show the current changes, discriminated the specific detection. A good detection strategy is to complement the currently following imaging systems for AAA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  20. Raji YE, Toung OP, Mohd Taib N, Sekawi ZB
    Virulence, 2021 12;12(1):114-129.
    PMID: 33372843 DOI: 10.1080/21505594.2020.1865716
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an emerging zoonotic viral disease, with an increasingly international public health challenge. Despite the concerns that the global disease burden may be underestimated. Therefore, evaluation of the disease epidemiology in South - eastern Asia through a systematic review will assist in unraveling the burden of the disease in the subregion. A priori protocol was prepared for the systematic review and followed by a literature search involving five electronic databases. Identified publications were screened for high quality studies and the elimination of bias and relevant data extracted. A total of 4157 citations were captured, and only 35 were included in the review. A wide range of HEV seroprevalence was recorded from 2% (urban blood donors in Malaysia) to 77.7% (lowland communities in Lao PDR). Sporadic HEV infection and epidemics were also detected in the subregion. Indicating hyperendemicity of the disease in South - eastern Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
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