Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 63 in total

  1. Maizura H, Masilamani R, Aris T
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2009 Apr;21(2):216-22.
    PMID: 19189999 DOI: 10.1177/1010539509331981
    This small, cross-sectional study assessed the reliability of 3 scales from the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ)-decision latitude, psychological job demand, and social support-in a group of office workers in a multinational company in Kuala Lumpur. A universal sample of 30 white-collar workers from a department of the company self-administered the English version of the JCQ comprising 21 core items selected from the full recommended version of 49 items on-site. Reliability (internal consistency) was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficients for each scale. Corrected item-total correlation was presented for each and every item. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were acceptable for decision latitude (.76) and social support (.79) but slightly lower for psychological job demand (.64). Values for all item-total correlations for all 3 scales were greater than .3. In conclusion, this study suggests that the JCQ is a reliable scale for assessing job stress in this group of workers.
  2. Mohamad Nor NS, Ambak R, Aris T
    BMC Womens Health, 2018 07 19;18(Suppl 1):107.
    PMID: 30066634 DOI: 10.1186/s12905-018-0589-x
    BACKGROUND: The national prevalence of overweight and obesity in Malaysia has been increasing in the past 10 years and many efforts have been implemented by the Malaysian government to combat obesity problem among the Malaysian population. The aim of this paper was to describe the background of the My Body is Fit and Fabulous at home (MyBFF@home) study (Phase II).

    DISCUSSION: The MyBFF@home (Phase II) was a quasi-experimental study and it was conducted among overweight and obese housewives living in the urban areas in Malaysia. In this phase, the study involved a weight loss intervention phase (6 months) and a weight loss maintenance phase (6 months). The intervention group received a standard weight loss intervention package and the control group received group seminars related to women's health. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, body composition, fasting blood lipids, dietary intake, physical activity, health literacy, body pain and quality of life were conducted during the study. Overweight and obese housewives from 14 People's Housing/Home Project (PHP) in Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (Klang Valley) were selected as control and intervention group (N = 328). Majority of the participants (76.1%) were from the low socioeconomic group. Data were analysed and presented according to the specific objectives and the needs for the particular topic in the present supplement report.

    CONCLUSION: MyBFF@home is the first and the largest community-based weight loss intervention study which was conducted among overweight and obese housewives in Malaysia. Findings of the study could be used by the policy makers and the researchers to enhance the obesity intervention programme among female adults in Malaysia.

  3. Tee GH, Aris T, Rarick J, Irimie S
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2016;17(3):1269-76.
    PMID: 27039759
    BACKGROUND: Tobacco consumption continues to be the leading cause of preventable deaths globally. The objective of this study was to examine the associaton of selected socio-demographic variables with current tobacco use in five countries that participated in the Phase II Global Adult Tobacco Survey in 2011 - 2012.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed internationally comparable representative household survey data from 33,482 respondents aged ≥ 15 years in Indonesia, Malaysia, Romania, Argentina and Nigeria for determinants of tobacco use within each country. Socio-demographic variables analysed included gender, age, residency, education, wealth index and awareness of smoking health consequences. Current tobacco use was defined as smoking or use of smokeless tobacco daily or occasionally.

    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of tobacco use varied from 5.5% in Nigeria to 35.7% in Indonesia and was significantly higher among males than females in all five countries. Odds ratios for current tobacco use were significantly higher among males for all countries [with the greatest odds among Indonesian men (OR=67.4, 95% CI: 51.2-88.7)] and among urban dwellers in Romania. The odds of current tobacco use decreased as age increased for all countries except Nigeria where. The reverse was true for Argentina and Nigeria. Significant trends for decreasing tobacco use with increasing educational levels and wealth index were seen in Indonesia, Malaysia and Romania. Significant negative associations between current tobacco use and awareness of adverse health consequences of smoking were found in all countries except Argentina.

