Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 62 in total

  1. Ullah H, Qureshi KS, Khan U, Zaffar M, Yang YJ, Rabat NE, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2021 Dec;285:131492.
    PMID: 34273691 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131492
    The restoration of mechanical properties is desired for creating the self-healing coatings with no corrosion capabilities. The encapsulation of epoxy resins is limited by various factors in urea and melamine formaldehyde microcapsules. An improved method was developed, where epoxy resin was encapsulated by individual wrapping of poly(melamine-formaldehyde) and poly(urea-formaldehyde) shell around emulsified epoxy droplets via oil-in-water emulsion polymerization method. The synthesized materials were characterized analytically. The curing of the epoxy was achieved by adding the [Ni/Co(2-MI)6].2NO3 as a latent hardener and iron acetylacetonate [Fe(acac)3] as a latent accelerator. Isothermal and non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetric analysis revealed lower curing temperature (Tonset = 116 °C) and lower activation energies (Ea ≈ 69-75 kJ/mol). The addition of microcapsules and complexes did not adversely alter the flexural strength and flexural modulus of the epoxy coatings. The adhesion strength of neat coating decreased from 6310.8 ± 31 to 4720.9 ± 60 kPa and percent healing increased from 50.83 to 67.45% in the presence of acetylacetonate complex at 10 wt% of microcapsules.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybutyrates*
  2. Jeremy Wong HS, Huong KH, Shafie NAH, Amirul AA
    J Biotechnol, 2021 Aug 20;337:71-79.
    PMID: 34233208 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2021.07.001
    The sustainability in polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production is drawing increasing attention as the effort to increase the economic feasibility for commercialization pursues. Oleic acid is widely preferred by bacteria but its employment for PHA production makes sustainability rather dubious. This study showed promising poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] content of 68 wt % by lipase genes-harbouring Cupriavidus malaysiensis USMAA2-4 transformant from palm olein and 1-pentanol. High oleic acid content and low oil saturation caused palm olein to outperform crude palm oil, crude palm kernel oil and soybean oil due to its preference for oleic acid shown by previous screening. The transformant showed 8-fold and 40-fold higher lipase activity compared to C. necator H16 and its wild-type respectively. The transformant was unaffected by Co2+ but the growth of C. necator H16 was inversely proportional to Co2+ concentration and the employment of 1-pentanol also ceased its growth and PHA accumulation. Although the inhibitory effect of Fe2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ at high molarity on LipA decreased PHA content of C. malaysiensis USMAA2-4 transformant by 23-24 wt %, the lipase activity was restorable with high molarity of Ca2+, thus resulted in higher PHA content. The transformant enabled the employment of low-cost 1-pentanol as the precursor for cost-effective PHA production and its preference for palm olein contributed to higher sustainability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybutyrates
  3. Sudesh K
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:55-6.
    PMID: 15468816
    Among the various biomaterials available for tissue engineering and therapeutic applications, microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) offer the most diverse range of thermal and mechanical properties. Of particular interest are the PHAs that contain 4-hydroxybutyrate such as poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB) and poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(4HB)]. These polyesters can only be synthesized by a few types of bacteria, among which Comamonas acidovorans has the most efficient metabolic pathways to channel 4HB monomers. The resulting polyesters are bioabsorbable and are being developed as a new biomaterial for medical applications. By controlling the molar ratio of the monomers, it is possible to produce materials that are as tough and elastic as rubber.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybutyrates/analysis*; Hydroxybutyrates/metabolism*
  4. Huong KH, Kannusamy S, Lim SY, Amirul AA
    J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol, 2015 Sep;42(9):1291-7.
    PMID: 26233315 DOI: 10.1007/s10295-015-1657-y
    Two-stage fermentation was normally employed to achieve a high poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] productivity with higher 4HB molar fraction. Here, we demonstrated single-stage fermentation method which is more industrial feasible by implementing mixed-substrate cultivation strategy. Studies on bioreactor scale show a remarkably high PHA accumulation of 73 wt%, contributing to a high PHA concentration and product yield of 8.6 g/L and 2.7 g/g, respectively. This fermentation strategy has resulted in copolymers with wider range of 4HB monomer composition, which ranges from 12 to 55 mol%. These copolymers show a broad range of weight average molecular weight (M w ) from 119.5 to 407.0 kDa. The copolymer characteristics were found to be predominantly affected by the nature of the substrates and the mixture strategies, regardless of the 4HB monomer compositions. This was supported by the determination of copolymer randomness using (13)C-NMR analysis. The study warrants significantly in the copolymer scale-up and modeling at industrial level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybutyrates/metabolism*; Hydroxybutyrates/chemistry
  5. Huong KH, Azuraini MJ, Aziz NA, Amirul AA
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2017 Jul;124(1):76-83.
