Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are hydrophobic biodegradable thermoplastics that have received considerable attention in biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and biodegradability. In this study, the degradation rate was regulated by optimizing the interaction of parameters that influence the enzymatic degradation of P(3HB) film using response surface methodology (RSM). The RSM model was experimentally validated yielding a maximum 21 % weight loss, which represents onefold increment in percentage weight loss in comparison with the conventional method. By using the optimized condition, the enzymatic degradation by an extracellular PHA depolymerase from Acidovorax sp. DP5 was studied at 37 °C and pH 9.0 on different types of PHA films with various monomer compositions. Surface modification of scaffold was employed using enzymatic technique to create highly porous scaffold with a large surface to volume ratio, which makes them attractive as potential tissue scaffold in biomedical field. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the surface of salt-leached films was more porous compared with the solvent-cast films, and hence, increased the degradation rate of salt-leached films. Apparently, enzymatic degradation behaviors of PHA films were determined by several factors such as monomer composition, crystallinity, molecular weight, porosity, and roughness of the surface. The hydrophilicity and water uptake of degraded salt-leached film of P(3HB-co-70%4HB) were enhanced by incorporating chitosan or alginate. Salt-leached technique followed by partial enzymatic degradation would enhance the cell attachment and suitable for biomedical as a scaffold.
In this study, the ability of Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4 to synthesize polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) containing 4-hydroxyvalerate monomer (4HV) was studied through one-stage cultivation using γ-valerolactone as the carbon precursor. The presence of 4HV monomer unit in the polymer was detected through gas chromatography analysis, proving the capability of this wild strain bacterium to produce poly(3-hydrxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV-co-4HV)] terpolymer. Existence of a 4HV monomer unit in the PHA produced was further confirmed through (13)C and (1)H NMR analysis. P(3HB-co-88 % 3HV-co-1 % 4HV) terpolymer with the highest PHA content of 63 wt% was obtained through combination of 0.14 wt% C of γ-valerolactone with 0.42 wt% C of oleic acid. Various compositions of P(3HB-co-3HV-co-4HV) terpolymer with 3HV and 4HV compositions ranging from 11 to 94 mol% and from 1 to 4 mol%, respectively, were acquired by manipulating γ-valerolactone and oleic acid concentrations. The molecular weight and the thermal and mechanical properties of four different compositions of terpolymers-P(3HB-co-91 % 3HV-co-1 % 4HV), P(3HB-co-55 % 3HV-co-2 % 4HV), P(3HB-co-27 % 3HV-co-2 % 4HV), and P(3HB-co-9 % 3HV-co-1 % 4HV)-were characterized. Among these terpolymers, P(3HB-co-27 % 3HV-co-2 % 4HV) terpolymer with a molecular weight of 5.7 (10(5) Da) exhibited the highest elongation to break (264 %). The monomer unit compositional distributions of these terpolymers were investigated through acetone-water fractionation analysis. The results suggested that these produced terpolymers had broad 3HV compositional distribution and narrow 4HV compositional distribution.
This work aims to shed light in the fabrication of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-44%-4-hydroxybutyrate)[P(3HB-co-44%4HB)]/chitosan-based silver nanocomposite material using different contents of silver nanoparticle (SNP); 1-9 wt%. Two approaches were applied in the fabrication; namely solvent casting and chemical crosslinking via glutaraldehyde (GA). A detailed characterization was conducted in order to yield information regarding the nanocomposite material. X-ray diffraction analysis exhibited the nature of the three components that exist in the nanocomposite films: P(3HB-co-4HB), chitosan, and SNP. In term of mechanical properties, tensile strength, and elongation at break were significantly improved up to 125% and 22%, respectively with the impregnation of the SNP. The melting temperature of the nanocomposite materials was increased whereas their thermal stability was slightly changed. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that incorporation of 9 wt% of SNP caused agglomeration but the surface roughness of the material was significantly improved with the loading. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were completely inhibited by the nanocomposite films with 7 and 9 wt% of SNP, respectively. On the other hand, degradation of the nanocomposite materials outweighed the degradation of the pure copolymer. These bioactive and biodegradable materials stand a good chance to serve the vast need of biomedical applications namely management and care of wound as wound dressing.
