Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 55 in total

  1. Mohamed Moubark A, Ali SH
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:107831.
    PMID: 25197687 DOI: 10.1155/2014/107831
    This paper presents a new practical QPSK receiver that uses digitized samples of incoming QPSK analog signal to determine the phase of the QPSK symbol. The proposed technique is more robust to phase noise and consumes up to 89.6% less power for signal detection in demodulation operation. On the contrary, the conventional QPSK demodulation process where it uses coherent detection technique requires the exact incoming signal frequency; thus, any variation in the frequency of the local oscillator or incoming signal will cause phase noise. A software simulation of the proposed design was successfully carried out using MATLAB Simulink software platform. In the conventional system, at least 10 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR) is required to achieve the bit error rate (BER) of 10(-6), whereas, in the proposed technique, the same BER value can be achieved with only 5 dB SNR. Since some of the power consuming elements such as voltage control oscillator (VCO), mixer, and low pass filter (LPF) are no longer needed, the proposed QPSK demodulator will consume almost 68.8% to 99.6% less operational power compared to conventional QPSK demodulator.
  2. Ibrahim SH, Ali SH, Islam MS
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:131568.
    PMID: 24991635 DOI: 10.1155/2014/131568
    The design and implementation of a high-speed direct digital frequency synthesizer are presented. A modified Brent-Kung parallel adder is combined with pipelining technique to improve the speed of the system. A gated clock technique is proposed to reduce the number of registers in the phase accumulator design. The quarter wave symmetry technique is used to store only one quarter of the sine wave. The ROM lookup table (LUT) is partitioned into three 4-bit sub-ROMs based on angular decomposition technique and trigonometric identity. Exploiting the advantages of sine-cosine symmetrical attributes together with XOR logic gates, one sub-ROM block can be removed from the design. These techniques, compressed the ROM into 368 bits. The ROM compressed ratio is 534.2:1, with only two adders, two multipliers, and XOR-gates with high frequency resolution of 0.029 Hz. These techniques make the direct digital frequency synthesizer an attractive candidate for wireless communication applications.
  3. Al-Qazzaz NK, Ali SH, Ahmad SA, Islam S
    Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat, 2014;10:1743-51.
    PMID: 25246795 DOI: 10.2147/NDT.S68443
    The early detection of poststroke dementia (PSD) is important for medical practitioners to customize patient treatment programs based on cognitive consequences and disease severity progression. The aim is to diagnose and detect brain degenerative disorders as early as possible to help stroke survivors obtain early treatment benefits before significant mental impairment occurs. Neuropsychological assessments are widely used to assess cognitive decline following a stroke diagnosis. This study reviews the function of the available neuropsychological assessments in the early detection of PSD, particularly vascular dementia (VaD). The review starts from cognitive impairment and dementia prevalence, followed by PSD types and the cognitive spectrum. Finally, the most usable neuropsychological assessments to detect VaD were identified. This study was performed through a PubMed and ScienceDirect database search spanning the last 10 years with the following keywords: "post-stroke"; "dementia"; "neuro-psychological"; and "assessments". This study focuses on assessing VaD patients on the basis of their stroke risk factors and cognitive function within the first 3 months after stroke onset. The search strategy yielded 535 articles. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, only five articles were considered. A manual search was performed and yielded 14 articles. Twelve articles were included in the study design and seven articles were associated with early dementia detection. This review may provide a means to identify the role of neuropsychological assessments as early PSD detection tests.
