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  1. Chan C K
    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 129/10 (July 2010)
    Republished in: An Uncommon Hero. p308-320
    Dr M K Rajakumar fought the good fight on many fronts. In the 1970s, with domestic left-wing politics on the ebb, Dr Rajakumar shifted his energies to another arena of human endeavor he was passionate about, health and medical care for the needful. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Dr Rajakumar worked tirelessly to advance primary care medicine and to raise the standard of its practice in Malaysia and in the region. This article explores his writings on primary care within the context of an emerging population health perspective. KEYWORDS: MK Rajakumar, primary care, population health, biomedical sciences, politics
  2. Ramadas A, Quek KF, Chan CK, Oldenburg B
    Int J Med Inform, 2011 Jun;80(6):389-405.
    PMID: 21481632 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2011.02.002
    The Internet has emerged as a potentially effective medium for information exchange. The Internet's potential has been recognised and web-based education programmes have been steadily adopted in recent years in preventing and managing chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. This review provides a descriptive discussion of web-based behavioural interventions for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  3. Chan CK, Saw A, Kwan MK, Karina R
    J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong), 2009 Apr;17(1):19-22.
    PMID: 19398787
    To compare infection rates associated with 2 dressing solutions for metal-skin interfaces.
  4. Saw A, Chan CK, Penafort R, Sengupta S
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Feb;61 Suppl A:62-5.
    PMID: 17042233
    Patients treated with external fixation for limb reconsturciton or fracture stabilization equire regular and prolongedperiod of pin-tract care involving frequent visits to clinic and dressing traditionally carried out by trained nurses or medical assistants. A simple method of do-it-yourself dressing was introduced in our institution and this study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of the protocol. Sixty patients (40 trauma-related problems and 20 congenital or developmental disorders) were enrolled into the study. Following application of external fixation, the patients and/or their caretakers were taught on how to do pin-site dressing using normal saline or drinking water as cleansing solution on daily basis. Patients were discharged on the second or third post-operative day and were followed-up every two weeks for an average 182 days (range 66 to 379 days) with special attention on identifying pin-tract infection. A simple grading system for pin-tract infections was proposed. Of 40 patients with trauma-related problems. 65% were post-traumatic infections. There were 788 metal-skin interfaces (239 half-pin fixations and 549 tensioned wire fixations. A total 143 metal-skin interface infections (18.1%) involving half-pin sites (41.3%) and tensioned wire sites (58.7%) was noted. Majority were grade I infections (79.7%), 18.8% grade II and only 1.4% grade III. Most infections (81%)were caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Grade I infections were successfully treated with frequent dressing, grade II by adjunctive oral antibiotic but grade III infections required removal of fixator. All eventually healed. Do yourself non-sterile dressing of metal-skin interfaces is a cost-effective method of pin-site care with a low infection rate. The infections were sucessfully treated using guidelines according to the proposed classification of pin-tract infections.
  5. Chan CK, Singh J, Rasid BK, Devaraj T
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Jun;49(2):122-31.
    PMID: 8090090
    2,124 cases of cancer diagnosed and/or treated in Penang between 1987-1990 were reported to the National Cancer Registry of Malaysia by hospitals in Penang. 1,762 met the criteria for Penang incident cases first diagnosed between 1987-1990, and were the subjects on which all subsequent analyses were based. 85 per cent of case notifications were from Mount Miriam Hospital. Among males, all-site cancer incidence rates (age-standardised) were highest among Chinese, and lowest among Malays. Among females, the Indian female incidence rate was highest, higher than that of any other ethnic-gender sub-group. Site-specific cancer rates varied according to ethnicity and gender, but overall the four most frequent cancers reported from Penang were breast, lung, cervix and nasopharynx cancers. It needs to be emphasised that all these results are highly tentative since they are based on notified cancer occurrences and hence are very uncertain proxies for true cancer incidence. Based on incidence rates from the Singapore Cancer Registry (1978-1982), the expected number of incident cases in 1989 for Penang (Malays, Chinese and Indians combined) was 1,561. The number notified to the National Cancer Registry was 496. This underlines the tentative nature of this analysis of the returns for 1987-1990 from Penang.
  6. Chan CK, Mohamed RM, Azlina AA, Azhar MM
    Malays Orthop J, 2016 Nov;10(3):42-45.
    PMID: 28553448 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1611.004
    Multicentric disappearing bone disease, or Gorham disease, is a rare entity. A middle age woman, presented to us with left sided antalgic gait and severe bony deformity of her left knee. Radiograph revealed massive bone defect of the medial condyle of the left tibia with subluxation of the knee joint. She was scheduled for knee replacement in six months. However, she developed another lesion over the right hip that typically mimicked the disease progression of disappearing bone disease. The right femoral head vanished progressively within three months without significant history of infection or trauma. Subsequent bone biopsy of the right femoral head and left tibia condyle confirmed the diagnosis. Total knee replacement was carried out for her left knee. She remained pain free on her left knee. A year later, after confirming by sequential radiographs that the osteolysis had stopped, total right hip replacement was performed. Five years later, she remained pain free and both the arthroplasties were stable.
  7. Teh KH, Ruben JK, Chan CK, Abbas AA
    Malays Orthop J, 2020 Jul;14(2):134-137.
    PMID: 32983389 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.2007.022
    Avascular necrosis and non-union are two most dreaded complications of femoral neck fracture fixations. Hip replacement seems to be a simple solution for this complex problem. However, the long-term efficacy of prosthetic replacement in the young population with higher functional demand is still questionable. Femoral head preserving valgus subtrochanteric osteotomies in properly selected cases have strong support from literature. The conventional technique of valgus subtrochanteric osteotomy involves lateral based wedge resection. Alternatively, a simpler sliding oblique subtrochanteric osteotomy without any wedge removal can also be performed. We hereby describe a successful case of sliding subtrochanteric osteotomy with 135° dynamic hip screw (DHS) plate fixation in treating non-union neck of femur fracture in a young gentleman.
  8. Mohd Din FH, Hoe VC, Chan CK, Muslan MA
    Qual Life Res, 2015 May;24(5):1275-80.
    PMID: 25373928 DOI: 10.1007/s11136-014-0850-1
    PURPOSE: The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) is designed to assess negative thoughts in response to pain. It is composed of three domains: helplessness, rumination, and magnification. We report on the translation, adaptation, and validation of scores on a Malay-speaking version of the PCS, the PCS-MY.