Microbial pigments are gaining intensive attention due to increasing awareness of the toxicity of synthetic colours. In this study, a novel polymer-producing bacterium designated as Cupriavidus sp. USMAHM13 was also found to produce yellow pigment when cultivated in nutrient broth. Various parameters such as temperature, pH and ratio of culture volume to flask volume were found to influence the yellow pigment production. UV-Visible, Fourier transform infrared and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance analyses revealed that the crude yellow pigment might probably represent new bioactive compound in the carotenoid family. The crude yellow pigment also exhibited a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with their inhibition zones and minimal inhibitory concentrations ranged from 25 to 38 mm and from 0.63 to 2.5 mg/ml, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification and characterization of yellow pigment produced by bacterium belonging to the genus Cupriavidus.
Copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] has been the center of attention in the bio-industrial fields, as it possesses superior mechanical properties compared to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)]. The usage of oleic acid and 1-pentanol was exploited as the carbon source for the production of P(3HB-co-3HV) copolymer by using a locally isolated strain Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4. In this study, the productivity of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) was improved by varying the frequency of feeding in fed-batch culture. The highest productivity (0.48 g/L/h) that represents 200 % increment was obtained by feeding the carbon source and nitrogen source three times and also by considering the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and oxygen transfer rate (OTR). A significantly higher P(3HB-co-3HV) concentration of 25.7 g/L and PHA content of 66 wt% were obtained. The 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) monomer composition obtained was 24 mol% with the growth of 13.3 g/L. The different frequency of feeding carried out has produced a blend copolymer and has broadened the monomer distribution. In addition, increase in number of granules was also observed as the frequency of feeding increases. In general, the most glaring increment in productivity offer advantage for industrial P(3HB-co-3HV) production, and it is crucial in developing cost-effective processes for commercialization.
A Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, yellow-orange-pigmented, gliding bacterium, designated as strain ST2L12(T), was isolated from estuarine mangrove sediment from Matang Mangrove Forest, Perak, Malaysia. Strain ST2L12(T) grew at 15-39 °C, pH 6-8 and in 1-6 % (w/v) NaCl. This strain was able to degrade xylan and casein. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 95.3-92.8 % similarity to members of the genera Mangrovimonas, Meridianimaribacter, Sediminibacter, Gaetbulibacter and Hoppeia. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that it belonged to the family Flavobacteriaceae. Respiratory quinone present was menaquinone-6 (MK-6), and the DNA G+C content was 38.3 mol%. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C15:1, C15:0 and iso-C17:0 3-OH. Moreover, previous genome comparison study showed that the genome of ST2L12(T) is 1.4 times larger compared to its closest relative, Mangrovimonas yunxiaonensis LYYY01(T). Phenotypic, fatty acid, 16S rRNA gene sequence and previous genome data indicate that strain ST2L12(T) represents a novel species of the genus Mangrovimonas in the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Mangrovimonas xylaniphaga sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Mangrovimonas xylaniphaga is ST2L12(T) (=LMG 28914(T)=JCM 30880(T)).
This study reports the production of P(3HB-co-4HB) [Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate)] in possession of high molecular weight and elastomeric properties by Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020 in single-stage mixed-substrate cultivation system. 1,4-butanediol and 1,6-hexanediol are found to be efficient substrate mixture that has resulted in high copolymer yield, occupying a maximum of 70wt% of the total biomass and producing higher 4HB monomer composition ranging from 31mol% to 41mol%. In substrate mixtures involving 1,6-hexanediol, cleavage of the 6-hydroxyhexanoyl-CoA produces Acetyl-CoA and 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is instrumental in initiating the cell growth in the single-stage fermentation system, preventing 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA from being utilized via β-oxidation and retained the 4HB monomer at higher ratios. Macroscopic kinetic models of the bioprocesses have revealed that the P(3HB-co-4HB) formation appears to be in the nature of mixed-growth associated with higher formation rate during exponential growth phase; evidenced by higher growth associated constants, α, from 0.0690g/g to 0.4615g/g compared to non-growth associated constants, β, from 0.0092g/g/h to 0.0459g/g/h. The P(3HB-co-31mol% 4HB) produced from the substrate mixture exhibited high weight-average molecular weight, Mwof 927kDa approaching a million Dalton, and possessed elongation at break of 1637% upon cultivation at 0.56wt% C. This is the first report on such properties for the P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer. The copolymer is highly resistant to polymer deformation after being stretched.