  4. Kura AU, Hussein-Al-Ali SH, Hussein MZ, Fakurazi S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:104246.
    PMID: 24782658 DOI: 10.1155/2014/104246
    We incorporated anti-Parkinsonian drug, levodopa (dopa), in Zn/Al-LDH by coprecipitation method to form dopa-LDH nanocomposite. Further coating of Tween-80 on the external surfaces of dopa-LDH nanocomposite was achieved through the oxygen of C=O group of Tween-80 with the layer of dopa-LDH nanocomposite. The final product is called Tween-dopa-LDH nanocomposite. The X-ray diffraction indicates that the Tween-dopa-LDH nanocomposite was formed by aggregation structure. From the TGA data, the Tween-80 loading on the surface of LDH and dopa-LDH was 8.6 and 7.4%, respectively. The effect of coating process on the dopa release from Tween-dopa-LDH nanocomposite was also studied. The release from Tween-dopa-LDH nanocomposite shows slower release compared to the release of the drug from dopa-LDH nanocomposite as done previously in our study, presumably due to the retarding shielding effect. The cell viability study using PC12 showed improved viability with Tween-80 coating on dopa-LDH nanocomposite as studied by mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity (MTT assay).
  5. Colombini M, Mayhew SH, Ali SH, Shuib R, Watts C
    BMC Public Health, 2012;12:548.
    PMID: 22828240 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-548
    Malaysia has been at the forefront of the development and scale up of One-Stop Crisis Centres (OSCC) - an integrated health sector model that provides comprehensive care to women and children experiencing physical, emotional and sexual abuse. This study explored the strengths and challenges faced during the scaling up of the OSCC model to two States in Malaysia in order to identify lessons for supporting successful scale-up.
  6. Saifullah B, Hussein MZ, Hussein Al Ali SH
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2012;7:5451-63.
    PMID: 23091386 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S34996
    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is notorious for its lethality to humans. Despite technological advances, the tubercle bacillus continues to threaten humans. According to the World Health Organization's 2011 global report on TB, 8.8 million cases of TB were reported in 2010, with a loss of 1.7 million human lives. As drug-susceptible TB requires long-term treatment of between 6 and 9 months, patient noncompliance remains the most important reason for treatment failure. For multidrug-resistant TB, patients must take second-line anti-TB drugs for 18-24 months and many adverse effects are associated with these drugs. Drug-delivery systems (DDSs) seem to be the most promising option for advancement in the treatment of TB. DDSs reduce the adverse effects of drugs and their dosing frequency as well as shorten the treatment period, and hence improve patient compliance. Further advantages of these systems are that they target the disease area, release the drugs in a sustained manner, and are biocompatible. In addition, targeted delivery systems may be useful in dealing with extensively drug-resistant TB because many side effects are associated with the drugs used to cure the disease. In this paper, we discuss the DDSs developed for the targeted and slow delivery of anti-TB drugs and their possible advantages and disadvantages.
  7. Colombini M, Ali SH, Watts C, Mayhew SH
    Health Res Policy Syst, 2011 Jun 21;9:25.
    PMID: 21693029 DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-9-25
    BACKGROUND: This article aims to investigate the processes, actors and other influencing factors behind the development and the national scale-up of the One Stop Crisis Centre (OSCC) policy and the subsequent health model for violence-response.

