BACKGROUND: Worldwide, over half a million women died of breast cancer in 2011 alone. Mammography screening is associated with a reduction of 20 to 35% in breast cancer mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the awareness and practice of mammography screening and predictors of its uptake in Malaysian women attending a primary care clinic.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among women aged 40 to 74 years attending a primary care clinic in Selangor, Malaysia. An assisted structured questionnaire included questions on socio-demography, source of information and level of knowledge. An adapted version of the revised Champion Health Belief Model Scale plus other associated factors for mammography screening up-take were also included as part of the questionnaire. Predictors for mammography screening uptake were only determined in those who were aware about mammography screening. Significant predictors were determined by logistic regression.
RESULTS: 447 women were recruited for this study; 99.1% of them (n: 411) were aware about breast cancer. Only 50.1% (n: 206) had knowledge about mammography screening. Prevalence of clinical breast-examination (CBE) was 23.3% (n: 104) and mammography screening up-take was 13.2% (n: 59). The predictors for the latter were those who have had clinical breast-examination (aOR=17.58, 95%CI: 7.68-39.82) and those aged between 50 to 59 years (aOR=3.94, 95%CI: 1.61-9.66) as well as those aged 60 years and above (aOR=6.91, 95%CI: 2.28-20.94). Good knowledge and positive beliefs about mammography screening were not associated with mammography screening uptake.
CONCLUSIONS: Half of our Malaysian women were aware about mammography screening. However, the uptake of mammography was low. Previous CBE and older age were significant predictors of mammography screening uptake. Increasing CBE services may increase compliance with guidelines.
Barriers to health seeking constitute a challenging issue in the treatment of breast cancer. The current meta- synthesis aimed to explore common barriers to health seeking among Malaysian breast cancer patients. From the systematic search, nine studies were found meeting the inclusion criteria. Data extraction revealed that health behavior towards breast cancer among Malaysia women was influenced by knowledge, psychological, sociocultural and medical system factors. In terms of knowledge, most of the Malaysian patients were observed to have cursory information and the reliance on the information provided by media was limiting. Among psychological factors, stress and sense of denial were some of the common factors leading to delay in treatment seeking. Family member's advice, cultural beliefs towards traditional care were some of the common sociocultural factors hindering immediate access to advanced medical diagnosis and care. Lastly, the delay in referral was one of the most common health system-related problems highlighted in most of the studies. In conclusion, there is an immediate need to improve the knowledge and understanding of Malaysian women towards breast cancer. Mass media should liaise with the cancer specialists to disseminate accurate and up-to-date information for the readers and audience, helping in modification of cultural beliefs that hinder timing health seeking. However, such intervention will not improve or rectify the health system related barriers to treatment seeking. Therefore, there is an immediate need for resource adjustment and training programs among health professional to improve their competency and professionalism required to develop an efficient health system.
Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/psychology
INTRODUCTION: Advanced presentation of breast cancer and the problem of late diagnosis is well documented. Patient delay beyond three months has been shown to reduce survival. This paper aims to explore the experience of Malaysian women presenting with advanced breast cancer with regards to their interpretation of breast symptoms.
METHOD: Purposive sampling of 19 breast cancer patients presenting with delayed treatment and/ or advanced cancer diagnosed within two years at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur were carried out. In-depth interviews were conducted using a self-devised interview guide. The interview guide covered the journey of the patient from discovering of symptoms to their present state. The audiotaped interviews were transcribed verbatim. NVivo 8 qualitative software was utilised for data management. Grounded theory with thematic analysis was utilised.
RESULTS: Nine women delayed seeking diagnosis although recognizing the symptom, five did not recognize symptom, three delayed treatment and two did not delay health attention. Themes that emerged with regards to triggering help seeking behavior were: a) poor symptom knowledge and recognition; b) importance of knowledge of the disease and its' outcomes; c) role of coping mechanisms and affect; and lastly d) role of significant others in appraising a breast symptom.
CONCLUSION: Symptom recognition remains an important public health issue in Malaysia. Educating women, their significant others and primary health and primary care providers in detecting early staged breast cancer are needed. Supporting and sanctioning women with breast symptoms are important. The psycho-social-cultural model of symptom appraisal may serve as an important addition to the fight against cancer in countries that do not have the resources for population based screening mammogram programmes.
