INTRODUCTION: Adhering to test administration and standardized instructions is important for attainment of accurate and reliable results in performance-based tests.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To determine test-retest and interrater reliability of standardized translated instruction (St-TI) and spontaneously translated instruction (Sp-TI) of a hand function test.
METHODS: Four raters and seventy-two subjects were divided into 2 groups: St-TI group, direct administration of the Hong Kong Chinese version of the Jebsen Hand Function Test to subjects by raters; and Sp-TI group, spontaneously translating the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test from English into Chinese by raters. Test-retest and interrater reliability were calculated based on instruction time by the rater and performance time by the subject.
RESULTS: Test-retest and interrater reliability of instruction time by rater for St-TI has intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.35 to 0.70 and 0.24 to 0.55, respectively, whereas that for Sp-TI was -0.50 to 0.18 and -0.09 to 0.51, respectively. Test-retest and interrater reliability of performance time by subject for St-TI was 0.56 to 0.84 and 0.33 to 0.78, respectively, whereas that for Sp-TI was 0.54 to 0.87 and 0.35 to 0.77, respectively. Sp-TI had two test-retest minimal detectable change percent values that fell within the acceptable range (subtest 3 = 21.9% and subtest 6 = 25.7%).
CONCLUSION: Instruction time by rater for Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test subtests had generally poor to moderate test-retest and interrater reliability for both St-TI and Sp-TI. Performance time by subject generally had moderate to good reliability, except for St-TI with poor to good interrater reliability.
DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial.
SETTING: Occupational therapy unit of a public hospital.
SUBJECTS: A total of 46 adults with stroke.
INTERVENTION: After random assignment, for six weeks, both intervention group and control group received a 2 hour/week conventional occupational therapy program, with the intervention group receiving an extra 6 hour/day pressure garment application (long glove).
MAIN MEASURES: Modified Modified Ashworth Scale, Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand Outcome Measure, and Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test. Eligibility measures: Mini Mental State Examination and Modified Modified Ashworth Scale. Assessments were performed at baseline and six weeks postintervention.
RESULTS: There were 21 participants with the mean age of 51.19 (8.28) years in the intervention group and 22 participants with the mean (SD) age of 52.82 (8.71) years in the control group. The intervention group had median (interquartile range (IQR)) post-stroke duration of 1 (1) month, while for the control group, they were 2 (2) months. There was no difference in spasticity, and both perceived and actual arm functions between the groups at six weeks after baseline.
CONCLUSION: Wearing a pressure garment on the arm for 6 hours daily had no effect in controlling spasticity or on improving arm function in the early stages after stroke.
Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited occupational therapy bachelor's degree graduates using an online survey. The Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale (WEIMS) was used to measure level of work motivation.
Results: Responses from 82 (60.3%) graduates (male: 26.8%; female: 73.2%) were analysed. Sixty-two (75.6%) graduates worked locally and 20 (24.4%) worked in foreign countries. The average Work Self-Determination Index (W-SDI) score for WEIMS is +11.38 with 78 (95.1%) of graduates demonstrated a self-determined motivational profile and 4 (4.9%) demonstrated a nonself-determined profile. Graduates in the private sector (13.10 ± 6.47) show significantly higher W-SDI score compared to those in the public sector (9.40 ± 6.06), p = 0.01. W-SDI scores appeared higher among clinician (11.67 ± 6.40), case manager (13.33), and others (14.90 ± 8.23); and those with work experience of 5-6 years (13.11 ± 6.90) and less than one year (12.65 ± 7.12). Male (10.29 ± 6.86) and female (11.79 ± 6.39) graduates shared equally high score. There is no significant difference in W-SDI score based on job position, length of work experience, and gender.
Conclusion: Occupational therapy graduates have high work motivation as evident by their self-determined profile. Only work sector imposes difference in work motivation among these graduates. Copyright © 2017, Hong Kong Occupational Therapy Association. Published by Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
METHODS: This study was divided into three phases: (1) translation and linguistic validity involving both forward and backward translations; (2) establishment of face validity and content validity; and (3) establishment of reliability involving inter-rater, test-retest and internal consistency analyses. Data used for these analyses were obtained by interviewing 65 elderly respondents.
RESULTS: Percentages of Content Validity Index for 4 criteria were from 88.89 to 100.0. The Cronbach α coefficient for internal consistency was 0.838. Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability was 0.957 and 0.950 respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The result shows that the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale - Malay Version has excellent reliability and validity for use with the Malay speaking elderly people in Malaysia. This scale could be used by professionals to assess functional ability of elderly who live independently in community.
