DISCUSSION: The MyBFF@home (Phase II) was a quasi-experimental study and it was conducted among overweight and obese housewives living in the urban areas in Malaysia. In this phase, the study involved a weight loss intervention phase (6 months) and a weight loss maintenance phase (6 months). The intervention group received a standard weight loss intervention package and the control group received group seminars related to women's health. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, body composition, fasting blood lipids, dietary intake, physical activity, health literacy, body pain and quality of life were conducted during the study. Overweight and obese housewives from 14 People's Housing/Home Project (PHP) in Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (Klang Valley) were selected as control and intervention group (N = 328). Majority of the participants (76.1%) were from the low socioeconomic group. Data were analysed and presented according to the specific objectives and the needs for the particular topic in the present supplement report.
CONCLUSION: MyBFF@home is the first and the largest community-based weight loss intervention study which was conducted among overweight and obese housewives in Malaysia. Findings of the study could be used by the policy makers and the researchers to enhance the obesity intervention programme among female adults in Malaysia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed internationally comparable representative household survey data from 33,482 respondents aged ≥ 15 years in Indonesia, Malaysia, Romania, Argentina and Nigeria for determinants of tobacco use within each country. Socio-demographic variables analysed included gender, age, residency, education, wealth index and awareness of smoking health consequences. Current tobacco use was defined as smoking or use of smokeless tobacco daily or occasionally.
RESULTS: The overall prevalence of tobacco use varied from 5.5% in Nigeria to 35.7% in Indonesia and was significantly higher among males than females in all five countries. Odds ratios for current tobacco use were significantly higher among males for all countries [with the greatest odds among Indonesian men (OR=67.4, 95% CI: 51.2-88.7)] and among urban dwellers in Romania. The odds of current tobacco use decreased as age increased for all countries except Nigeria where. The reverse was true for Argentina and Nigeria. Significant trends for decreasing tobacco use with increasing educational levels and wealth index were seen in Indonesia, Malaysia and Romania. Significant negative associations between current tobacco use and awareness of adverse health consequences of smoking were found in all countries except Argentina.
CONCLUSIONS: Males and the socially and economically disadvantaged populations are at the greatest risk of tobacco use. Tobacco control interventions maybe tailored to this segment of population and incorporate educational interventions to increase knowledge of adverse health consequences of smoking.
METHODS: The present study used an age-period-cohort (APC) approach to examine the changes in mean daily cigarette consumption among random samples of the Malaysian current smoker population over 20 years. We conducted APC analysis using a multilevel Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort (HAPC) model and data from four nationally representative, repeated cross-sectional surveys (National Health and Morbidity Survey) conducted in 1996, 2006, 2011, and 2015 among individuals aged 18 to 80 years. Analyses were also stratified by gender and ethnicity.
RESULTS: Overall, mean daily cigarette consumption (smoking intensity) among current smokers increased with age until 60, after which a drop was observed. There were increases in daily cigarette consumption across birth cohorts. Age and cohort trends did not vary by gender but by ethnicity. The decreasing cigarette consumption after age 60 among the current smoker population was consistent with those observed among the Chinese and Indians, a trend that was not observed in Malays and other aborigines. In contrast, the increasing cohort trend was consistent with those observed among the Malays and other bumiputras.
CONCLUSION: The present study highlighted important ethnic-specific trends for mean daily cigarette consumption among the current smoker population in Malaysia. These findings are essential in guiding the formulation of interventional strategies or implementation of national tobacco control policies and help achieve the Ministry of Health Malaysia's 2025 and 2045 targets for smoking prevalence.
IMPLICATIONS: This is the first APC study on smoking intensity among current smokers in a multiracial, middle-income nation. Very few studies had performed gender- and ethnic-stratified APC analyses. The ethnic-stratified APC analyses provide useful insights into the overall age and cohort trends observed among the current smoker population in Malaysia. Therefore, the present study could add evidence to the existing literature on the APC trends of smoking intensity. The APC trends are also important in guiding the government to develop, implement, and evaluate anti-smoking strategies.
DESIGN: DP were derived from the MANS FFQ using principal component analysis. The cross-sectional association of the derived DP with prevalence of overweight was analysed.