    METHOD: Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptations of assessment measures were implemented. A sample of 303 young military recruits participated in the study. Factor structure, reliability, and validity of scores on the PCS-MY were examined. Convergent validity was investigated with the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, Short-form 12 version 2, and Ryff's Psychological Well-being Scale.

    RESULTS: Most participants were men, ranging in age from 19 to 26. The reliability of the PCS-MY scores was adequate (α = 0.90; mean inter-item correlation = 0.43). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a modified version of the PCS-MY provided best fit estimates to the sample data. The PCS-MY total score was negatively correlated with mental well-being and positively correlated with negative affect (all ps < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: The PCS-MY was demonstrated to have adequate reliability and validity estimates in the study sample.

  9. Chen CD, Lee HL, Chan CK, Ang CL, Azahari AH, Lau KW, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2009 Dec;26(3):360-5.
    PMID: 20237452
    The bioefficacy of nine commercial formulations of temephos against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae were evaluated in the laboratory. WHO larval bioassay with operational dosage of temephos at 1 mg/L was performed. The larval mortality was recorded every 5 minutes until complete mortality was achieved. All formulations of temephos exhibited various toxicity level against Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Generally, larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus was susceptible to all formulations of temephos, followed by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.
  10. Park KS, Chan CK, Lee GW, Ahn HW, Yoon TR
    Injury, 2017 Feb;48(2):388-393.
    PMID: 27914663 DOI: 10.1016/j.injury.2016.11.029
    INTRODUCTION: Anatomical reduction of displaced acetabular fracture is not without its' limitations and complications. This study is conducted to assess clinical and radiological outcomes as well as complications of treating displaced acetabular fractures with emphasis on anatomical reduction in weight-bearing area, mainly the posterior column, and imperfect reduction of the anterior column is acceptable. However, stability of both columns is mandatory.

