METHODS: Methods used included policy analysis of legal, policy and regulatory framework documents, and in-depth interviews with key informants from governmental and non-governmental organisations in two States of Malaysia.
RESULTS: The findings show that women's NGOs and health professionals were instrumental in the formulation and scaling-up of the OSCC policy. However, the subsequent breakdown of the NGO-health coalition negatively impacted on the long-term implementation of the policy, which lacked financial resources and clear policy guidance from the Ministry of Health.
CONCLUSION: The findings confirm that a clearly-defined partnership between NGOs and health staff can be very powerful for influencing the legal and policy environment in which health care services for intimate partner violence are developed. It is critical to gain high level support from the Ministry of Health in order to institutionalise the violence-response across the entire health care system. Without clear operational details and resources policy implementation cannot be fully ensured and taken to scale.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Oral health assessment included dental caries and dental plaque maturity scores (DPMS) while the nutritional assessment included children's height-for-age Z-score (HAZ), body mass index-for-age Z-score (BAZ), mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC), nutrient intake, cariogenic food frequency (CFF) and daily sugar exposure (DSE). Ninety-three CP children were recruited. The prevalence of caries was 81.7% (95% CI: 72.7%-88.3%). The median (IQR) of the DMFT and dft scores were 0.5(4.0) and 3.0(8.0), respectively. Most of the participants had acid-producing plaque (90.3%), severely stunted (81.4%), and 45% were severely thin with acute malnutrition. Intakes of calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin D and total fat were below 77% of the Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Malaysian children (RNI 2017). Nine types of cariogenic foods/drinks were consumed moderately, and DSE indicated that 45% of the children were at moderate risk of dental caries.
CONCLUSION: Untreated dental caries, severe stunting and thinness were prevalent, and cariogenic foods/drinks were consumed moderately suggesting a moderate risk of caries. Therefore, controlling cariogenic food intake is crucial, but monitoring daily nutrient intake is needed for the optimum growth of children with CP.
Methods: The IONPs were prepared by the co-precipitation method using Fe+3/Fe+2ratio of 2:1. These IONPs were used as a carrier for chlorambucil (Chloramb), where the IONPs serve as the cores and chitosan (CS) as a polymeric shell to form Chloramb-CS-IONPs. The products were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) analyses, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA).
Results: The as-prepared IONPs were found to be magnetite (Fe3O4) and were coated by the CS polymer/Chloramb drug for the formation of the Chloramb-CS-IONPs. The average size for CS-IONPs and Chloramb-CS-IONPs nanocomposite was found to be 15 nm, with a drug loading of 19% for the letter. The release of the drug from the nanocomposite was found to be of a controlled-release manner with around 89.9% of the drug was released within about 5000 min and governed by the pseudo-second order. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies of CS-IONPs and Chloramb-CS-IONPs nanocomposite were tested on the normal fibroblast cell lines (3T3) and leukemia cancer cell lines (WEHI). Chloramb in Chloramb-CS-IONPs nanocomposite was found to be more efficient compared to its free form.
Conclusion: This work shows that Chloramb-CS-IONPs nanocomposite is a promising candidate for magnetically targeted drug delivery for leukemia anti-cancer agents.