    CONCLUSIONS: Males and the socially and economically disadvantaged populations are at the greatest risk of tobacco use. Tobacco control interventions maybe tailored to this segment of population and incorporate educational interventions to increase knowledge of adverse health consequences of smoking.

  4. Ismail H, Aris T, Ambak R, Lim KK
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):465-471.
    Introduction Healthy dietary practice is important in preventing diabetes, managing existing diabetes, and preventing, or at least slowing the rate of diabetes complication development. It is, therefore, important at all levels of diabetes prevention. The objective of this study was to determine the association of dietary practice with glycaemic control among Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, who received treatment from an urban Health Clinic in Kuala Lumpur.
    Methods A total of 307 patients with T2DM aged 18 years and above participated in this study. A pre-tested structured questionnaire with guided interview was used to collect information on socio-demographic, clinical and dietary practice. Anthropometric and biological measurements were also taken. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were used in the data analysis. Good glycaemic control was defined as HbA1c level less than 6.5%.
    Results The prevalence of good glycaemic control was only 27% (n=83). The highest percentage of good glycaemic control were among male patients (29.1%), aged 60 and above (33.3%), educational level of primary school (35.4%) and those with monthly income group between RM1001 to RM1500 (32.0%). About three quarter of T2DM patient (n=224) had poor control of HbA1c (≥6.5%). Age (p=0.045) and working status (p=0.039) had significant relationship with the level of HbA1c. Dietary practice showed no significant relationship with the HbA1c level.
    Conclusions Effective interventional health education strategies are needed, focussing on modification of dietary behaviour in order to achieve glycaemic control among diabetic patients.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  5. Yusoff F, Saari R, Naidu BM, Ahmad NA, Omar A, Aris T
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2014 Sep;26(5 Suppl):9S-17S.
    PMID: 25038193 DOI: 10.1177/1010539514542424
    The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 was a nationwide school health survey of students in Standard 4 to Form 5 (10-17 years of age), who were schooling in government schools in Malaysia during the period of data collection. The survey comprised 3 subsurveys: the Global School Health Survey (GSHS), the Mental Health Survey, and the National School-Based Nutrition Survey. The aim of the survey was to provide data on the health status of adolescents in Malaysia toward strengthening the adolescent health program in the country. The design of the survey was created to fulfill the requirements of the 3 subsurveys. A 2-stage stratified sampling method was adopted in the sampling. The methods for data collection were via questionnaire and physical examination. The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 adopted an appropriate methodology for a school-based survey to ensure valid and reliable findings.
    Study name: Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS)
  6. Omar A, Yusoff MF, Hiong TG, Aris T, Morton J, Pujari S
    Int J Public Health Res, 2013;3(2):297-305.
    PMID: 26451348 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Malaysia participated in the second phase of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in 2011. GATS, a new component of the Global Tobacco Surveillance System, is a nationally representative household survey of adults 15 years old or above. The objectives of GATS Malaysia were to (i) systematically monitor tobacco use among adults and track key indicators of tobacco control and (ii) track the implementation of some of the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC)-recommended demand related policies.
    METHODS: GATS Malaysia 2011 was a nationwide cross-sectional survey using multistage stratified sampling to select 5112 nationally representative households. One individual aged 15 years or older was randomly chosen from each selected household and interviewed using handheld device. GATS Core Questionnaire with optional questions was pre-tested and uploaded into handheld devices after repeated quality control processes. Data collectors were trained through a centralized training. Manuals and picture book were prepared to aid in the training of data collectors and during data collection. Field-level data were aggregated on a daily basis and analysed twice a week. Quality controls were instituted to ensure collection of high quality data. Sample weighting and analysis were conducted with the assistance of researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA.
    RESULTS: GATS Malaysia received a total response rate of 85.3% from 5112 adults surveyed. Majority of the respondents were 25-44 years old and Malays.
    CONCLUSIONS: The robust methodology used in the GATS Malaysia provides national estimates for tobacco used classified by socio-demographic characteristics and reliable data on various dimensions of tobacco control.
    Study name: Global Adults Tobacco Survey (GATS-2011)
  7. Ahmad N, MuhdYusoff F, Ratnasingam S, Mohamed F, Nasir NH, MohdSallehuddin S, et al.
    PMID: 26000035
    Studying trends in mental health morbidity will guide the planning of future interventions for mental and public health services. To assess the trends in mental health problems among children and adolescents aged 5 through 15 years in Malaysia from 1996 to 2011, data from the children's mental health component of three population-based surveys was analysed using a two-stage stratified sampling design. Mental health problems were assessed using the Reporting Questionnaire for Children. The prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents aged 5 through 15 years showed an increasing trend from 13.0% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 11.5-14.6) in 1996 to 19.4% (95% CI: 18.5-20.3) in 2006 and 20.0% (95% CI: 18.8-21.3) in 2011. In 2011, male children and adolescents and those who were in less affluent families were significantly associated with mental health problems. The findings indicate that even though mental health problems among children and adolescents in Malaysia are increasing, the rate of increase has decreased in the past five years. Socially and economically disadvantaged groups were most vulnerable to mental health problems.
  8. Ahmad Zamri L, Appannah G, Zahari Sham SY, Mansor F, Ambak R, Mohd Nor NS, et al.
    J Obes, 2020;2020:3198326.
    PMID: 32399286 DOI: 10.1155/2020/3198326
    Objectives: To examine the association of weight loss magnitude with changes in cardiometabolic risk markers in overweight and obese women from low socioeconomic areas engaged in a lifestyle intervention.