    PMID: 28457658 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2017.02.003
    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [(P(3HB-co-4HB)] copolymer receives attention as next generation biomaterial in medical application. However, the exploitation of the copolymer is still constrained since such copolymer has not yet successfully been performed in industrial scale production. In this work, we intended to establish pilot production system of the copolymer retaining the copolymer quality which has recently discovered to have novel characteristic from lab scale fermentation. An increase of agitation speed has significantly improved the copolymer accumulation efficiency by minimizing the utilization of substrates towards cell growth components. This is evidenced by a drastic increase of PHA content from 28 wt% to 63 wt% and PHA concentration from 3.1 g/L to 6.5 g/L but accompanied by the reduction of residual biomass from 8.0 g/L to 3.8 g/L. Besides, fermentations at lower agitation and aeration have resulted in reduced molecular weight and mechanical strength of the copolymer, suggesting the role of sufficient oxygen supply efficiency in improving the properties of the resulting copolymers. The KLa-based scale-up fermentation was performed successfully in maintaining the yield and the quality of the copolymers produced without a drastic fluctuation. This suggests that the scale-up based on the KLa values supported the fermentation system of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer production in single-stage using mixed-substrate cultivation strategy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybutyrates/metabolism*; Hydroxybutyrates/chemistry*
  6. Kee PE, Chiang YC, Ng HS, Lan JC
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2023 Oct;136(4):312-319.
    PMID: 37500302 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2023.07.001
    Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P(3HB)), a member of the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) family, is a biodegradable polyester with diverse industrial applications. NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phaB) is the enzyme which plays an essential role in P(3HB) synthesis by catalyzing the conversion of the intermediates. The expression of phaB enzyme using the recombinant Escherichia coli BL-21(DE3) and the purification of the synthesized enzyme were studied. The pET-B3 plasmid harbouring the phaB gene derived from Ralstonia eutropha H16, was driven by the lac promoter in E. coli BL-21(DE3). The enzyme was expressed with different induction time, temperatures and cell age. Results showed that the cell age of 4 h, induction time of 12 h at 37°C were identified as the optimal conditions for the enzyme reductase expression. A specific activity of 0.151 U mg-1 protein and total protein concentration of 0.518 mg mg-1 of dry cell weight (DCW) were attained. Affinity chromatography was performed to purify the His-tagged phaB enzyme, in which enhanced the specific activity (14.44 U mg-1) and purification fold (38-fold), despite relative low yield (44.6%) of the enzyme was obtained. The purified phaB showed an optimal enzyme activity at 30°C and pH 8.0. The findings provide an alternative for the synthesis of the reductase enzyme which can be used in the industrial-scale production of the biodegradable polymers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybutyrates/metabolism
  7. Neoh SZ, Tan HT, Trakunjae C, Chek MF, Vaithanomsat P, Hakoshima T, et al.
    Microb Cell Fact, 2024 Feb 15;23(1):52.
    PMID: 38360657 DOI: 10.1186/s12934-024-02329-w
    BACKGROUND: Among the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(R)-3-hydroxyhexanoate] [P(3HB-co-3HHx)] is reported to closely resemble polypropylene and low-density polyethylene. Studies have shown that PHA synthase (PhaC) from mangrove soil (PhaCBP-M-CPF4) is an efficient PhaC for P(3HB-co-3HHx) production and N-termini of PhaCs influence its substrate specificity, dimerization, granule morphology, and molecular weights of PHA produced. This study aims to further improve PhaCBP-M-CPF4 through N-terminal truncation.