    METHODS: Methods used included policy analysis of legal, policy and regulatory framework documents, and in-depth interviews with key informants from governmental and non-governmental organisations in two States of Malaysia.

    RESULTS: The findings show that women's NGOs and health professionals were instrumental in the formulation and scaling-up of the OSCC policy. However, the subsequent breakdown of the NGO-health coalition negatively impacted on the long-term implementation of the policy, which lacked financial resources and clear policy guidance from the Ministry of Health.

    CONCLUSION: The findings confirm that a clearly-defined partnership between NGOs and health staff can be very powerful for influencing the legal and policy environment in which health care services for intimate partner violence are developed. It is critical to gain high level support from the Ministry of Health in order to institutionalise the violence-response across the entire health care system. Without clear operational details and resources policy implementation cannot be fully ensured and taken to scale.

  8. Hussein MZ, Al Ali SH, Zainal Z, Hakim MN
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:1373-83.
    PMID: 21796241 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S21567
    An ellagic acid (EA)-zinc layered hydroxide (ZLH) nanohybrid (EAN) was synthesized under a nonaqueous environment using EA and zinc oxide (ZnO) as the precursors. Powder X-ray diffraction showed that the basal spacing of the nanohybrid was 10.4 Å, resulting in the spatial orientation of EA molecules between the interlayers of 22.5° from z-axis with two negative charges at 8,8' position of the molecules pointed toward the ZLH interlayers. FTIR study showed that the intercalated EA spectral feature is generally similar to that of EA, but with bands slightly shifted. This indicates that some chemical bonding of EA presence between the nanohybrid interlayers was slightly changed, due to the formation of host-guest interaction. The nanohybrid is of mesopores type with 58.8% drug loading and enhanced thermal stability. The release of the drug active, EA from the nanohybrid was found to be sustained and therefore has good potential to be used as a drug controlled-release formulation. In vitro bioassay study showed that the EAN has a mild effect on the hepatocytes cells, similar to its counterpart, free EA.
  9. Syed-Mohamad SM, Ali SH, Mat-Husin MN
    Health Inf Manag, 2010;39(1):30-5.
    PMID: 20335647
    This paper describes the method used to develop the One Stop Crisis Centre (OSCC) Portal, an open source web-based electronic patient record system (EPR) for the One Stop Crisis Center, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) in Kelantan, Malaysia. Features and functionalities of the system are presented to demonstrate the workflow. Use of the OSCC Portal improved data integration and data communication and contributed to improvements in care management. With implementation of the OSCC portal, improved coordination between disciplines and standardisation of data in HUSM were noticed. It is expected that this will in turn result in improved data confidentiality and data integrity. The collected data will also be useful for quality assessment and research. Other low-resource centers with limited computer hardware and access to open-source software could benefit from this endeavour.
  10. Colombini M, Mayhew S, Ali SH, Shuib R, Watts C
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2013;13:65.
    PMID: 23419141 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-13-65
    This study explores the views and attitudes of health providers in Malaysia towards intimate partner violence (IPV) and abused women and considers whether and how their views affect the provision or quality of services. The impact of provider attitudes on the provision of services for women experiencing violence is particularly important to understand since there is a need to ensure that these women are not re-victimised by the health sector, but are treated sensitively.
  11. Mohanan AA, Islam MS, Ali SH, Parthiban R, Ramakrishnan N
    Sensors (Basel), 2013;13(2):2164-75.
    PMID: 23389346 DOI: 10.3390/s130202164
    In this work mass loading sensitivity of a Sezawa wave mode based surface acoustic wave (SAW) device is investigated through finite element method (FEM) simulation and the prospects of these devices to function as highly sensitive SAW sensors is reported. A ZnO/Si layered SAW resonator is considered for the simulation study. Initially the occurrence of Sezawa wave mode and displacement amplitude of the Rayleigh and Sezawa wave mode is studied for lower ZnO film thickness. Further, a thin film made of an arbitrary material is coated over the ZnO surface and the resonance frequency shift caused by mass loading of the film is estimated. It was observed that Sezawa wave mode shows significant sensitivity to change in mass loading and has higher sensitivity (eight times higher) than Rayleigh wave mode for the same device configuration. Further, the mass loading sensitivity was observed to be greater for a low ZnO film thickness to wavelength ratio. Accordingly, highly sensitive SAW sensors can be developed by coating a sensing medium over a layered SAW device and operating at Sezawa mode resonance frequency. The sensitivity can be increased by tuning the ZnO film thickness to wavelength ratio.
  12. Syed-Mohamad SM, Ali SH, Mat-Husin MN
    Health Inf Manag, 2010 Mar;39(1):30-35.
    PMID: 28683624 DOI: 10.1177/183335831003900105
    This paper describes the method used to develop the One Stop Crisis Centre (OSCC) Portal, an open-source web-based electronic patient record system (EPR) for the One Stop Crisis Center, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) in Kelantan, Malaysia. Features and functionalities of the system are presented to demonstrate the workflow. Use of the OSCC Portal improved data integration and data communication and contributed to improvements in care management. With implementation of the OSCC portal, improved coordination between disciplines and standardisation of data in HUSM were noticed. It is expected that this will in turn result in improved data confidentiality and data integrity. The collected data will also be useful for quality assessment and research. Other low-resource centers with limited computer hardware and access to open-source software could benefit from this endeavour.
  13. Ahmad R, Rahman NA, Hasan R, Yaacob NS, Ali SH
    Spec Care Dentist, 2020 Jan;40(1):62-70.
    PMID: 31774579 DOI: 10.1111/scd.12436
    AIMS: To investigate the oral health and nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy (CP).

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Oral health assessment included dental caries and dental plaque maturity scores (DPMS) while the nutritional assessment included children's height-for-age Z-score (HAZ), body mass index-for-age Z-score (BAZ), mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC), nutrient intake, cariogenic food frequency (CFF) and daily sugar exposure (DSE). Ninety-three CP children were recruited. The prevalence of caries was 81.7% (95% CI: 72.7%-88.3%). The median (IQR) of the DMFT and dft scores were 0.5(4.0) and 3.0(8.0), respectively. Most of the participants had acid-producing plaque (90.3%), severely stunted (81.4%), and 45% were severely thin with acute malnutrition. Intakes of calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin D and total fat were below 77% of the Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Malaysian children (RNI 2017). Nine types of cariogenic foods/drinks were consumed moderately, and DSE indicated that 45% of the children were at moderate risk of dental caries.