PARTICIPANTS: Nationally representative sample of Malaysian adults from MANS (2003, n 6928; 2014, n 3000).
RESULTS: Three major DP were identified for both years. These were 'Traditional' (fish, eggs, local cakes), 'Western' (fast foods, meat, carbonated beverages) and 'Mixed' (ready-to-eat cereals, bread, vegetables). A fourth DP was generated in 2003, 'Flatbread & Beverages' (flatbread, creamer, malted beverages), and 2014, 'Noodles & Meat' (noodles, meat, eggs). These DP accounted for 25·6 and 26·6 % of DP variations in 2003 and 2014, respectively. For both years, Traditional DP was significantly associated with rural households, lower income, men and Malay ethnicity, while Western DP was associated with younger age and higher income. Mixed DP was positively associated with women and higher income. None of the DP showed positive association with overweight risk, except for reduced adjusted odds of overweight with adherence to Traditional DP in 2003.
CONCLUSIONS: Overweight could not be attributed to adherence to a single dietary pattern among Malaysian adults. This may be due to the constantly morphing dietary landscape in Malaysia, especially in urban areas, given the ease of availability and relative affordability of multi-ethnic and international foods. Timely surveys are recommended to monitor implications of these changes.
Methods: Analyses were performed on 243 women (mean body mass index 31.27 ± 4.14 kg/m2) who completed a 12-month lifestyle intervention in low socioeconomic communities in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare changes of cardiometabolic risk factors across weight change categories (2% gain, ±2% maintain, >2 to <5% loss, and 5 to 20% loss) within intervention and control group.
Results: A graded association for changes in waist circumference, fasting insulin, and total cholesterol (p=0.002, for all variables) across the weight change categories were observed within the intervention group at six months postintervention. Participants who lost 5 to 20% of weight had the greatest improvements in those risk markers (-5.67 cm CI: -7.98 to -3.36, -4.27 μU/mL CI: -7.35, -1.19, and -0.59 mmol/L CI: -.99, -0.19, respectively) compared to those who did not. Those who lost >2% to <5% weight reduced more waist circumference (-4.24 cm CI: -5.44 to -3.04) and fasting insulin (-0.36 μU/mL CI: -1.95 to 1.24) than those who maintained or gained weight. No significant association was detected in changes of risk markers across the weight change categories within the control group except for waist circumference and adiponectin.
Conclusion: Weight loss of >2 to <5% obtained through lifestyle intervention may represent a reasonable initial weight loss target for women in the low socioeconomic community as it led to improvements in selected risk markers, particularly of diabetes risk.
METHODS: This is a follow-up study among 84 obese housewives without co-morbidities aged 18 to 59 years old who previously participated as a control group (delayed intervention, G1) in the My Body is Fit and Fabulous at Home (MyBFF@home) Phase II. Baseline data were obtained from 12 month data collection for this group. A new group of 42 obese housewives with co-morbidities (G2) were also recruited. Both groups received a 6 month intervention (July-December 2015) consisting of dietary counselling, physical activity (PA) and self-monitoring tools (PA diary, food diary and pedometer). Study parameters included weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure and body compositions. Body compositions were measured using a bioelectrical impedance analysis device, Inbody 720. Descriptive and repeated measures ANOVA analyses were performed using SPSS 21.
RESULTS: There were reductions in mean body fat, fat mass and visceral fat area, particularly among obese women without co-morbidities. There were also decreases fat and skeletal muscle from baseline to month six with mean difference - 0.12 (95% CI: -0.38, 0.14) and visceral fat area from month three to month six with mean difference - 9.22 (- 17.87, - 0.56) for G1. G2 showed a decreasing pattern of skeletal muscle from baseline to month six with mean difference - 0.01(95% CI: -0.38, 0.37). There was a significant difference for group effect of visceral fat area (p
METHODS: A total of 322 participants from the MyBFF@home study completed the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) test at baseline. However, only data from 209 participants who completed the NVS test from baseline to WL intervention were used to determine the HL groups. Change of the NVS scores from baseline to WL intervention phase was categorized into two groups: those with HL improvement (increased 0.1 score and above) and those without HL improvement (no change or decreased 0.1 score and more). Independent variables in this study were change of energy intake, nutrient intake, physical activity, anthropometry measurements, and body composition measurements between baseline and WL intervention as well as between WL intervention and WL maintenance. An Independent sample t-test was used in the statistical analysis.