Studies examining associations between body image and breast self-examination (BSE) have returned mixed findings, but this may be a function of focusing on global body image. Here, we examined the impact of breast size dissatisfaction specifically on BSE and behaviours in relation to breast change detection. A total of 384 British women completed measures of breast size dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, BSE frequency, confidence in detecting breast change, and delay in contacting their doctor upon detecting a breast change. Regression analyses indicated that greater breast size dissatisfaction, but not body dissatisfaction, was significantly associated with less frequent BSE and lower confidence in detecting breast change. Both breast size and body dissatisfaction were significantly associated with greater delay in consulting a doctor following breast change, but the former was the stronger predictor. These findings suggest that improving breast size satisfaction may be a useful means of promoting improved breast awareness and self-examination.
Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/psychology*
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the commonest type of cancer among women, and in Malaysia 50-60% of the new cases are being detected at late stages. Do age, education level, income, ethnicity, relationship with breast cancer patients and knowledge of breast cancer risk factors influence breast screening practices? This study revealed interesting but significant differences.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors and early detection measures among women in a high risk group.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional survey of one hundred and thirty one women relatives of breast cancer patients was carried out. Participants were selected through purposive sampling, during hospital visits. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection.
RESULTS: The majority of the respondents (71%) had poor knowledge of the risk factors for breast cancer. Income, relationship with a patient and practise of breast cancer screening predicted performance of mammography, R2=0.467, F=12.568, p<0.0001.
CONCLUSIONS: The finding shows inadequate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors and poor cancer screening practise among women with family history of breast cancer. Poor knowledge and practise of breast screening are likely to lead to late stage presentation of breast cancer disease. Some important predictors of breast cancer screening behaviour among women with positive family history of breast cancer were identified. An understanding of the strengths and significance of the association between these factors and breast screening behaviour is vital for developing more targeted breast health promotion.
This study aimed to examine the relationship between body image satisfaction and breast self-screening behavior and intentions. The sample for this cross-sectional study consisted of 842 female university students who were recruited from a number of public and private universities. Data were obtained between the months of November and December, 2013, using multistage random cluster sampling. Main research variables were breast cancer screening behavior and intentions, demographic factors, and the total scores on each of the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ-Appearance Scales) subscales. Results of multivariate analysis showed that having higher satisfaction and more positive evaluation of appearance were related to having performed breast self-examination more frequently in the last year and intending to perform breast self-examination more frequently in the next year. Longitudinal research can potentially provide detailed information about overall body image satisfaction and breast cancer screening behavior among various communities.
Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/methods; Breast Self-Examination/psychology*
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is the leading cancer in women today and the major challenge is late presentation then later contributes to poor outcome and high fatality rate. Mammography is effective in early detection of breast cancer and consequently significantly improves the breast cancer survival.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was used to study the knowledge and awareness towards mammogram amongst women aged 15 years old and above. A systemic random sampling was applied and information gathered through guided interview by using a structured questionnaire.
RESULTS: Eighty-six respondents were recruited. The mean age of respondents was 40.5 years (SD: 15.51) and more than 80% had secondary and tertiary level of education. The percentage of respondents ever performed mammogram was 10.5% (95% CI: 4.0%-17.0%). The rate of correct answers was between 8.1% and 48.8%. Most of the respondents do not sure the answer (45.3%-61.6%) rather than wrongly answer (4.7%-43.0%). Only about 8% truly answer that mammogram should be done once in a life. There are 10.5% of women claimed that mammogram had no serious side effect and not a painful procedure. Nearly half of respondents (48.8%) correctly mentioned that Mammogram can detect breast cancer in early stage.
CONCLUSION: Only a small percentage of women ever performed mammogram and there are seriously unaware and poor knowledge pertaining to mammography screening for breast cancer among women in sub urban area. A massive health education campaign through multiple methods and agencies are needed to enhance the knowledge and awareness on mammogram.
