Displaying all 13 publications

  1. Nissapatorn V, Abdullah KA
    PMID: 15272740
    We reviewed various studies regarding human toxoplasmosis in Malaysia. They showed a varying prevalence of specific Toxoplasma antibodies among the Malaysian population. The Malays have shown the highest seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis, by most studies, when compared to other races. Demographic profiles have shown that Toxoplasma seropositivity is higher in males than females, lower in people with higher incomes, higher in the unemployed and tends to increase with age. In general, the route of transmission, such as contact with a cat, consumption of undercooked meat and blood transfusion were shown to have no significant association with Toxoplasma seropositivity (p > 0.05). The immune status (CD4 cell count < 200 cell/mm3) was strongly associated with toxoplasmic encephalitis (p < 0.05).
  2. Abdullah KA, Reed W
    J Med Radiat Sci, 2018 Sep;65(3):237-239.
    PMID: 29971971 DOI: 10.1002/jmrs.292
    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has demonstrated a huge potential for the future of medicine. Since its introduction, it has been used in various areas, for example building anatomical models, personalising medical devices and implants, aiding in precision medical interventions and the latest development, 3D bioprinting. This commentary is provided to outline the current use of 3D printing in medical imaging and its future directions for advancing the healthcare services.
  3. Suradi SH, Abdullah KA
    Curr Med Imaging, 2021 Jan 26.
    PMID: 33504312 DOI: 10.2174/1573405617666210127101101
    BACKGROUND: Digital mammograms with appropriate image enhancement techniques will improve breast cancer detection, and thus increase the survival rates. The objectives of this study were to systematically review and compare various image enhancement techniques in digital mammograms for breast cancer detection.

    METHODS: A literature search was conducted with the use of three online databases namely, Web of Science, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. Developed keywords strategy was used to include only the relevant articles. A Population Intervention Comparison Outcomes (PICO) strategy was used to develop the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Image quality was analyzed quantitatively based on peak signal-noise-ratio (PSNR), Mean Squared Error (MSE), Absolute Mean Brightness Error (AMBE), Entropy, and Contrast Improvement Index (CII) values.

    RESULTS: Nine studies with four types of image enhancement techniques were included in this study. Two studies used histogram-based, three studies used frequency-based, one study used fuzzy-based and three studies used filter-based. All studies reported PSNR values whilst only four studies reported MSE, AMBE, Entropy and CII values. Filter-based was the highest PSNR values of 78.93, among other types. For MSE, AMBE, Entropy, and CII values, the highest were frequency-based (7.79), fuzzy-based (93.76), filter-based (7.92), and frequency-based (6.54) respectively.

    CONCLUSION: In summary, image quality for each image enhancement technique is varied, especially for breast cancer detection. In this study, the frequency-based of Fast Discrete Curvelet Transform (FDCT) via the UnequiSpaced Fast Fourier Transform (USFFT) shows the most superior among other image enhancement techniques.