    Methods: Analyses were performed on 243 women (mean body mass index 31.27 ± 4.14 kg/m2) who completed a 12-month lifestyle intervention in low socioeconomic communities in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare changes of cardiometabolic risk factors across weight change categories (2% gain, ±2% maintain, >2 to <5% loss, and 5 to 20% loss) within intervention and control group.

    Results: A graded association for changes in waist circumference, fasting insulin, and total cholesterol (p=0.002, for all variables) across the weight change categories were observed within the intervention group at six months postintervention. Participants who lost 5 to 20% of weight had the greatest improvements in those risk markers (-5.67 cm CI: -7.98 to -3.36, -4.27 μU/mL CI: -7.35, -1.19, and -0.59 mmol/L CI: -.99, -0.19, respectively) compared to those who did not. Those who lost >2% to <5% weight reduced more waist circumference (-4.24 cm CI: -5.44 to -3.04) and fasting insulin (-0.36 μU/mL CI: -1.95 to 1.24) than those who maintained or gained weight. No significant association was detected in changes of risk markers across the weight change categories within the control group except for waist circumference and adiponectin.

    Conclusion: Weight loss of >2 to <5% obtained through lifestyle intervention may represent a reasonable initial weight loss target for women in the low socioeconomic community as it led to improvements in selected risk markers, particularly of diabetes risk.