A novel, rod-shaped, Gram-stain-negative, halophilic and non-motile bacterium, designated CCB-MM1T, was isolated from a sample of estuarine sediment collected from Matang Mangrove Forest, Malaysia. The cells possessed a rod-coccus cell cycle in association with growth phase and formed aggregates. Strain CCB-MM1T was both catalase and oxidase positive, and able to degrade starch. Optimum growth occurred at 30 °C and pH 7.0 in the presence of 2-3 % (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain CCB-MM1T showed 98.12, 97.46 and 97.33 % sequence similarity with Microbulbifer rhizosphaerae Cs16bT, Microbulbifer maritimus TF-17T and Microbulbifergwangyangensis GY2T respectively. Strain CCB-MM1T and M. rhizosphaerae Cs16bT formed a cluster in the phylogenetic tree. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C17 : 1 ω9c and iso-C15 : 0, and the total polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphoaminolipid, two unidentified lipids, an unidentified glycolipid and an unidentified aminolipid. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-8 and the genomic DNA G+C content of the strain was 58.9 mol%. On the basis of the phylogenetic, phenotypic and genotypic data presented here, strain CCB-MM1T represents a novel species of the genus Microbulbifer, for which the name Microbulbiferaggregans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CCB-MM1T (=LMG 29920T=JCM 31875T).
P(3HB-co-4HB) with a high 4HB monomer composition was previously successfully produced using the transformant Cupriavidus malaysiensis USMAA1020 containing an additional copy of the PHA synthase gene. In this study, high PHA density fed-batch cultivation strategies were developed for such 4HB-rich P(3HB-co-4HB). The pulse, constant and mixed feeding strategies resulted in high PHA accumulation, with a PHA content of 74-92 wt% and 4HB monomer composition of 92-99 mol%. The pulse-feed of carbon and nitrogen resulted in higher PHA concentration (30.7 g/L) than carbon alone (22.3 g/L), suggesting that a trace amount of nitrogen is essential to support cell density for PHA accumulation. Constant feeding was found to be a more feasible strategy than mixed feeding, since the latter caused a drastic fluctuation in the C/N ratio, as evidenced by higher biomass formation indicating more carbon flux towards the competitive TCA pathway. A two-times carbon and nitrogen pulse feeding was the most optimal strategy achieving 92 wt% accommodation of the total biomass, with the highest PHA concentration (46 g/L) and yield (Yp/x) of 11.5 g/g. The strategy has kept the C/N at optimal ratio during the active PHA-producing phase. This is the first report of the production of high PHA density for 4HB-rich P(3HB-co-4HB).
Electrospinning is a promising approach to fabricate desirable electropsun nanofibrous scaffold that could be applied in the medical fields. In this study, bacterial copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-68 mol% 4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-68mol% 4HB)] copolymer produced was fabricated into electrospun nanofibers using various combination of electrospinning parameters including the polymer solution, applied voltage and injection speed. The morphology of the fabricated scaffolds were observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM images were analysed for the fibre diameter distribution of the scaffolds using Image Analyser. The results revealed that the 8 wt% of polymer solution, 25 kV/cm of the applied voltage and 1.5 mL/h of the injection speed was the most suitable combination. This electrospinning parameters combination fabricated nanofibrous P(3HB-co-4HB) scaffold with smooth, beadles and uniform nanofibers with small fibre diameter distribution.
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biogenic polymer that has the potential to substitute synthetic plastic in numerous applications. This is due to its unique attribute of being a biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastic, achievable through microbial fermentation from a broad utilizable range of renewable resources. Among all the PHAs discovered, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] stands out as a next generation healthcare biomaterial for having high biopharmaceutical and medical value since it is highly compatible to mammalian tissue. This review provides a critical assessment and complete overview of the development and trend of P(3HB-co-4HB) research over the last few decades, highlighting aspects from the microbial strain discovery to metabolic engineering and bioprocess cultivation strategies. The article also outlines the relevance of P(3HB-co-4HB) as a material for high value-added products in numerous healthcare-related applications.