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in Malaysian women, irrespective of age group and ethnicity. The observed low survival rates are related to late stage at presentation despite the availability of breast self examination (BSE) as a reliable screening method for early detection.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice towards BSE amongst women aged 15 years old and above. Systemic random sampling was applied and information gathered through guided interview by using a structured questionnaire.
RESULTS: A total of 86 respondents were recruited, with a mean age of 40.5 years (SD: 15.51), more than 80% having a secondary or tertiary level of education. The total score was 16.9 (total mean percent: 60.4%) for knowledge, 37.1 (77.3%) for attitude and 9.56 (34.1%) for practice. The proportions of respondents with good score for knowledge, attitude and practice were 38.4%, 73.3% and 7.0%, respectively. Not knowing the correct method of BSE, lack of knowledge on cancer signs and lack of motivational support from parents, spouse or friends appeared to be related with the poor practices.
CONCLUSION: Enhancement of breast cancer awareness and focusing on recognized barriers by health care professionals with the involvement of spouses, family and community would have a substantial beneficial impact on BSE practice.
Breast self-examination (BSE) is recommended globally as one of the methods in early detection of breast cancer. Little is known about nurses screening behavior related to BSE. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the knowledge, attitude and practice of Breast Self Examination (BSE) among nurses. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to a total of 114 nurses working in Obstetrics & Gynaecology wards and clinics of two tertiary hospitals. Among the 114 participants, 111(97.4%) practiced BSE. The mean age of the participants was 34.97(±9.104) years. The mean score of knowledge was 11.07(±1.020) and 81.1% had high knowledge of BSE. Majority (98.2%) of respondents showed good attitude towards BSE. Barriers was found to be a significant predictor and self confidence proved to be an influencing factor on BSE performance. Despite practicing BSE, the number of nurses that examined their breast monthly was only 35.1%. Age, working experience and marital status showed no significant relationship with knowledge and practice of BSE. However, BSE taught during their undergraduate programme was found to have a significant relationship with practice of BSE. Majority of nurses in this study were not complying with MOH recommendation for BSE in terms of frequency. Thus, intervention strategies should focus on educating nurses on performing BSE monthly, in accordance with the Ministry of Health guidelines. This is important as nurses play a primary role in promoting health behaviors in BSE practice and breast cancer awareness among women in this country.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women and early detection can play an important role in reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the rates and factors related to clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography among 425 female teachers in Selangor, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire that included questions on socio-demography, cancer-related knowledge and practice and an adapted version of Champion's revised Health Belief Model Scale was employed. The mean age of participants was 37.2 ± 7.16 years. Only 25% of the women ever had a CBE. Of women over the age 40 (n=138), 13.6% reported having had a mammography. The results showed higher susceptibility to breast cancer, higher benefits of doing CBE and regular visits with a physician to be significant predictors for undergoing CBE (p < 0.05). In addition, higher a perceived susceptibility to breast cancer and regular undergoing CBE were significant predictors for having a mammography. The findings clearly suggest a need for improving women's awareness on breast cancer screening, its importance and recommended guidelines.
Study site: Secondary school teachers in Selangor, Malaysia.
A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the knowledge and practices of 425 female secondary school teachers from 20 selected secondary schools in Selangor, Malaysia on breast cancer screening (BCS). A self-administered, structured questionnaire was used for data collection. This study showed moderate to low knowledge on breast cancer (BC) and BCS among teachers. Only 19%, 25% and 13.6% eligible women performed breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography respectively, on a regular basis. Level of breast cancer knowledge was significantly associated with BSE (p<0.001). Having heard/ read about BCS, and regular visit with a physician were associated with BCS behaviors (P<0.05). There was no association between BCS behaviors (P>0.05) and age, family history of breast cancer, marital status or having health insurance. Efforts are needed to increase knowledge and remove misconceptions about breast cancer and screening practices among Malaysian women.
Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/psychology
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Malaysian women, and the use of breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography remain low in Malaysia. Therefore, there is a need to develop a valid and reliable tool to measure the beliefs that influence breast cancer screening practices. The Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) is a valid and reliable tool to measure beliefs about breast cancer and screening methods in the Western culture. The purpose of this study was to translate the use of CHBMS into the Malaysian context and validate the scale among Malaysian women.
Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/statistics & numerical data
The National Health Morbidity Survey 1996 showed only 34.2% of women aged 20 years and above had done breast self examination (BSE). This data showed the practice of BSE is still low despite of various awareness programmes and activities carried out. A cross sectional study through Systematic Random Sampling was done at Out Patient Department, Kuantan Health Office to know the knowledge and practice of BSE among women aged 20~60 years. The results showed 94.9% respondents had received information about BSE, however only 31.6% knew the appropriate time to do BSE, 14.7% knew the purpose of doing at that time and only 29.9% knew how frequent they should do BSE. 74% of respondents did BSE, however 70.2% of them did not do monthly and 67.2% did not do at the suggested time. There was an association between the practice of BSE with the knowledge and sociodemographic characteristics i.e. educational level, income, ethnic group and marital status.
Key word: Breast self-examination, breast cancer, Kuantan.
Study site: Klinik Kesihatan, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
Delay in help-seeking behaviour which is potentially preventable has a major effect on the prognosis and survival of patients with breast cancer. The objective of this study was to explore reasons for delay in seeking help among patients with breast cancer from the East Coast of peninsular Malaysia. A qualitative study using face- to-face in-depth interview was carried out involving 12 breast cancer patients who had been histo-pathologically confirmed and were symptomatic on presentation. Respondents were selected purposely based on their history of delayed consultation, diagnosis or treatment. All were of Malay ethnicity and the age range was 26-67 years. Three were in stage ll, seven in stage lll and two in stage lV. At the time of interview, all except one respondent had accepted treatment. The range of consultation time was 0.2-72.2 months with a median of 1.7 months, diagnosis time was 1.4-95.8 months( median 5.4 months )and treatment time was 0-33.3 months (median 1.2 months). The themes derived from the study were poor knowledge or awareness of breast cancer, fear of cancer consequences, beliefs in complementary alternative medicine, sanction by others, other priorities, denial of disease, attitude of wait and see and health care system weakness. Help-seeking behaviour was influenced by a complex interaction of cognitive, environmental, beliefs, culture and psycho-social factors. Breast cancer awareness and psychological counselling are recommended for all patients with breast symptoms to prevent delay in seeking clinical help.
Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/psychology*
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally. This study was conducted to compare the awareness of breast cancer and the practice of breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography screening among rural females in Pahang and Perak. A cross-sectional study was carried out in five selected rural districts of Pahang and Perak. Two hundred and fifty households were randomly selected and interviewed face to face using a semi-structured questionnaire. The majority of residents from both states were Malay, aged between 50 and 60 years and had a secondary level of education. Malay women aged 40-49 years and women with a higher level of education were significantly more aware of breast cancer (p<0.05). About half of these women practiced BSE (60.7%) and CBE (56.1%), and 7% had underwent mammography screening. The results of this study suggest that women in Pahang and Perak have good awareness of breast cancer and that more than half practice BSE and CBE. The women's level of education appears to contribute to their level of knowledge and health behaviour. However, more effort is needed to encourage all women in rural areas to acquire further knowledge on breast cancer.
Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/statistics & numerical data*
Students in tertiary level education are mostly young adults that are transiting from the teenage years to adulthood. Since there is less restriction as compared to their teenage years, university and college students might involve in risky behaviours that may affect their health, social and academic performance. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate and identify the differences of health risk factors and health promoting behaviour that have been practiced by students in Malaysia. A cross sectional study was conducted using closed-ended questionnaires distributed to university and college students via emails. The results showed that 77.0% students claimed they have no health problem. However 49.0% of the non-medical students did not know whether they have normal BMI. Among the medical students, 62.0% rarely do physical exercise even though most are seriously concern about their fat consumption (95.0%). Only 30.0% of the total students have awareness of wearing seat belt. For health promoting behaviour, 33.0% of female students have never perform breast self examination (BSE), while 65.0% of male students have never perform testicular self examination (TSE). These findings confirmed that there are differences in health risk factors and health promoting behaviour that have been practiced by the students.