  9. Mohamad Kasim N, Ahmad MH, Shaharudin AB, Naidu BM, Chan YY, Aris T
    Malays J Nutr, 2018;24(1):63-75.
    Introduction: Changes in dietary habits are known to be associated with changes in health outcomes. This study determined food choices among Malaysian adults using secondary data of the Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) in 2003 and MANS in 2014.
    Methods: A total of 6,742 and 3,000 adults aged 18 to 59 years participated in MANS 2003 and MANS 2014, respectively. Both studies used a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess habitual food intake.
    Results: Overall, the prevalence of adults consuming rice twice daily were 97.3% and 86.9% in 2003 and 2014, respectively. While the percentage of urban dwellers who consumed rice daily differed significantly between 2003 (96.7%) and 2014 (86.9%), the percentage remained quite similar among rural adults in 2003 (97.8%) and 2014 (96.3%). Other top ten food items consumed daily were sugar (2003, 58.5% vs 2014, 55.9%), marine fish (40.8% vs 29.4%), green leafy vegetables (39.9% vs 43.2%) and sweetened condensed milk (35.2% vs 29.3%). In both surveys, a higher percentage of men consumed rice, sugar and sweetened condensed milk on a daily basis compared to women, a higher proportion of whom daily consumed green leafy vegetables and marine fish. Majority of the adults reported drinking plain water daily. Other beverages taken daily were tea, coffee and chocolate-malt drinks.
    Conclusion: Rice, sugar and sweetened condensed milk were among the top food items consumed daily in 2003 and 2014. Educational efforts to improve dietary intake of Malaysian adults is recommended.
    Study name: Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS-2003); Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS-2014)
  10. Abdul Aziz NS, Shahar S, Ambak R, Mohamad Nor NS, Jamil AT, Aris T
    BMC Womens Health, 2018 07 19;18(Suppl 1):115.
    PMID: 30066631 DOI: 10.1186/s12905-018-0600-6
    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for co-morbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis and cardiovascular diseases. However, it is unclear if the presence of co-morbidities has any effect on the magnitude of body composition changes following weight reduction programmes. Thus, this study aimed to determine changes in body composition among obese housewives with and without co-morbidities after they participated in a weight loss intervention.

    METHODS: This is a follow-up study among 84 obese housewives without co-morbidities aged 18 to 59 years old who previously participated as a control group (delayed intervention, G1) in the My Body is Fit and Fabulous at Home (MyBFF@home) Phase II. Baseline data were obtained from 12 month data collection for this group. A new group of 42 obese housewives with co-morbidities (G2) were also recruited. Both groups received a 6 month intervention (July-December 2015) consisting of dietary counselling, physical activity (PA) and self-monitoring tools (PA diary, food diary and pedometer). Study parameters included weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure and body compositions. Body compositions were measured using a bioelectrical impedance analysis device, Inbody 720. Descriptive and repeated measures ANOVA analyses were performed using SPSS 21.

    RESULTS: There were reductions in mean body fat, fat mass and visceral fat area, particularly among obese women without co-morbidities. There were also decreases fat and skeletal muscle from baseline to month six with mean difference - 0.12 (95% CI: -0.38, 0.14) and visceral fat area from month three to month six with mean difference - 9.22 (- 17.87, - 0.56) for G1. G2 showed a decreasing pattern of skeletal muscle from baseline to month six with mean difference - 0.01(95% CI: -0.38, 0.37). There was a significant difference for group effect of visceral fat area (p 

  11. Cheong SM, Mohamad Nor NS, Ahmad MH, Manickam M, Ambak R, Shahrir SN, et al.
    BMC Womens Health, 2018 07 19;18(Suppl 1):99.
    PMID: 30066659 DOI: 10.1186/s12905-018-0596-y
    BACKGROUND: Health literacy (HL) consists of different components and associates with several health outcomes, including obesity. It is linked to an individual's knowledge, motivation, competencies, behavior, and application to everyday life. The present study aimed to determine the change of HL scores and to investigate the difference of intervention outcomes at the weight loss (WL) intervention and WL maintenance phase between the HL groups.

    METHODS: A total of 322 participants from the MyBFF@home study completed the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) test at baseline. However, only data from 209 participants who completed the NVS test from baseline to WL intervention were used to determine the HL groups. Change of the NVS scores from baseline to WL intervention phase was categorized into two groups: those with HL improvement (increased 0.1 score and above) and those without HL improvement (no change or decreased 0.1 score and more). Independent variables in this study were change of energy intake, nutrient intake, physical activity, anthropometry measurements, and body composition measurements between baseline and WL intervention as well as between WL intervention and WL maintenance. An Independent sample t-test was used in the statistical analysis.