    RESULTS: The N-terminal truncated mutants of PhaCBP-M-CPF4 were constructed based on the information of the predicted secondary and tertiary structures using PSIPRED server and AlphaFold2 program, respectively. The N-terminal truncated PhaCBP-M-CPF4 mutants were evaluated in C. necator mutant PHB-4 based on the cell dry weight, PHA content, 3HHx molar composition, molecular weights, and granule morphology of the PHA granules. The results showed that most transformants harbouring the N-terminal truncated PhaCBP-M-CPF4 showed a reduction in PHA content and cell dry weight except for PhaCBP-M-CPF4 G8. PhaCBP-M-CPF4 G8 and A27 showed an improved weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of PHA produced due to lower expression of the truncated PhaCBP-M-CPF4. Transformants harbouring PhaCBP-M-CPF4 G8, A27, and T74 showed a reduction in the number of granules. PhaCBP-M-CPF4 G8 produced higher Mw PHA in mostly single larger PHA granules with comparable production as the full-length PhaCBP-M-CPF4.

    CONCLUSION: This research showed that N-terminal truncation had effects on PHA accumulation, substrate specificity, Mw, and granule morphology. This study also showed that N-terminal truncation of the amino acids that did not adopt any secondary structure can be an alternative to improve PhaCs for the production of PHA with higher Mw in mostly single larger granules.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybutyrates/metabolism
  8. Trakunjae C, Boondaeng A, Apiwatanapiwat W, Kosugi A, Arai T, Sudesh K, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2021 01 21;11(1):1896.
    PMID: 33479335 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-81386-2
    Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biodegradable polymer, synthesized as carbon and energy reserve by bacteria and archaea. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on PHB production by a rare actinomycete species, Rhodococcus pyridinivorans BSRT1-1. Response surface methodology (RSM) employing central composite design, was applied to enhance PHB production in a flask scale. A maximum yield of 3.6 ± 0.5 g/L in biomass and 43.1 ± 0.5 wt% of dry cell weight (DCW) of PHB were obtained when using RSM optimized medium, which was improved the production of biomass and PHB content by 2.5 and 2.3-fold, respectively. The optimized medium was applied to upscale PHB production in a 10 L stirred-tank bioreactor, maximum biomass of 5.2 ± 0.5 g/L, and PHB content of 46.8 ± 2 wt% DCW were achieved. Furthermore, the FTIR and 1H NMR results confirmed the polymer as PHB. DSC and TGA analysis results revealed the melting, glass transition, and thermal decomposition temperature of 171.8, 4.03, and 288 °C, respectively. In conclusion, RSM can be a promising technique to improve PHB production by a newly isolated strain of R. pyridinivorans BSRT1-1 and the properties of produced PHB possessed similar properties compared to commercial PHB.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybutyrates/chemical synthesis; Hydroxybutyrates/metabolism; Hydroxybutyrates/chemistry*
  9. Huong KH, Sevakumaran V, Amirul AA
    Crit Rev Biotechnol, 2021 Jun;41(4):474-490.
    PMID: 33726581 DOI: 10.1080/07388551.2020.1869685
    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biogenic polymer that has the potential to substitute synthetic plastic in numerous applications. This is due to its unique attribute of being a biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastic, achievable through microbial fermentation from a broad utilizable range of renewable resources. Among all the PHAs discovered, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] stands out as a next generation healthcare biomaterial for having high biopharmaceutical and medical value since it is highly compatible to mammalian tissue. This review provides a critical assessment and complete overview of the development and trend of P(3HB-co-4HB) research over the last few decades, highlighting aspects from the microbial strain discovery to metabolic engineering and bioprocess cultivation strategies. The article also outlines the relevance of P(3HB-co-4HB) as a material for high value-added products in numerous healthcare-related applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybutyrates
  10. Trakunjae C, Boondaeng A, Apiwatanapiwat W, Janchai P, Neoh SZ, Sudesh K, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2023 Jun 02;13(1):9005.