  4. Abdullah KA, McEntee MF, Reed W, Kench PL
    J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol, 2016 Aug;60(4):459-68.
    PMID: 27241506 DOI: 10.1111/1754-9485.12473
    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the radiation dose reduction achieved using iterative reconstruction (IR) compared to filtered back projection (FBP) in coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and assess the impact on diagnostic image quality. A systematic search of seven electronic databases was performed to identify all studies using a developed keywords strategy. A total of 14 studies met the criteria and were included in a review analysis. The results showed that there was a significant reduction in radiation dose when using IR compared to FBP (P  0.05). The mean ± SD difference of image noise, signal-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-noise ratio (CNR) were 1.05 ± 1.29 HU, 0.88 ± 0.56 and 0.63 ± 1.83 respectively. The mean ± SD percentages of overall image quality scores were 71.79 ± 12.29% (FBP) and 67.31 ± 22.96% (IR). The mean ± SD percentages of coronary segment analysis were 95.43 ± 2.57% (FBP) and 97.19 ± 2.62% (IR). In conclusion, this review analysis shows that CCTA with the use of IR leads to a significant reduction in radiation dose as compared to the use of FBP. Diagnostic image quality of IR at reduced dose (30-41%) is comparable to FBP at standard dose in the diagnosis of CAD.
  5. Noordin R, Abdullah KA, Azahri NA, Ramachandran CP
    PMID: 10928359
    Western blot analysis of infective larvae (L3) antigen of Brugia malayi were performed on 200 sera from six groups of individuals: 36 samples from B. malayi microfilaremic individuals; 10 samples from individuals with elephantiasis; 50 and 20 samples from amicrofilaremic individuals in a B. malayi endemic area with no anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies (towards microfilaria and adult worm antigens) and samples with high titres of the anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies respectively; 50 samples from non-endemic normals and 34 samples from geohelminth-infected individuals. After protein transfer, PVDF membrane strips were successively incubated with blocking solution, human sera, monoclonal anti-human IgG4 antibody-HRP and developed with luminol chemiluminescence substrate. 28/36 (78%), 1/10 (10%) and 16/20(80%) of sera from individuals with microfilariae, elephantiasis and amicrofilaremic individuals with high titers of anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies respectively recognized L3 antigenic epitopes; the dominant and consistent antigenic bands were of approximately MW 43 kDa, 14 kDa, 15 kDa and 59 kDa. The rest of the sera were unreactive. This study showed that microfilaremics may or may not mount a notable antibody response to somatic L3 antigens, thus lending evidence that antibody response to this antigen is not protective against establishment of Brugia malayi infection.
  6. Nissapatorn V, Lee C, Quek KF, Abdullah KA
    Jpn J Infect Dis, 2003 Oct-Dec;56(5-6):187-92.
    PMID: 14695428
    We retrospectively reviewed 419 HIV/AIDS patients in Hospital Kuala Lumpur from 1994 to 2001. In the male group, the age range was 20-74, with a mean age 37 years, while in the female group it was 17-63, with a mean age of 33 years. With regard to age group, it was found that the preponderant age group was 25-34 years. The majority of male subjects were Chinese (52.5%), single (56.3%), and unemployed (55.1%), whereas the females were Malay (42.3%), married (79.5%), and non-laborer (64.1%). Also, both groups resided in Kuala Lumpur and had heterosexual contact as the leading cause of HIV transmission. More than half of the patients had CD4 cell counts of <200 cells/cumm. We found that the acquisition of HIV infection via intravenous drug use (IDU) was directly related to the incidence of tuberculosis infection (P < 0.05). Further analysis showed HIV-related tuberculosis with IDU was also dependently correlated with occupational status (unemployed) (P < 0.05). The four main AIDS-defining diseases include tuberculosis (48%), Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (13%), toxoplasmic encephalitis (11%), and cryptococcal meningitis (7%); in addition, 53% of these patients were found to have CD4 cell counts of less than 200 cells/cumm at the time of diagnosis.
  7. Nissapatorn V, Lee C, Ithoi I, Yik FM, Abdullah KA
    Malays J Med Sci, 2003 Jan;10(1):60-4.
    PMID: 23365502 MyJurnal
    Tuberculosis is the top agenda among opportunistic diseases and the most leading cause of death in HIV/AIDS patients. A total of 406 AIDS patients were recruited in this retrospective and descriptive study. 123/406 (30.3%) were diagnosed as AIDS-related tuberculosis (TB). Their age range from 17 to 69 years with a mean (±SD) of 37.2 (±9.51. There were significant association between occupation, or mode of HIV transmission and tuberculosis infection (p< 0.05). Pulmonary tuberculosis 104/123 (84.6%) was the most common disease location among TB patients. We found the significant association between the clinical presentations i.e. fever, cough, sputum or hemoptysis and TB patients (p<0.05), moreover, the level of CD4 cell count plays a significant role in association with the disease (p<0.05) in this study.
  8. Abdullah KA, McEntee MF, Reed WM, Kench PL
    J Appl Clin Med Phys, 2020 Sep;21(9):209-214.
    PMID: 32657493 DOI: 10.1002/acm2.12977
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of increasing iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm strength at different tube voltages in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) protocols using a three-dimensional (3D)-printed and Catphan® 500 phantoms.

    METHODS: A 3D-printed cardiac insert and Catphan 500 phantoms were scanned using CCTA protocols at 120 and 100 kVp tube voltages. All CT acquisitions were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP) and Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm at 40% and 60% strengths. Image quality characteristics such as image noise, signal-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-noise ratio (CNR), high spatial resolution, and low contrast resolution were analyzed.