    RESULTS: In general, both intervention and control participants have low HL. The study revealed that the intervention group increased the NVS mean score from baseline (1.19 scores) to the end of the WL maintenance phase (1.51 scores) compared to the control group. There was no significant difference in sociodemographic characteristics between the group with HL improvement and the group without HL improvement at baseline. Most of the dietary intake measurements at WL intervention were significantly different between the two HL groups among intervention participants. Physical activity and body composition did not differ significantly between the two HL groups among both intervention and control groups.

    CONCLUSION: There was an improvement of HL during the WL intervention and WL maintenance phase in intervention participants compared to control participants. HL shows positive impacts on dietary intake behavior among intervention participants. New research is suggested to explore the relationship between HL and weight loss behaviors in future obesity intervention studies.

  12. Lim SC, Mustapha FI, Aagaard-Hansen J, Calopietro M, Aris T, Bjerre-Christensen U
    Med Educ Online, 2020 Dec;25(1):1710330.
    PMID: 31891330 DOI: 10.1080/10872981.2019.1710330
    Background: Continuing Medical Education (CME) is a cornerstone of improving competencies and ensuring high-quality patient care by nurses and physicians. The Ministry of Health (MOH) Malaysia collaborated with Steno Diabetes Centre to improve diabetes-related competencies of general physicians and nurses working in primary care through a six-month training programme called the Steno REACH Certificate Course in Clinical Diabetes Care (SRCC).Objective: This impact evaluation aimed to assess the effect of participation of general physicians and nurses in the SRCC in selected public primary healthcare clinics in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia.Design: The quasi-experimental, embedded, mixed-methods study used concurrent data collection and the Solomon four-group design. Participants in an intervention group (Arm 1) and control group (Arm 3) were assessed by pre-and post-test, and participants in separate intervention (Arm 2) and control (Arm 4) groups were assessed by post-test only. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to assess the effect of the programme.Results: Thirty-four of the 39 participants in the intervention groups (Arms 1 and 2) completed the SRCC and were included in the analysis. All 35 participants in the control groups (Arms 3 and 4) remained at the end of the study period. Significant improvements in diabetes-related knowledge, skills and clinical practise were found among general physicians and nurses in the intervention group after the six-month SRCC, after controlling the pretest effects. No clear changes could be traced regarding attitudes.Conclusion: SRCC participants had significant improvements in knowledge, skills and clinical practice that meet the current needs of general physicians and nurses working in primary care in Malaysia. Thus, SRCC is an effective CME approach to improving clinical diabetes care that can be scaled up to the rest of the country and, with some modification, beyond Malaysia.
  13. Mustapha FI, Aagaard-Hansen J, Lim SC, Nasir NH, Aris T, Bjerre-Christensen U
    Health Serv Res Manag Epidemiol, 2020 04 15;7:2333392820918744.
    PMID: 32313820 DOI: 10.1177/2333392820918744
    Background: The article describes variations in the organization of clinical services for diabetes patients in 10 public primary health clinics in Malaysia with the view to learn from current innovations and improve diabetes service provision.

    Methods: This study combined the use of secondary data and a qualitative multicase study approach applying observations in 10 randomly selected Ministry of Health (MOH) health clinics in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor and semistructured interviews of the family medicine specialists from the same clinics.

    Results: Although there are specific MOH guidelines for diabetes care, some clinics had introduced innovations for diabetes care such as the novel 'personalized care', 'one-stop-centre' and utilization of patients' waiting time for health education. Analysis showed that there was room for improvement in terms of task shifting to free precious time of staff with specialized functions, streamlining appointments for various examinations, increasing continuity of consultations with same doctors, and monitoring of performance.

    Conclusion: We contend that there is a potential for increased effectiveness and efficiency of primary diabetes care in Malaysia without increasing the resources - a potential that may be tapped into by systematic learning from ongoing innovation.