Bacteria capable of degrading polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by secreting extracellular depolymerase enzymes were isolated from water and soil samples collected from various environments in Malaysia. A total of 8 potential degraders exhibited clear zones on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] based agar, indicating the presence of extracellular PHA depolymerase. Among the isolates, DP5 exhibited the largest clearing zone with a degradation index of 6.0. The highest degradation activity of P(3HB) was also observed with depolymerase enzyme of DP5 in mineral salt medium containing P(3HB). Based on biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA cloning and sequencing, isolate DP5 was found to belong to the genus Acidovorax and subsequently named as Acidovorax sp. DP5. The highest extracellular depolymerase enzyme activity was achieved when 0.25% (w/v) of P(3HB) and 1 g/L of urea were used as carbon and nitrogen source, respectively, in the culture media. The most suitable assay condition of the depolymerase enzyme in response to pH and temperature was tested. The depolymerase produced by strain Acidovorax sp. DP5 showed high percentage of degradation with P(3HB) films in an alkaline condition with pH 9 and at a temperature of 40°C.
A simple, efficient and economical method for the recovery of P(3HB-co-3HHx) was developed using various chemicals and parameters. The initial content of P(3HB-co-3HHx) in bacterial cells was 50-60 wt%, whereas the monomer composition of 3HHx used in this experiments was 3-5 mol%. It was found that sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was the most effective chemical for the recovery of biodegradable polymer. High polyhydroxyalkanoate purity and recovery yield both in the range of 80-90 wt% were obtained when 10-30 mg/ml of cells were incubated in NaOH at the concentration of 0.1 M for 60-180 min at 30 °C and polished using 20 % (v/v) of ethanol.
This paper investigates the degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates and its biofiber composites in both soil and lake environment. Time-dependent changes in the weight loss of films were monitored. The rate of degradation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)], poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-23 mol% 4HB)] and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-9 mol% 3HV-co-19 mol% 4HB)] were investigated. The rate of degradation in the lake is higher compared to that in the soil. The highest rate of degradation in lake environment (15.6% w/w week(-1)) was observed with P(3HB-co-3HV-co-4HB) terpolymer. Additionally, the rate of degradation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-38 mol% 3HV)] was compared to PHBV biofiber composites containing compatibilizers and empty fruit bunch (EFB). Here, composites with 30% EFB displayed the highest rate of degradation both in the lake (25.6% w/w week(-1)) and soil (15.6% w/w week(-1)) environment.
The main focus of this study is the incorporation of collagen peptides to fabricate P(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] nano-fiber construct to further enhance surface wettability and support cell growth while harbouring desired properties for biodegradable wound dressing. Simultaneous electrospinning of nanofiber P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct was carried out using dual syringe system. The wettability of the constructs increased with the increase in 4HB molar fraction from 20mol% 4HB [53.2°], P(3HB-co-35mol%4HB)[48.9°], P(3HB-co-50mol%4HB)[44.5°] and P(3HB-co-82mol%4HB) [37.7°]. In vitro study carried out using mouse fibroblast cells (L929) grown on nanofiber P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct showed an increase in cell proliferation. In vivo study using animal model (Sprague Dawley rats) showed that nanofibrous P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct had a significant effect on wound contractions with the highest percentage of wound closure of 79%. Hence, P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct suitable for wound dressing have been developed using nano-fabrication technique.
Aspergillus flavus produced approximately 50 U/mL of amylolytic activity when grown in liquid medium with raw low-grade tapioca starch as substrate. Electrophoretic analysis of the culture filtrate showed the presence of only one amylolytic enzyme, identified as an alpha-amylase as evidenced by (i) rapid loss of color in iodine-stained starch and (ii) production of a mixture of glucose, maltose, maltotriose and maltotetraose as starch digestion products. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography and was found to be homogeneous on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme had a molar mass of 52.5 +/- 2.5 kDa with an isoelectric point at pH 3.5. The enzyme was found to have maximum activity at pH 6.0 and was stable in a pH range from 5.0 to 8.5. The optimum temperature for the enzyme was 55 degrees C and it was stable for 1 h up to 50 degrees C. The Km and V for gelatinized tapioca starch were 0.5 g/L and 108.67 mumol reducing sugars per mg protein per min, respectively.