    METHODS: It was a retrospective study carried out in a Level 1 arthroplasty and trauma centre. 23 patients (17 males, 6 females) with average age of 50.1 years (range, 36-68 years) with displaced acetabular fracture treated with combined incisions and plate-cable systems were included. There were 3 elementary and 18 associated fractures according to Letournel classification. Average follow-up was 23.5 months (range, 12-38.7 months). Mean operation time was 160min (range: 75-320min). Functional scores were evaluated using Harris Hip Score (HHS) whilst reduction was assessed by Matta criteria. Any displacement of reduction, osteoarthritis, heterotopic ossification, and other complications was recorded.

    RESULT: 65.2% (15/23) of the patients obtained excellent HHS and 21.7% (5/23) had good HHS. There were 12 anatomical, 6 imperfect, and 5 poor reductions. No displacement was recorded in final follow-up. Complications documented: three lateral femoral cutaneous nerve injuries, two conversions to total hip arthroplasty, three Brooker stage 1 heterotrophic ossification, one pulmonary embolism and one screw irritation. No incidence of wound breakdown, infection and radiological osteoarthritis was reported.

    CONCLUSIONS: Imperfect reduction of the anterior column provided clinical outcomes that are as good as total anatomical reduction. This approach minimizes soft tissue damage and reduces perioperative morbidities.

  11. Koh SM, Chan CK, Teo SH, Singh S, Merican A, Ng WM, et al.
    Knee, 2020 Jan;27(1):26-35.
    PMID: 31917106 DOI: 10.1016/j.knee.2019.10.028
    PURPOSE: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a multifactorial degenerative disease typically defined as the 'wear and tear' of articular joint cartilage. However, recent studies suggest that OA is a disease arising from chronic low-grade inflammation. We conducted a study to investigate the relationship between chronic inflammatory mediators present in both the systemic peripheral blood system and localised inflammation in synovial fluid (SF) of OA and non-OA knees; and subsequently made direct comparative analyses to understand the mechanisms that may underpin the processes involved in OA.

    METHODS: 20-Plex proteins were quantified using Human Magnetic Luminex® assay (R&D Systems, USA) from plasma and SF of OA (n = 14) and non-OA (n = 14) patients. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software was used to predict the relationship and possible interaction of molecules pertaining to OA.

    RESULTS: There were significant differences in plasma level for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, interleukin (IL)-27, IL-8, IL-4, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, MMP-1, IL-15, IL-21, IL-10, and IL-1 beta between the groups, as well as significant differences in SF level for IL-15, IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), MMP-1, and IL-18. Our predictive OA model demonstrated that toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), TLR4 and IL-1 were the main regulators of IL-1B, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-21, IL-27, MMP-1 and MMP-3 in the plasma system; whilst IL-1B, TLR4, IL-1, and basigin (BSG) were the regulators of IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, IL-21, IL-27, MMP-1, and MMP-3 in the SF system.

    CONCLUSION: The elevated plasma IL-8 and SF IL-18 may be associated with the pathogenesis of OA via the activation of MMP-3.

  12. Tsai MH, Chan CK, Chang YC, Yu YT, Chuang ST, Fan WL, et al.
    Clin Genet, 2017 Oct;92(4):397-404.
    PMID: 28170089 DOI: 10.1111/cge.12992
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mutations in the disheveled, Egl-10 and pleckstrin domain-containing protein 5 (DEPDC5) gene have emerged as an important cause of various familial focal epilepsy syndromes. However, the significance of DEPDC5 mutations in patients with sporadic focal epilepsy has yet to be characterized.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied a kindred of familial focal epilepsy with variable foci using whole-exome sequencing. We subsequently studied a cohort of 293 patients with focal epilepsy and sequenced all exons of DEPDC5 using targeted resequencing.

    RESULTS: We reported a Taiwanese family with a novel splice site mutation which affected mRNA splicing and activated the downstream mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Among patients with focal epilepsies, the majority (220/293) of these patients had sporadic focal epilepsy without malformation of cortical development. Two (0.9%) of these patients had probably pathogenic mutations in the DEPDC5 gene.

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our finding suggests that DEPDC5 is not only the most common gene for familial focal epilepsy but also could be a significant gene for sporadic focal epilepsy. Since focal epilepsies account for more than 60% of all epilepsies, the effect of mTORC1 inhibitor on patients with focal epilepsy due to DEPDC5 mutations will be an important future direction of research.

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