    PMID: 37268758 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-36180-7
    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) [P(3HB-co-3HHx)] is a bacterial copolymer in the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) family, a next-generation bioplastic. Our research team recently engineered a newly P(3HB-co-3HHx)-producing bacterial strain, Cupriavidus necator PHB-4/pBBR_CnPro-phaCRp. This strain can produce P(3HB-co-2 mol% 3HHx) using crude palm kernel oil (CPKO) as a sole carbon substrate. However, the improvement of P(3HB-co-3HHx) copolymer production by this strain has not been studied so far. Thus, this study aims to enhance the production of P(3HB-co-3HHx) copolymers containing higher 3HHx monomer compositions using response surface methodology (RSM). Three significant factors for P(3HB-co-3HHx) copolymers production, i.e., CPKO concentration, sodium hexanoate concentration, and cultivation time, were studied in the flask scale. As a result, a maximum of 3.6 ± 0.4 g/L of P(3HB-co-3HHx) with 4 mol% 3HHx compositions was obtained using the RSM optimized condition. Likewise, the higher 3HHx monomer composition (5 mol%) was obtained when scaling up the fermentation in a 10L-stirrer bioreactor. Furthermore, the produced polymer's properties were similar to marketable P(3HB-co-3HHx), making this polymer suitable for a wide range of applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybutyrates
  11. Liau CP, Bin Ahmad M, Shameli K, Yunus WM, Ibrahim NA, Zainuddin N, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:572726.
    PMID: 24600329 DOI: 10.1155/2014/572726
    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)/polycaprolactone (PCL)/stearate Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites were prepared via solution casting intercalation method. Coprecipitation method was used to prepare the anionic clay Mg-Al LDH from nitrate salt solution. Modification of nitrate anions by stearate anions between the LDH layers via ion exchange reaction. FTIR spectra showed the presence of carboxylic acid (COOH) group which indicates that stearate anions were successfully intercalated into the Mg-Al LDH. The formation of nanocomposites only involves physical interaction as there are no new functional groups or new bonding formed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the mixtures of nanocomposites are intercalated and exfoliated types. XRD results showed increasing of basal spacing from 8.66 to 32.97 Å in modified stearate Mg-Al LDH, and TEM results revealed that the stearate Mg-Al LDH layers are homogeneously distributed in the PHB/PCL polymer blends matrix. Enhancement in 300% elongation at break and 66% tensile strength in the presence of 1.0 wt % of the stearate Mg-Al LDH as compare with PHB/PCL blends. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) proved that clay improves compatibility between polymer matrix and the best ratio 80PHB/20PCL/1stearate Mg-Al LDH surface is well dispersed and stretched before it breaks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybutyrates/chemistry*
  12. Raouf AA, Samsudin AR, Al-Joudi FS, Shamsuria O
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:101-2.
    PMID: 15468838
    The human fibroblast MRC-5 cells incubated with PHB granules (TM) added at a final concentration of 4 mg/ml showed a time-course pattern of survival. The percentages of dead cells obtained were at the rate of 3.8% after 7 days, respectively. When the MRC-5 cells grown in different material, using the test concentration of 4 mg/ml PCM, they were found to show a similar time-course increasing pattern of death as that obtained with PHB. However, the death was noted in the cells incubated for 7 days, the death rates obtained was 40.54% respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybutyrates/toxicity*
  13. Raouf AA, Samudin AR, Samian R, Akool K, Abdullah N
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:49-50.
    PMID: 15468813
    This study was designed to investigate the surface properties especially surface porosity of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) using scanning electron microscopy. PHB granules were sprinkled on the double-sided sticky tape attached on a SEM aluminium stub and sputtered with gold(10nm thickness) in a Polaron SC515 Coater, following which the samples were placed into the SEM specimen chamber for viewing and recording. Scanning electron micrographs with different magnification of PHB surface revealed multiple pores with different sizes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybutyrates/analysis*
  14. Leong YH, Isa ASM, Mohamed Mahmood M, Moey CEJ, Utar Z, Soon YI, et al.
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, 2018 Jun;95:280-288.
    PMID: 29567329 DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2018.03.011
    This study aimed to investigate the oral acute and subacute toxicity of Poly [3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate], P(3HB-co-4HB) in the form of nanoparticles in Sprague-Dawley rats. Acute oral administration of P(3HB-co-4HB) nanoparticles was performed as a single dose up to 2000 mg/kg in six female rats for 14 days. Subacute toxicity study via oral administration for 28 days at doses of 0 (control), 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg in rats (10 rats in each group, female:male = 1:1) was conducted. The estimated lethal dose (LD50) of P(3HB-co-4HB) nanoparticles was >2000 mg/kg. No mortality, unusual changes in behaviour, adverse clinical signs, abnormal changes in body weights or food consumption were observed on all animals treated with P(3HB-co-4HB) nanoparticles during 14 days of the acute toxicity study. In the subacute test, there was no mortality and toxicologically significant changes in clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, hematology, clinical biochemistry, urinalysis, macroscopic findings, organ weights as well as histopathological examination were observed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybutyrates/toxicity*
  15. Chee JW, Amirul AA, Majid MI, Mansor SM
    Int J Pharm, 2008 Sep 1;361(1-2):1-6.