RESULTS: In general, both intervention and control participants have low HL. The study revealed that the intervention group increased the NVS mean score from baseline (1.19 scores) to the end of the WL maintenance phase (1.51 scores) compared to the control group. There was no significant difference in sociodemographic characteristics between the group with HL improvement and the group without HL improvement at baseline. Most of the dietary intake measurements at WL intervention were significantly different between the two HL groups among intervention participants. Physical activity and body composition did not differ significantly between the two HL groups among both intervention and control groups.
CONCLUSION: There was an improvement of HL during the WL intervention and WL maintenance phase in intervention participants compared to control participants. HL shows positive impacts on dietary intake behavior among intervention participants. New research is suggested to explore the relationship between HL and weight loss behaviors in future obesity intervention studies.
Methods: This study combined the use of secondary data and a qualitative multicase study approach applying observations in 10 randomly selected Ministry of Health (MOH) health clinics in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor and semistructured interviews of the family medicine specialists from the same clinics.
Results: Although there are specific MOH guidelines for diabetes care, some clinics had introduced innovations for diabetes care such as the novel 'personalized care', 'one-stop-centre' and utilization of patients' waiting time for health education. Analysis showed that there was room for improvement in terms of task shifting to free precious time of staff with specialized functions, streamlining appointments for various examinations, increasing continuity of consultations with same doctors, and monitoring of performance.
Conclusion: We contend that there is a potential for increased effectiveness and efficiency of primary diabetes care in Malaysia without increasing the resources - a potential that may be tapped into by systematic learning from ongoing innovation.
METHODS: MyCoSS was a nationally representative survey, designed to provide valuable data on dietary salt intake, sources of salt in the diet, and knowledge, perception, and practice about salt among Malaysian adults. It was a cross-sectional household survey, covering Malaysian citizens of 18 years old and above. Multi-stage-stratified sampling was used to warrant national representativeness. Sample size was calculated on all objectives studied, and the biggest sample size was derived from the knowledge on the effect of high salt on health (1300 participants). Salt intake was estimated using a single 24-h urine collection and its sources from a food frequency questionnaire. Knowledge, attitude, and practice were determined from a pre-tested questionnaire. All questionnaires were fully administered by trained interviewers using mobile devices. Anthropometric indices (weight, height, and waist circumference) and blood pressure were measured using a standardised protocol. Ethical approvals were obtained from the Medical Research Ethics Committee, Ministry of Health Malaysia, and Queen Mary University of London prior to conducting the survey.
RESULTS: Findings showed that the average sodium intake of Malaysian adults (3167 mg/day) was higher than the WHO recommendation of 2000 mg/day. Daily intake was significantly higher among males and individuals with higher BMI and higher waist circumference.
CONCLUSION: Salt intake in the Malaysian population was higher than the WHO recommendation. MyCoSS's findings will be used for the development and implementation of national salt reduction policy. A successful implementation of a national salt reduction programme in Malaysia will benefit the whole population.
METHODOLOGY: This study was conducted using daily confirmed cases of COVID-19 collected from the official Ministry of Health, Malaysia (MOH) and John Hopkins University websites. An Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model was fitted to the training data of observed cases from 22 January to 31 March 2020, and subsequently validated using data on cases from 1 April to 17 April 2020. The ARIMA model satisfactorily forecasted the daily confirmed COVID-19 cases from 18 April 2020 to 1 May 2020 (the testing phase).
RESULTS: The ARIMA (0,1,0) model produced the best fit to the observed data with a Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) value of 16.01 and a Bayes Information Criteria (BIC) value of 4.170. The forecasted values showed a downward trend of COVID-19 cases until 1 May 2020. Observed cases during the forecast period were accurately predicted and were placed within the prediction intervals generated by the fitted model.
CONCLUSIONS: This study finds that ARIMA models with optimally selected covariates are useful tools for monitoring and predicting trends of COVID-19 cases in Malaysia.
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