Breast cancer is one of the most frequently encountered malignancies among young females in Malaysia, which accounts for 30.4% of newly diagnosed cancers. All women at or above the age of 20 are considered at risk of developing breast cancer. This is a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in a private medical university in Malaysia during year 2012. Two hundred students were recruited in this study using universal sampling. Data collection was done using a selfadministration questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to assess the association between the practice of breast selfexamination and socio-demographic variables. Only 19.5% of the study sample has sufficient knowledge about BSE which is acquired mostly from local media. Having a family history of malignancy other than breast cancer seems to be the only significant variable associated with knowledge about BSE (P=0.002). Other variables such as demographic data, menstrual history and social history were also tested, but found to be not significant. Frequent community-based awareness programs are needed so that all women can know and practice BSE, which in turn helps to alert the women to any abnormal changes in the breasts so that they will be able to seek medical advice immediately.
Breast Self-Examination (BSE) is a process whereby women examine their breasts regularly to detect any abnormal swelling or lumps in order to seek prompt medical attention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and practice of BSE among female non-medical students in UKM, Bangi. A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administered and validated questionnaire among 364 students. The results showed that only 37.1% performs BSE and 45% of the students have good knowledge. Age, marital status, using internet and pamphlets as source of information, personal, and family history of BC, were significantly associated with knowledge level of students. Practice of BSE was significantly associated with knowledge level. From multivariate analysis, BSE was more likely to be done among students with family history, students who using internet and pamphlet as sources of information, also among students with good knowledge. As conclusions, the practice of BSE is inadequate among the respondents in spite of most of them had heard about BSE. The results suggest the need of providing continuing educational programs to increase the knowledge level on BSE which in turn will have a positive effect on students to practice and motivate to perform BSE.
Breast self-examination (BSE) is a self-generated, non-invasive and non-irradiative method of breast cancer detection. This paper documents Malaysian women's awareness and practice of regular BSE as a potent breast cancer detection tool. A pre-test post-test questionnaire survey on women diagnosed with breast cancer (n=66) was conducted. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were performed to correlate demographic variables, knowledge and regular practice of BSE. Findings showed that 80% of the breast cancer survivors self-detected the breast lumps, despite a high 85% of these women reporting they were never taught about BSE. More than 70% of the women maintained that lack of knowledge/skill on the proper practice of BSE was the key barrier to a more regular BSE practice. After an educational intervention on BSE and breast awareness, we found an increase report from 17% (at pre-test) to 67% (at post-test) of self reported monthly BSE practices. Provision of self-management education incorporating BSE, a readily available cheap method, should be introduced at primary care and breast clinics. This strategy promotes women's self-efficacy which contributes towards cancer control agenda in less resource available countries around Asia Pacific. Longer follow up may be crucial to examine the adherence to positive BSE behaviour.
Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/methods*; Breast Self-Examination/psychology*
OBJECTIVE: Poor health literacy is positively associated with poorer quality of health decision-making and health outcomes in women facing a cancer diagnosis. In developing countries, poor access to complete and accurate information continues to pose a challenge for women. This paper describes the knowledge of Malaysian women with regard to breast cancer and how participation in a self-management program can improve the situation.
METHODS: Secondary analysis of data collected during a clinical trial on women newly diagnosed with breast cancer (n=147) was performed to examine baseline knowledge of breast cancer profile. Knowledge levels of women in the experimental (n= 69) group attending a self-management program were compared to a control group (n= 78) to determine change in the level of knowledge over time.
RESULTS: At baseline, a high percentage of women were unaware of their breast cancer profile. Not a single woman had knowledge of all six basic characteristics; 83% did not know their HER2 status, type of breast cancer (68%), grade of cancer cell (64%), hormonal receptor status (55%), size of breast cancer (18%) and/or their stage of breast cancer (13%). At post intervention, there was significantly better knowledge within the experimental group.
CONCLUSION: Malaysian women in this cohort study demonstrated very low levels of knowledge of their cancer profile. Clinical implications for countering treatment-decision difficulties include the need for a shift in the way information and services are delivered to allow women to take a more active role in their own care. Multi-modal efforts including basic information dissemination to increase women's knowledge can contribute to narrowing of the gap in health disparity.
Matched MeSH terms: Breast Self-Examination/utilization*