    PMID: 18584978 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2008.05.007
    Copolyesters of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB) were produced by Cupriavidus sp. (USMAA2-4) (DSM 19379) from carbon sources of 1,4-butanediol and gamma-butyrolactone. The composition of copolyesters produced varied from 0 to 45 mol% 4HB, depending on the combination of carbon sources supplied. The P(3HB-co-4HB) films containing Mitragyna speciosa crude extract were prepared with the ratio varying from 10 to 40% (w/w). The in vitro crude extract release of the films was studied in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C. Although the release rate was slow, it was maintained at a constant rate. This suggests that the crude extract release was due to the polymer degradation because the amount of crude extract released was consistent. The amount of degradation was based on the films' dry weight loss, decrease in molecular weight and surface morphology changes. The degradation rate increased with the 4HB content. This showed that the polymer degradation is dependant on the molecular weight, crystallinity, thermal properties and water permeability. The different drug loading ratio which led to surface morphology changes also gave an effect on polymer degradation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybutyrates/chemistry*
  16. Huong KH, Elina KAR, Amirul AA
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Sep;116:217-223.
    PMID: 29723627 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.04.148
    Long carbon chain alkanediols are used in the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)], however these substrates possess high toxicity towards bacterial cells. This study demonstrated the effective utilisation of a long carbon chain alkanediol, namely 1,8-octanediol, to enhance the yield and production of a copolymer with a high molecular weight of over 1000 kDa, which is desirable for novel applications in medical and biopharmaceuticals. The increased PHA content (47-61 wt%) and concentration (1.7-4.5 g/L) was achieved by additional feeding of a combination of C4 substrates at C/N 10, with 1,8-octanediol + γ-butyrolactone producing P(3HB-co-22 mol% 4HB) with a high molecular weight (1060 kDa) and elongation at break of 970%. The DO-stat feeding strategy of C/N 10 has shown an increment of PHA concentration for both carbon combination, 0.45-4.27 g/L and 0.32-3.36 g/L for 1,8-octanediol + sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB-Na) and 1,8-octanediol + γ-butyrolactone, but with a slight reduction on molecular weight and mechanical strength. Nonetheless, further study revealed that a nitrogen-absence feeding strategy could retain the high molecular weight and elongation at break of the copolymer, and simultaneously improving the overall P(3HB-co-4HB) production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybutyrates/chemistry*
  17. Rennukka M, Sipaut CS, Amirul AA
    Biotechnol Prog, 2014 Nov-Dec;30(6):1469-79.
    PMID: 25181613 DOI: 10.1002/btpr.1986
    This work aims to shed light in the fabrication of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-44%-4-hydroxybutyrate)[P(3HB-co-44%4HB)]/chitosan-based silver nanocomposite material using different contents of silver nanoparticle (SNP); 1-9 wt%. Two approaches were applied in the fabrication; namely solvent casting and chemical crosslinking via glutaraldehyde (GA). A detailed characterization was conducted in order to yield information regarding the nanocomposite material. X-ray diffraction analysis exhibited the nature of the three components that exist in the nanocomposite films: P(3HB-co-4HB), chitosan, and SNP. In term of mechanical properties, tensile strength, and elongation at break were significantly improved up to 125% and 22%, respectively with the impregnation of the SNP. The melting temperature of the nanocomposite materials was increased whereas their thermal stability was slightly changed. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that incorporation of 9 wt% of SNP caused agglomeration but the surface roughness of the material was significantly improved with the loading. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were completely inhibited by the nanocomposite films with 7 and 9 wt% of SNP, respectively. On the other hand, degradation of the nanocomposite materials outweighed the degradation of the pure copolymer. These bioactive and biodegradable materials stand a good chance to serve the vast need of biomedical applications namely management and care of wound as wound dressing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybutyrates/metabolism*; Hydroxybutyrates/pharmacology; Hydroxybutyrates/chemistry
  18. Vigneswari S, Vijaya S, Majid MI, Sudesh K, Sipaut CS, Azizan MN, et al.
    J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol, 2009 Apr;36(4):547-56.