    CONCLUSION: Untreated dental caries, severe stunting and thinness were prevalent, and cariogenic foods/drinks were consumed moderately suggesting a moderate risk of caries. Therefore, controlling cariogenic food intake is crucial, but monitoring daily nutrient intake is needed for the optimum growth of children with CP.

  14. Hussein-Al-Ali SH, Hussein MZ, Bullo S, Arulselvan P
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2021;16:6205-6216.
    PMID: 34526768 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S312752
    Introduction: Traditional cancer therapies may have incomplete eradication of cancer or destroy the normal cells. Nanotechnology solves the demerit by a guide in surgical resection of tumors, targeted chemotherapies, selective to cancerous cells, etc. This new technology can reduce the risk to the patient and automatically increased the probability of survival. Toward this goal, novel iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) coupled with leukemia anti-cancer drug were prepared and assessed.

    Methods: The IONPs were prepared by the co-precipitation method using Fe+3/Fe+2ratio of 2:1. These IONPs were used as a carrier for chlorambucil (Chloramb), where the IONPs serve as the cores and chitosan (CS) as a polymeric shell to form Chloramb-CS-IONPs. The products were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) analyses, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Results: The as-prepared IONPs were found to be magnetite (Fe3O4) and were coated by the CS polymer/Chloramb drug for the formation of the Chloramb-CS-IONPs. The average size for CS-IONPs and Chloramb-CS-IONPs nanocomposite was found to be 15 nm, with a drug loading of 19% for the letter. The release of the drug from the nanocomposite was found to be of a controlled-release manner with around 89.9% of the drug was released within about 5000 min and governed by the pseudo-second order. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies of CS-IONPs and Chloramb-CS-IONPs nanocomposite were tested on the normal fibroblast cell lines (3T3) and leukemia cancer cell lines (WEHI). Chloramb in Chloramb-CS-IONPs nanocomposite was found to be more efficient compared to its free form.

    Conclusion: This work shows that Chloramb-CS-IONPs nanocomposite is a promising candidate for magnetically targeted drug delivery for leukemia anti-cancer agents.