    RESULTS: There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between 120 and 100 kVp measures for image noise for FBP vs ASIR 60% (16.6 ± 3.8 vs 16.7 ± 4.8), SNR of ASIR 40% vs ASIR 60% (27.3 ± 5.4 vs 26.4 ± 4.8), and CNR of FBP vs ASIR 40% (31.3 ± 3.9 vs 30.1 ± 4.3), respectively. Based on the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) analysis, there was a minimal change of image quality for each tube voltage but increases when higher strengths of ASIR were used. The best measure of low contrast detectability was observed at ASIR 60% at 120 kVp.

    CONCLUSIONS: Changing the IR strength has yielded different image quality noise characteristics. In this study, the use of 100 kVp and ASIR 60% yielded comparable image quality noise characteristics to the standard CCTA protocols using 120 kVp of ASIR 40%. A combination of 3D-printed and Catphan® 500 phantoms could be used to perform CT dose optimization protocols.

  9. Abdullah KA, McEntee MF, Reed W, Kench PL
    J Med Radiat Sci, 2018 Sep;65(3):175-183.
    PMID: 29707915 DOI: 10.1002/jmrs.279
    INTRODUCTION: An ideal organ-specific insert phantom should be able to simulate the anatomical features with appropriate appearances in the resultant computed tomography (CT) images. This study investigated a 3D printing technology to develop a novel and cost-effective cardiac insert phantom derived from volumetric CT image datasets of anthropomorphic chest phantom.

    METHODS: Cardiac insert volumes were segmented from CT image datasets, derived from an anthropomorphic chest phantom of Lungman N-01 (Kyoto Kagaku, Japan). These segmented datasets were converted to a virtual 3D-isosurface of heart-shaped shell, while two other removable inserts were included using computer-aided design (CAD) software program. This newly designed cardiac insert phantom was later printed by using a fused deposition modelling (FDM) process via a Creatbot DM Plus 3D printer. Then, several selected filling materials, such as contrast media, oil, water and jelly, were loaded into designated spaces in the 3D-printed phantom. The 3D-printed cardiac insert phantom was positioned within the anthropomorphic chest phantom and 30 repeated CT acquisitions performed using a multi-detector scanner at 120-kVp tube potential. Attenuation (Hounsfield Unit, HU) values were measured and compared to the image datasets of real-patient and Catphan® 500 phantom.

    RESULTS: The output of the 3D-printed cardiac insert phantom was a solid acrylic plastic material, which was strong, light in weight and cost-effective. HU values of the filling materials were comparable to the image datasets of real-patient and Catphan® 500 phantom.

    CONCLUSIONS: A novel and cost-effective cardiac insert phantom for anthropomorphic chest phantom was developed using volumetric CT image datasets with a 3D printer. Hence, this suggested the printing methodology could be applied to generate other phantoms for CT imaging studies.

  10. Abdullah KA, McEntee MF, Reed W, Kench PL
    J Med Radiat Sci, 2020 Sep;67(3):170-176.
    PMID: 32219989 DOI: 10.1002/jmrs.387
    INTRODUCTION: 3D-printed imaging phantoms are now increasingly available and used for computed tomography (CT) dose optimisation study and image quality analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the integrated 3D-printed cardiac insert phantom when evaluating iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm in coronary CT angiography (CCTA) protocols.

    METHODS: The 3D-printed cardiac insert phantom was positioned into a chest phantom and scanned with a 16-slice CT scanner. Acquisitions were performed with CCTA protocols using 120 kVp at four different tube currents, 300, 200, 100 and 50 mA (protocols A, B, C and D, respectively). The image data sets were reconstructed with a filtered back projection (FBP) and three different IR algorithm strengths. The image quality metrics of image noise, signal-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated for each protocol.

