We describe the design and management of a 35 mm slide database using a menu-driven dBASE III PLUS programme and a microcomputer in a large department of pathology that also caters for the individual pathologist. Existing systems described in the literature are geared towards slides of general medicine and do not address the needs of the individual pathologist. A total of 11,481 slides in the Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, were filed into a single database with each record representing one slide. Nine fields which comprised the slide accession number, reference number, slide category, SNOMED codes, and a description of the slide in natural language, seemed adequate for slide definition. The menu-driven programme had functions which included the abilities to add, delete, edit and back-up records, and to search for desired slides. Although slides may be searched for in various fields, we found that searches using natural language alone were both comprehensive and efficient, provided a standard format of description was adhered to and data entries scrutinized carefully for errors. We believe therefore, that for the pathologist working alone, coded language fields are not absolutely necessary, as manual coding and additional data entry can be time consuming. As expected, for databases larger than 10,000 slides, a 80286 microprocessor-based microcomputer was more efficient. We are of the opinion that a system such as ours is very useful for a large department of pathology or the individual pathologist to file and retrieve 35 mm slides.
Extra-adrenal paragangliomata are uncommon entities. They can be classified into four basic groups according to their anatomical sites, i.e. branchiomeric, intravagal, aorticosympathetic and visceral autonomic. Similar tumours may arise in sites away from the usual distribution of the sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia, e.g. orbit, nose, small intestine and even in the pancreas. We report three instructive cases of extra-adrenal paraganglioma which were found in unusual sites such as urinary bladder, thyroid gland and on the wall of the inferior vena cava.
A 35-year-old Chinese man who was known to have insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was admitted for fever and weight loss. During his hospital stay, he fell to his death from his ward at the twelfth floor. The clinical features, radiological findings and gross organ changes at autopsy closely simulated miliary tuberculosis. Histology, however, revealed extensive necrosis of the adrenal glands, lungs, spleen, kidneys and thyroid associated with the presence of Histoplasma capsulatum organisms. This case highlights the similarity both clinically and pathologically between histoplasmosis and tuberculosis and emphasizes the need to be aware of this infection in a nonendemic area among patients with a compromised immune system.
Follicular dendritic cell sarcomas (FDCS) are rare neoplasms that involve lymph nodes or extranodal sites. They show varied histological features and thus can be mistaken for carcinoma or sarcoma. Correct identification is important for further management. A 43-year-old Indian female presented with a three-month history of progressive swelling at the right inguinal region. It was excised completely and was reported as lymph node with metastatic poorly differentiated carcinoma based on Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain findings. Computerized tomography (CT) scans of thorax, abdomen and pelvis were normal and did not reveal a primary site. Following this, the case was referred to one of the authors. The slides were reviewed and a variety of immunocytochemical markers were done. The tumour cells were negative for epithelial, melanocytic, neural, leucocyte and soft tissue tumour markers. They were immunopositive for CD21, CD35 and negative for CD68. Based on the immunocytochemical findings, a final diagnosis of FDCS was made. This case highlights the histological and immunophenotypical profile of a rare tumour which requires a high index of suspicion for diagnosis.
Lymph node excision biopsy is commonly carried out for the investigation of lymphadenopathy. The objective of this study is to elucidate the pattern of nodal pathology seen in a private pathology practice. A total of 137 nodal biopsies for primary investigation of nodal enlargement were retrieved from the files in a private diagnostic pathology laboratory in the year 1997. Lymph nodes excised for cancer staging were excluded from this study. The histology was reviewed based on H&E stained sections, and with additional histochemical and immunoperoxidase stains when deemed necessary. Cases of malignant lymphomas were sub-classified with the aid of further immunophenotyping using a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal lymphoid antibodies. One case was excluded from this study due to inadequate tissue for further assessment. There were 58 males and 78 females, giving a ratio of 1:1.3 in the remaining 136 cases. They consisted of 13 Malays (M), 108 Chinese (C), 14 Indians (I) and 1 other ethnic group (O). The ratio of M:C:I:O was 1:8.3:1.1:0.1. The majority of the cases were in the age range of 20 to 50 years. The pathology consisted of 17 (12.5%) malignant lymphomas [6 Hodgkin's lymphoma, 11 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma], 35 (25.7%) metastatic carcinomas, 45 (33.1%) reactive hyperplasia, 19 (13.9%) tuberculosis, 11 (8.2%) Kikuchi's disease and 9 (6.6%) others (Castleman's disease 2, cat scratch disease 2, Kimura's disease 1, sarcoidosis 1, non-specific lymphadenitis 3). All categories of nodal disease showed approximately similar ratio of ethnic and gender distribution as above, except for Kikuchi's disease, for which 100% of the patients were female. The most common site of biopsy was from the head and neck region, particularly the cervical group of nodes. The most common nodal pathology seen in the private laboratory was reactive hyperplasia, followed by metastatic carcinoma. Malignant lymphoma constituted only 12.5% of the cases.
Acardiac twin or twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence is a rare medical complication of Monozygotic twins. Taiwanese Obstetricians usually treat TRAP sequence conservatively. Occasionally, repeated amnio-reduction is performed to decompress the polyhydramnios caused by the TRAP sequence, even though there was no correction of the pathophysiologic mechanism. Radiofrequency ablation is a minimally invasive, percutaneous technique that can effectively obliterate blood supply to an acardiac twin to preserve and protect the pump twin. This recent technique has never been used before for the treatment of the TRAP sequence in Taiwan. This article reported the first-hand experience of acardiac twin management with RFA in Taipei Chang Gung Memorial Hospital.
This paper presents the implementing multiple fan beam projection technique using optical fibre sensors for a tomography system. From the dynamic experiment of solid/gas flow using plastic beads in a gravity flow rig, the designed optical fibre sensors are reliable in measuring the mass flow rate below 40% of flow. Another important matter that has been discussed is the image processing rate or IPR. Generally, the applied image reconstruction algorithms, the construction of the sensor and also the designed software are considered to be reliable and suitable to perform real-time image reconstruction and mass flow rate measurements.
The data distribution system of this project is divided into two types, which are a Two-PC Image Reconstruction System and a Two-PC Velocity Measurement System. Each data distribution system is investigated to see whether the results' refreshing rate of the corresponding measurement can be greater than the rate obtained by using a single computer in the same measurement system for each application. Each system has its own flow control protocol for controlling how data is distributed within the system in order to speed up the data processing time. This can be done if two PCs work in parallel. The challenge of this project is to define the data flow process and critical timing during data packaging, transferring and extracting in between PCs. If a single computer is used as a data processing unit, a longer time is needed to produce a measurement result. This insufficient real-time result will cause problems in a feedback control process when applying the system in industrial plants. To increase the refreshing rate of the measurement result, an investigation on a data distribution system is performed to replace the existing data processing unit.