  14. Man CS, Salleh R, Ahmad MH, Baharudin A, Koon PB, Aris T
    PMID: 32423077 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17103431
    Balanced diet in the early stages of life plays a role in optimum growth and maintains good health status of adolescents. Dietary habits that are established during adolescence will sustain till adulthood. Therefore, this present study aims to identify the dietary patterns and to determine factors associated with dietary patterns in terms of socio-demographic characteristics, locality of schools, ethnicity, eating habits, self-perceived weight status, and food label reading habit among adolescents in Malaysia. Data from the Adolescent Nutrition Survey (ANS) 2017 was used for the present study. ANS is a population representative school-based cross-sectional study among school-going adolescents from primary four to secondary five from schools in 13 states and three federal territories registered under the Ministry of Education Malaysia. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, locality of schools, ethnicity, eating habits, self-perceived weight status, and food label reading habit. A pre-tested face-to-face food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect information on food group intake frequency. Dietary patterns were identified by using exploratory factor analysis and associated factors, using complex sample general linear model (GLM) analysis. All statistical analyses were carried out at 95% confidence interval or p-value < 0.05. The dietary patterns identified are healthy, unhealthy, and alternative proteins. The healthy dietary pattern was significantly associated with the types of school and ethnicity. The unhealthy dietary pattern was significantly associated with the locality of schools, ethnicity, frequency of snacks intake per week, frequency of eating out per week, self-perceived weight status, and food label reading habit. Significant associations were found between alternative proteins dietary pattern and locality of schools, ethnicity, and types of school. This study found that there is a disparity of dietary patterns between different ethnicity, locality of schools, and types of school. We recommend strategies of specifying ethnicity and geographical area to improve dietary patterns of adolescents in Malaysia.
  15. Selamat R, Mohamud WN, Zainuddin AA, Rahim NS, Ghaffar SA, Aris T
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2010;19(4):578-85.
    PMID: 21147721
    A nationwide cross-sectional school-based survey was undertaken among children aged 8-10 years old to determine the current iodine deficiency status in the country. Determination of urinary iodine (UI) and palpation of the thyroid gland were carried out among 18,012 and 18,078 children respectively while iodine test of the salt samples was done using Rapid Test Kits and the iodometric method. The results showed that based on WHO/ ICCIDD/UNICEF criteria, the national median UI was 109 μg/L [25th, 75th percentile (67, 166)] showing borderline adequacy. The overall national prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) with UI<100 μg/L was 48.2% (95% CI: 46.0, 50.4), higher among children residing in rural areas than in urban areas. The highest prevalence of UI<100 μg/L was noted among the aborigines [(81.4% (95% CI: 75.1, 86.4)]. The national total goitre rate (grade 1 and grade 2 goitre) was 2.1%. Of 17,888 salt samples brought by the school children, 28.2% (95% CI: 26.4, 30.2) were found to have iodine content. However, the overall proportion of the households in Malaysia using adequately iodised salt as recommended by Malaysian Food Act 1983 of 20-30 ppm was only 6.8% (95% CI: 5.1, 9.0). In conclusion, although a goitre endemic was not present in Malaysia, almost half of the states in Peninsular Malaysia still have large proportion of UI level <100 μg/L and warrant immediate action. The findings of this survey suggest that there is a need for review on the current approach of the national IDD prevention and control programme.
  16. Shyam S, Khor GL, Ambak R, Mahadir B, Hasnan M, Ambu S, et al.
    Public Health Nutr, 2020 Feb;23(2):319-328.
    PMID: 31397262 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980019001861
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between dietary patterns (DP) and overweight risk in the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Surveys (MANS) of 2003 and 2014.

    DESIGN: DP were derived from the MANS FFQ using principal component analysis. The cross-sectional association of the derived DP with prevalence of overweight was analysed.

    SETTING: Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: Nationally representative sample of Malaysian adults from MANS (2003, n 6928; 2014, n 3000).