METHODS: Published literature was systematically searched according to PRISMA guidelines using specific key terms. Initial search identified 785 studies; however only seven met the inclusion criteria and were assessed for final review. Studies were methodologically appraised using the McMaster Critical Review Form-Quantitative Studies.
RESULTS: The review found no randomised control trial study design pertaining to the reviewed area. However, it can be seen that occupational therapy interventions for writing skills in 4-6 year old children managed to increase the targeted skills. The results were similar across samples with or without disabilities. An effective integration of occupational therapy interventions into educational curriculum was found to save both time and cost.
CONCLUSION: The long-term benefit from these interventions and the effects of these interventions on a broader spectrum of fine motor abilities need to be explored further with stronger research designs. However, the lack of studies adopting high level study designs, i.e., RCT designs means, results need to be approached with caution by occupational therapists when implementing handwriting skills intervention in practice.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 65 stroke survivors with UL dysfunction (mean (SD) age = 64.83 (8.05) years, mean (SD) post-stroke duration 41.62 (35.24) months) who attended community-based rehabilitation program. Upper limb functionality was assessed using the UL items of Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale (SSQOL), the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Scale and the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHFT). The stroke survivors' performance in completing JTHFT using their affected dominant hand was compared with standard norms.
RESULTS: The three most affected UL daily living tasks were writing (64.7%, n=42), opening a jar (63.1%, n=41) and putting on socks (58.5%, n=38). As for IADL, the mean (SD) score of Lawton scale was 3.26 (2.41), with more than 50% unable to handle finance, do the laundry and prepare meals for themselves. Performances of stroke survivors were much slower than normal population in all tasks of JTHFT (p<0.05), with largest speed difference demonstrated for 'stacking objects' task (mean difference 43.24 secs (p=0.003) and 24.57 (p<0.001) in males and females, respectively.
CONCLUSION: UL functions are significantly impaired among stroke survivors despite undergoing rehabilitation. Rehabilitation professionals should prioritize highly problematic tasks when retraining UL for greater post-stroke functionality.
METHODS: We used aptamer-based affinity-capture plasma proteomics to measure 1305 plasma proteins at 1 month post-MI in a New Zealand cohort (CDCS [Coronary Disease Cohort Study]) including 181 patients post-MI who were subsequently hospitalized for HF in comparison with 250 patients post-MI who remained event free over a median follow-up of 4.9 years. We then correlated plasma proteins with left ventricular ejection fraction measured at 4 months post-MI and identified proteins potentially coregulated in post-MI HF using weighted gene co-expression network analysis. A Singapore cohort (IMMACULATE [Improving Outcomes in Myocardial Infarction through Reversal of Cardiac Remodelling]) of 223 patients post-MI, of which 33 patients were hospitalized for HF (median follow-up, 2.0 years), was used for further candidate enrichment of plasma proteins by using Fisher meta-analysis, resampling-based statistical testing, and machine learning. We then cross-referenced differentially expressed proteins with their differentially expressed genes from single-cell transcriptomes of nonmyocyte cardiac cells isolated from a murine MI model, and single-cell and single-nucleus transcriptomes of cardiac myocytes from murine HF models and human patients with HF.
RESULTS: In the CDCS cohort, 212 differentially expressed plasma proteins were significantly associated with subsequent HF events. Of these, 96 correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction measured at 4 months post-MI. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis prioritized 63 of the 212 proteins that demonstrated significantly higher correlations among patients who developed post-MI HF in comparison with event-free controls (data set 1). Cross-cohort meta-analysis of the IMMACULATE cohort identified 36 plasma proteins associated with post-MI HF (data set 2), whereas single-cell transcriptomes identified 15 gene-protein candidates (data set 3). The majority of prioritized proteins were of matricellular origin. The 6 most highly enriched proteins that were common to all 3 data sets included well-established biomarkers of post-MI HF: N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide and troponin T, and newly emergent biomarkers, angiopoietin-2, thrombospondin-2, latent transforming growth factor-β binding protein-4, and follistatin-related protein-3, as well.
CONCLUSIONS: Large-scale human plasma proteomics, cross-referenced to unbiased cardiac transcriptomics at single-cell resolution, prioritized protein candidates associated with post-MI HF for further mechanistic and clinical validation.