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a microbial polymer that has been at the forefront of many attempts at tissue engineering. However, the surface of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB-co-4HB)) is hydrophobic with few recognition sites for cell attachment. Various concentrations of fish-scale collagen peptides (FSCPs) were incorporated into P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer by aminolysis. Later, FSCPs were introduced onto the aminolyzed P(3HB-co-4HB) scaffolds. Introduction of the FSCP groups was verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the ninhydrin method. The effect of the incorporation of FSCPs on hydrophilicity was investigated using the water contact angle. As the concentration of FSCPs increased, the water contact angle decreased. In vitro study demonstrated that P(3HB-co-4HB)/FSCP scaffolds provided better cell attachment and growth of L929 mouse fibroblast cells and better cell proliferation. In vivo study showed that P(3HB-co-4HB)/1.5 wt% FSCPs had a significant effect on wound contractions, with the highest percentage of wound closure (61%) in 7 d.
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [(P(3HB-co-4HB)] copolymer receives attention as next generation biomaterial in medical application. However, the exploitation of the copolymer is still constrained since such copolymer has not yet successfully been performed in industrial scale production. In this work, we intended to establish pilot production system of the copolymer retaining the copolymer quality which has recently discovered to have novel characteristic from lab scale fermentation. An increase of agitation speed has significantly improved the copolymer accumulation efficiency by minimizing the utilization of substrates towards cell growth components. This is evidenced by a drastic increase of PHA content from 28 wt% to 63 wt% and PHA concentration from 3.1 g/L to 6.5 g/L but accompanied by the reduction of residual biomass from 8.0 g/L to 3.8 g/L. Besides, fermentations at lower agitation and aeration have resulted in reduced molecular weight and mechanical strength of the copolymer, suggesting the role of sufficient oxygen supply efficiency in improving the properties of the resulting copolymers. The KLa-based scale-up fermentation was performed successfully in maintaining the yield and the quality of the copolymers produced without a drastic fluctuation. This suggests that the scale-up based on the KLa values supported the fermentation system of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer production in single-stage using mixed-substrate cultivation strategy.
Yangia sp. CCB-MM3 was one of several halophilic bacteria isolated from soil sediment in the estuarine Matang Mangrove, Malaysia. So far, no member from the genus Yangia, a member of the Rhodobacteraceae family, has been reported sequenced. In the current study, we present the first complete genome sequence of Yangia sp. strain CCB-MM3. The genome includes two chromosomes and five plasmids with a total length of 5,522,061 bp and an average GC content of 65%. Since a different strain of Yangia sp. (ND199) was reported to produce a polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymer, the ability for this production was tested in vitro and confirmed for strain CCB-MM3. Analysis of its genome sequence confirmed presence of a pathway for production of propionyl-CoA and gene cluster for PHA production in the sequenced strain. The genome sequence described will be a useful resource for understanding the physiology and metabolic potential of Yangia as well as for comparative genomic analysis with other Rhodobacteraceae.
Long carbon chain alkanediols are used in the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)], however these substrates possess high toxicity towards bacterial cells. This study demonstrated the effective utilisation of a long carbon chain alkanediol, namely 1,8-octanediol, to enhance the yield and production of a copolymer with a high molecular weight of over 1000 kDa, which is desirable for novel applications in medical and biopharmaceuticals. The increased PHA content (47-61 wt%) and concentration (1.7-4.5 g/L) was achieved by additional feeding of a combination of C4 substrates at C/N 10, with 1,8-octanediol + γ-butyrolactone producing P(3HB-co-22 mol% 4HB) with a high molecular weight (1060 kDa) and elongation at break of 970%. The DO-stat feeding strategy of C/N 10 has shown an increment of PHA concentration for both carbon combination, 0.45-4.27 g/L and 0.32-3.36 g/L for 1,8-octanediol + sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB-Na) and 1,8-octanediol + γ-butyrolactone, but with a slight reduction on molecular weight and mechanical strength. Nonetheless, further study revealed that a nitrogen-absence feeding strategy could retain the high molecular weight and elongation at break of the copolymer, and simultaneously improving the overall P(3HB-co-4HB) production.