  15. Al-Qazzaz NK, Bin Mohd Ali SH, Ahmad SA, Islam MS, Escudero J
    Sensors (Basel), 2015;15(11):29015-35.
    PMID: 26593918 DOI: 10.3390/s151129015
    We performed a comparative study to select the efficient mother wavelet (MWT) basis functions that optimally represent the signal characteristics of the electrical activity of the human brain during a working memory (WM) task recorded through electro-encephalography (EEG). Nineteen EEG electrodes were placed on the scalp following the 10-20 system. These electrodes were then grouped into five recording regions corresponding to the scalp area of the cerebral cortex. Sixty-second WM task data were recorded from ten control subjects. Forty-five MWT basis functions from orthogonal families were investigated. These functions included Daubechies (db1-db20), Symlets (sym1-sym20), and Coiflets (coif1-coif5). Using ANOVA, we determined the MWT basis functions with the most significant differences in the ability of the five scalp regions to maximize their cross-correlation with the EEG signals. The best results were obtained using "sym9" across the five scalp regions. Therefore, the most compatible MWT with the EEG signals should be selected to achieve wavelet denoising, decomposition, reconstruction, and sub-band feature extraction. This study provides a reference of the selection of efficient MWT basis functions.
  16. Mohd Nasarruddin A, Wan Mohammad WM, Nik Hussain NH, Ali SH, Zubir HM
    AIDS Care, 2015;27(3):301-6.
    PMID: 25471247 DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2014.985182
    Kelantan, a northeastern state in Peninsular Malaysia, is one of the states that has been acutely hit by injecting drug user (IDU)-driven HIV epidemic, in addition to having a high number of infected women in Malaysia. This cross-sectional study describes the socio-demographic characteristics, HIV risk factors, risk perception, and adoption of preventive behaviors among female partners of IDUs in Kelantan. Out of 101 women, the majority of them are from low socioeconomic background and have no other risk factors besides heterosexual HIV transmission from their male IDU partners. Although 45.5% have not been tested for HIV and more than half (53.5%) of them did not use condoms during sexual intercourse, only 44.6% of the women perceived themselves to be at risk of being infected with HIV. Most of the women (86.1%) were willing to undergo voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). Female partners of IDUs continue to be vulnerable to HIV due to having sexual contact with IDUs, and also due to their socioeconomic position in the community. To prevent HIV transmission among female partners of IDUs, consolidating HIV prevention efforts from multiple approaches is needed.
  17. Hussein-Al-Ali SH, El Zowalaty ME, Hussein MZ, Geilich BM, Webster TJ
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2014;9:3801-14.
    PMID: 25143729 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S61143
    Because of their magnetic properties, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have numerous diverse biomedical applications. In addition, because of their ability to penetrate bacteria and biofilms, nanoantimicrobial agents have become increasingly popular for the control of infectious diseases. Here, MNPs were prepared through an iron salt coprecipitation method in an alkaline medium, followed by a chitosan coating step (CS-coated MNPs); finally, the MNPs were loaded with ampicillin (amp) to form an amp-CS-MNP nanocomposite. Both the MNPs and amp-CS-MNPs were subsequently characterized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. X-ray diffraction results showed that the MNPs and nanocomposites were composed of pure magnetite. Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric data for the MNPs, CS-coated MNPs, and amp-CS-MNP nanocomposite were compared, which confirmed the CS coating on the MNPs and the amp-loaded nanocomposite. Magnetization curves showed that both the MNPs and the amp-CS-MNP nanocomposites were superparamagnetic, with saturation magnetizations at 80.1 and 26.6 emu g(-1), respectively. Amp was loaded at 8.3%. Drug release was also studied, and the total release equilibrium for amp from the amp-CS-MNPs was 100% over 400 minutes. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the amp-CS-MNP nanocomposite was determined using agar diffusion and growth inhibition assays against Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as Candida albicans. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the amp-CS-MNP nanocomposite was determined against bacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The synthesized nanocomposites exhibited antibacterial and antifungal properties, as well as antimycobacterial effects. Thus, this study introduces a novel β-lactam antibacterial-based nanocomposite that can decrease fungus activity on demand for numerous medical applications.
  18. Al-Qazzaz NK, Ali SH, Ahmad SA, Chellappan K, Islam MS, Escudero J
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:906038.
    PMID: 25093211 DOI: 10.1155/2014/906038
    The early detection and classification of dementia are important clinical support tasks for medical practitioners in customizing patient treatment programs to better manage the development and progression of these diseases. Efforts are being made to diagnose these neurodegenerative disorders in the early stages. Indeed, early diagnosis helps patients to obtain the maximum treatment benefit before significant mental decline occurs. The use of electroencephalogram as a tool for the detection of changes in brain activities and clinical diagnosis is becoming increasingly popular for its capabilities in quantifying changes in brain degeneration in dementia. This paper reviews the role of electroencephalogram as a biomarker based on signal processing to detect dementia in early stages and classify its severity. The review starts with a discussion of dementia types and cognitive spectrum followed by the presentation of the effective preprocessing denoising to eliminate possible artifacts. It continues with a description of feature extraction by using linear and nonlinear techniques, and it ends with a brief explanation of vast variety of separation techniques to classify EEG signals. This paper also provides an idea from the most popular studies that may help in diagnosing dementia in early stages and classifying through electroencephalogram signal processing and analysis.
  19. Al-Qazzaz NK, Ali SH, Ahmad SA, Islam S, Mohamad K
    Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat, 2014;10:1677-91.
    PMID: 25228808 DOI: 10.2147/NDT.S67184
    Cognitive impairment and memory dysfunction following stroke diagnosis are common symptoms that significantly affect the survivors' quality of life. Stroke patients have a high potential to develop dementia within the first year of stroke onset. Currently, efforts are being exerted to assess stroke effects on the brain, particularly in the early stages. Numerous neuropsychological assessments are being used to evaluate and differentiate cognitive impairment and dementia following stroke. This article focuses on the role of available neuropsychological assessments in detection of dementia and memory loss after stroke. This review starts with stroke types and risk factors associated with dementia development, followed by a brief description of stroke diagnosis criteria and the effects of stroke on the brain that lead to cognitive impairment and end with memory loss. This review aims to combine available neuropsychological assessments to develop a post-stroke memory assessment (PSMA) scheme based on the most recognized and available studies. The proposed PSMA is expected to assess different types of memory functionalities that are related to different parts of the brain according to stroke location. An optimal therapeutic program that would help stroke patients enjoy additional years with higher quality of life is presented.
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