    RESULTS: Three major DP were identified for both years. These were 'Traditional' (fish, eggs, local cakes), 'Western' (fast foods, meat, carbonated beverages) and 'Mixed' (ready-to-eat cereals, bread, vegetables). A fourth DP was generated in 2003, 'Flatbread & Beverages' (flatbread, creamer, malted beverages), and 2014, 'Noodles & Meat' (noodles, meat, eggs). These DP accounted for 25·6 and 26·6 % of DP variations in 2003 and 2014, respectively. For both years, Traditional DP was significantly associated with rural households, lower income, men and Malay ethnicity, while Western DP was associated with younger age and higher income. Mixed DP was positively associated with women and higher income. None of the DP showed positive association with overweight risk, except for reduced adjusted odds of overweight with adherence to Traditional DP in 2003.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overweight could not be attributed to adherence to a single dietary pattern among Malaysian adults. This may be due to the constantly morphing dietary landscape in Malaysia, especially in urban areas, given the ease of availability and relative affordability of multi-ethnic and international foods. Timely surveys are recommended to monitor implications of these changes.

  17. Ambak R, He FJ, Othman F, Michael V, Mohd Yusoff MF, Aris T
    J Health Popul Nutr, 2021 05 31;40(Suppl 1):23.
    PMID: 34059145 DOI: 10.1186/s41043-021-00229-y
    BACKGROUND: Recognising that excessive dietary salt intake is associated with high blood pressure and adverse cardiovascular health, the Ministry of Health Malaysia conducted the Malaysian Community Salt Survey (MyCoSS) among Malaysian adults. This paper introduced MyCoSS projects and presented findings on the salt intake of the Malaysian adult population.

    METHODS: MyCoSS was a nationally representative survey, designed to provide valuable data on dietary salt intake, sources of salt in the diet, and knowledge, perception, and practice about salt among Malaysian adults. It was a cross-sectional household survey, covering Malaysian citizens of 18 years old and above. Multi-stage-stratified sampling was used to warrant national representativeness. Sample size was calculated on all objectives studied, and the biggest sample size was derived from the knowledge on the effect of high salt on health (1300 participants). Salt intake was estimated using a single 24-h urine collection and its sources from a food frequency questionnaire. Knowledge, attitude, and practice were determined from a pre-tested questionnaire. All questionnaires were fully administered by trained interviewers using mobile devices. Anthropometric indices (weight, height, and waist circumference) and blood pressure were measured using a standardised protocol. Ethical approvals were obtained from the Medical Research Ethics Committee, Ministry of Health Malaysia, and Queen Mary University of London prior to conducting the survey.

    RESULTS: Findings showed that the average sodium intake of Malaysian adults (3167 mg/day) was higher than the WHO recommendation of 2000 mg/day. Daily intake was significantly higher among males and individuals with higher BMI and higher waist circumference.

    CONCLUSION: Salt intake in the Malaysian population was higher than the WHO recommendation. MyCoSS's findings will be used for the development and implementation of national salt reduction policy. A successful implementation of a national salt reduction programme in Malaysia will benefit the whole population.