    RESULTS: Decrease in dose levels has significantly increased the image noise, compared to FBP of protocol A (P 

  11. Lim BH, Noordin R, Nor ZM, Rahman RA, Abdullah KA, Sinnadurai S
    Exp Parasitol, 2004 Sep-Oct;108(1-2):1-6.
    PMID: 15491542
    BmR1 recombinant antigen has previously been shown to demonstrate high sensitivity and specificity in the serological diagnosis of brugian filariasis in humans. In this study, the pattern of recognition of antibody to BmR1 during Brugia malayi infection was investigated by employing Meriones unguiculatus as the experimental model. Thirty two gerbils were infected subcutaneously with 120 L(3); and two control groups each comprising 25 animals were employed. ELISA using BmR1 was used to detect filaria-specific IgG antibodies elicited by the gerbils; using sera collected from the day 1 until day 150 post-inoculation (p.i.). The results showed that BmR1 detected B. malayi infection in gerbils harboring adult worms irrespective of the presence of circulating microfilaria, and was exemplified by positive ELISA results in nine a microfilaraemic animals that harbored live adult worms. The initial time of the antibody recognition was at day 8 p.i. and the antibody titre showed some correlation with adult worm burden.
  12. Nissapatorn V, Lee C, Quek KF, Leong CL, Mahmud R, Abdullah KA
    Jpn J Infect Dis, 2004 Aug;57(4):160-5.
    PMID: 15329448
    The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among 505 of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients was 226 (44.8%; 95% CI 42.64-51.76): 27 (47.4%) and 199 (44.4%) showed Toxoplasma seropositivity with and without toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE), respectively (P <0.05). The majority of these patients were in the 25-34 age group (44 versus 39%), male (86 versus 76%), and Chinese (49 versus 53%), though no statistical significance was found between the two. Significant differences between these two groups were noted, however, in terms of marital status, occupation, and present address. The heterosexual exhibited the most frequent behavior at risk for HIV infection, and accounted for 51 and 59% of patients with and without TE, respectively. Only 17/260 (6.5%) and 1/137 (0.7%) of them later acquired TE after receiving primary chemoprophylaxis (cotrimoxazole) and antiretroviral therapy including HAART (P <0.05). Fifty-seven (11.3%) out of those 505 patients were diagnosed with AIDS-related TE. The most common clinical manifestation was headache (56%). The computed tomography scan findings showed most lesions to be multiple (96.4%), hypodense (66.7%), and in the parietal region (39.3%). Twenty-seven (47.4%) patients had chronic (latent) Toxoplasma infection as evidenced by seropositivity for anti-Toxoplasma (IgG) antibody. At the time of diagnosis, the range of CD4 cell count was from 0-239 with a median of 25 cells/cumm. We also found that a CD4 count of less than 100 cells/cumm was significantly associated with development of TE (P <0.05). Clinical outcomes showed that among those who survived, 21 (36.8%), 16 (28.1%), and 2 (3.5%) of patients had completed treatment, transferred out, and were lost to follow up, respectively. Unfortunately, 18 (31.6%) of the cases were officially pronounced dead. Overall, 7 (12.3%) patients were detected as recurrent TE in this study.
  13. Sahimin N, Lim YAL, Ariffin F, Behnke JM, Basáñez MG, Walker M, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2017 May 15;10(1):238.
    PMID: 28506241 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-017-2167-8
    BACKGROUND: The number of migrants working in Malaysia has increased sharply since the 1970's and there is concern that infectious diseases endemic in other (e.g. neighbouring) countries may be inadvertently imported. Compulsory medical screening prior to entering the workforce does not include parasitic infections such as toxoplasmosis. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection among migrant workers in Peninsular Malaysia by means of serosurveys conducted on a voluntary basis among low-skilled and semi-skilled workers from five working sectors, namely, manufacturing, food service, agriculture and plantation, construction and domestic work.

    METHODS: A total of 484 migrant workers originating from rural locations in neighbouring countries, namely, Indonesia (n = 247, 51.0%), Nepal (n = 99, 20.5%), Bangladesh (n = 72, 14.9%), India (n = 52, 10.7%) and Myanmar (n = 14, 2.9%) were included in this study.

    RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was 57.4% (n = 278; 95% CI: 52.7-61.8%) with 52.9% (n = 256; 95% CI: 48.4-57.2%) seropositive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG only, 0.8% (n = 4; 95% CI: 0.2-1.7%) seropositive for anti-Toxoplasma IgM only and 3.7% (n = 18; 95% CI: 2.1-5.4%) seropositive with both IgG and IgM antibodies. All positive samples with both IgG and IgM antibodies showed high avidity (> 40%), suggesting latent infection. Age (being older than 45 years), Nepalese nationality, manufacturing occupation, and being a newcomer in Malaysia (excepting domestic work) were positively and statistically significantly associated with seroprevalence (P 

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