    PMID: 19189144 DOI: 10.1007/s10295-009-0525-z
    Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020, a local isolate was able to biosynthesis poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] copolymer with various 4HB precursors as the sole carbon source. Manipulation of the culture conditions such as cell concentration, phosphate ratio and culture aeration significantly affected the synthesis of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer and 4HB composition. P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer with 4HB compositions ranging from 23 to 75 mol% 4HB with various mechanical and thermal properties were successfully produced by varying the medium aeration. The physical and mechanical properties of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymers were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, gel-permeation chromatography, tensile test, and differential scanning calorimetry. The number-average molecular weights (M (n)) of copolymers ranged from 260 x 10(3) to 590 x 10(3)Da, and the polydispersities (M (w)/M (n)) were between 1.8 and 3.0. Increases in the 4HB composition lowered the molecular weight of these copolymers. In addition, the increase in 4HB composition affected the randomness of copolymer, melting temperature (T (m)), glass transition temperature (T (g)), tensile strength, and elongation to break. Enzymatic degradation of P(3HB-co-4HB) films with an extracellular depolymerase from Ochrobactrum sp. DP5 showed that the degradation rate increased proportionally with time as the 4HB fraction increased from 17 to 50 mol% but were much lower with higher 4HB fraction. Degradation of P(3HB-co-4HB) films with lipase from Chromobacterium viscosum exhibited highest degradation rate at 75 mol% 4HB. The biocompatibility of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymers were evaluated and these copolymers have been shown to support the growth and proliferation of fibroblast cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybutyrates/metabolism*; Hydroxybutyrates/pharmacology; Hydroxybutyrates/chemistry*
  19. Chai CJ, Amirul AA, Vigneswari S
    Data Brief, 2020 Feb;28:104777.
    PMID: 31871967 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2019.104777
    Electrospinning is a promising approach to fabricate desirable electropsun nanofibrous scaffold that could be applied in the medical fields. In this study, bacterial copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-68 mol% 4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-68mol% 4HB)] copolymer produced was fabricated into electrospun nanofibers using various combination of electrospinning parameters including the polymer solution, applied voltage and injection speed. The morphology of the fabricated scaffolds were observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM images were analysed for the fibre diameter distribution of the scaffolds using Image Analyser. The results revealed that the 8 wt% of polymer solution, 25 kV/cm of the applied voltage and 1.5 mL/h of the injection speed was the most suitable combination. This electrospinning parameters combination fabricated nanofibrous P(3HB-co-4HB) scaffold with smooth, beadles and uniform nanofibers with small fibre diameter distribution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybutyrates
  20. Huu Phong T, Van Thuoc D, Sudesh K
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2016 Mar;84:361-6.
    PMID: 26708435 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2015.12.037
    A halophilic bacterium isolated from mangrove soil sample in Northern Vietnam, Yangia sp. ND199 was found capable of producing homopolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)], copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)], and copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] from different carbon sources. The presence of 3HB, 3HV, and 4HB monomers were confirmed by gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Only P(3HB) was produced using carbon sources such as fructose or by a combination of fructose with 1,5-pentanediol, 1,6-hexanediol, sodium hexanoate, or sodium octanoate. The biosynthesis of P(3HB-co-3HV) was achieved by adding cosubstrates such as sodium valerate and sodium heptanoate. When 1,4-butanediol, γ-butyrolactone or sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate was added to the culture medium, P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 4.0-7.1mol% 4HB fraction was accumulated. The molecular weights and thermal properties of polyesters were determined by gel permeation chromatography and differential scanning calorimeter, respectively. The results showed that Yangia sp. ND199 is able to produce polyester with high weight average molecular weight ranging from 1.3×10(6) to 2.2×10(6) Dalton and number average molecular weight ranging from 4.2×10(5) to 6.9×10(5) Dalton. The molecular weights, glass transition temperature as well as melting temperature of homopolymer P(3HB) are higher than those of copolymer P(3HB-co-3HV) or P(3HB-co-4HB).
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybutyrates/metabolism*; Hydroxybutyrates/chemistry
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