  18. Muhamad NA, Kamaluddin MA, Adon MY, Noh MA, Bakhtiar MF, Ibrahim Tamim NS, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2015;16(7):3067-72.
    PMID: 25854407
    Cervical cancer is the most common malignant cancer of the female reproductive organs worldwide. Currently, cervical cancer can be prevented by vaccination and detected at an early stage via various screening methods. Malaysia, as a developing country faces a heavy disease burden of cervical cancer as it is the second most common cancer among Malaysian women. This population based study was carried out to fulfil the primary aim of determining the survival rates of Malaysian women with cervical cancer and associated factors. Data were obtained from two different sources namely, the Malaysian National Cancer Registry (MNCR) and National Health Informatics Centre (NHIC) from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2005. Kaplan Meier analyses were conducted to identify the overall survival rates and median survival time. Differences in survival among different ethnic and age group were compared using the log-rank test. A total of 5,859 patients were included. The median survival time for cervical cancer in this study was 65.8 months and the 5-year survival rate was 71.1%. The overall observed survival rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 94.1%, 79.3% and 71.1% respectively. The log-rank test finding also showed that there were significant differences in the 5-year survival rate among different ethnic groups. Malays had the lowest survival rate of 59.2% followed by Indians (69.5%) and Chinese (73.8%). The overall 5-year survival rate among patients with cervical cancer in Malaysia is relatively good. Age and ethnic groups remain as significant determining factors for cervical cancer survival rate.
  19. Singh S, Murali Sundram B, Rajendran K, Boon Law K, Aris T, Ibrahim H, et al.
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2020 09 30;14(9):971-976.
    PMID: 33031083 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.13116
    INTRODUCTION: The novel coronavirus infection has become a global threat affecting almost every country in the world. As a result, it has become important to understand the disease trends in order to mitigate its effects. The aim of this study is firstly to develop a prediction model for daily confirmed COVID-19 cases based on several covariates, and secondly, to select the best prediction model based on a subset of these covariates.

    METHODOLOGY: This study was conducted using daily confirmed cases of COVID-19 collected from the official Ministry of Health, Malaysia (MOH) and John Hopkins University websites. An Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model was fitted to the training data of observed cases from 22 January to 31 March 2020, and subsequently validated using data on cases from 1 April to 17 April 2020. The ARIMA model satisfactorily forecasted the daily confirmed COVID-19 cases from 18 April 2020 to 1 May 2020 (the testing phase).

    RESULTS: The ARIMA (0,1,0) model produced the best fit to the observed data with a Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) value of 16.01 and a Bayes Information Criteria (BIC) value of 4.170. The forecasted values showed a downward trend of COVID-19 cases until 1 May 2020. Observed cases during the forecast period were accurately predicted and were placed within the prediction intervals generated by the fitted model.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study finds that ARIMA models with optimally selected covariates are useful tools for monitoring and predicting trends of COVID-19 cases in Malaysia.

  20. Mahadir Naidu B, Mohd Yusoff MF, Abdullah S, Musa KI, Yaacob NM, Mohamad MS, et al.
    PLoS One, 2019;14(1):e0207472.
    PMID: 30605462 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0207472
    High blood pressure is a worldwide problem and major global health burden. Whether alone or combined with other metabolic diseases, high blood pressure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study is a secondary data analysis from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2015, a population-based study that was conducted nationwide in Malaysia using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling design. A total of 15,738 adults ≥18-years-old were recruited into the study, which reports the prevalence of hypertension stages among adults in Malaysia using the JNC7 criteria and determinants of its severity. The overall prevalence of raised blood pressure was 66.8%, with 45.8% having prehypertension, 15.1% having Stage 1 hypertension, and 5.9% having Stage 2 hypertension. In the multivariate analysis, a higher likelihood of having prehypertension was observed among respondents with advancing age, males (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 2.41-3.12), Malay ethnicity (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.02-1.44), lower socioeconomic status, and excessive weight. The factors associated with clinical hypertension (Stages 1 and 2) were older age, rural residency (Stage 1 OR = 1.22, Stage 2 OR = 1.28), Malay ethnicity (Stage 2 OR = 1.64), diabetes (Stage 2 OR = 1.47), hypercholesterolemia (Stage 1 OR = 1.34, Stage 2 OR = 1.82), being overweight (Stage 1 OR = 2.86, Stage 2 OR = 3.44), obesity (Stage 1 OR = 9.01, Stage 2 OR = 13.72), and lower socioeconomic status. Almost 70% of Malaysian adults are at a risk of elevated blood pressure. The highest prevalence was in the prehypertension group, which clearly predicts a future incurable burden of the disease. Public health awareness, campaigns through mass and social media, and intervention in the work place should be a priority to control this epidemic.
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