METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted of consecutive diagnostic EGDs performed at a university-affiliated, teaching hospital, which has an open-access endoscopy system for doctors who work in the hospital. The main indication(s) for EGD was recorded and assessed as appropriate or inappropriate by using American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy criteria. EGD findings were recorded and classified as positive or negative. Referrals were categorized as being from endoscopists, primary care physicians, and others.
RESULTS: Of 1076 referrals for EGD, 88.3% were deemed appropriate. The group with the highest rate of appropriate referral was endoscopists (90.2%), followed by primary care physicians (89.6%) and "others" (81.9%). The rate of appropriate referrals was significantly higher for endoscopists and primary care physicians compared with "others" (respectively, p=0.001 and p=0.022). The most common appropriate indication was "upper abdominal distress that persists despite an appropriate trial of therapy" (35.4%). The most common inappropriate indication was "dyspepsia in patients aged 45 years or below without adequate empirical medical treatment" (48.4%); 42.2% with an appropriate indication had positive findings compared with only 25.6% of those with inappropriate indications (p=0.006). On multivariate analysis, the following were identified as independent predictive factors for positive findings at EGD: male gender (p=0.005), age over 45 years (p=0.011), smoking (p=0.005), none/primary education (p<0.001), and secondary education (p=0.026).
CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of patients referred for open-access EGD with an appropriate indication(s) was high for all doctor groups in a large university-affiliated medical center in Asia. EGDs performed for appropriate indications had a higher yield of positive findings. Independent predictive factors of positive findings were male gender, age over 45 years, lower education level, and referral by an endoscopist.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a teacher-led Healthy Lifestyle Program on eating behaviors among adolescents in Malaysia.
METHODS: This was a cluster randomized controlled trial (conducted in 2012 to 2014), with 100 schools randomly selected from 721 schools, then assigned to 50 intervention schools and 50 control schools. A Healthy Eating and Be Active among Teens (HEBAT) module was developed for pretrained teachers to deliver a Healthy Lifestyle Program on eating behaviors among adolescents. Eating behaviors of the respondents was determined using Eating Behaviors Questionnaire. Linear Mixed Model analysis and χ2 test were used to determine within- and between-group effects of studied variables.
RESULTS: A total of 4277 respondents participated in this study, with 2635 samples involved in the final analysis, comprised of 921 intervention and 1714 control respondents. There were 32.4% (36.4%) males and 67.6% (63.6%) females in the intervention (control) group. Mean age was comparable between the groups (intervention = 12.98 years; control = 12.97 years). Majority of the respondents skipped meals at baseline (intervention = 74.7%; control = 79.5%). After the program, intervention respondents had higher consumption frequency of lunch, dinner, and mid-morning snack but a lower consumption frequency of late-evening snack and meal skipping behaviors than their control counterparts.
CONCLUSION: The teacher-led Healthy Lifestyle Program was effective in reducing meal-skipping behaviors among Malaysian adolescents.
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 184 Malaysian HD patients. Anthropometric measurements and handgrip strength (HGS) were obtained using standardized protocols. Relevant biochemical indicators were retrieved from patients' medical records. Nutritional status was assessed using the dialysis malnutrition score. The sleep quality of patients was determined using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire on both dialysis and non-dialysis days.
RESULTS: Slightly more than half of the HD patients were poor sleepers, with approximately two-third of them having a sleep duration of <7 hours per day. Sleep latency (1.5±1.2) had the highest sleep component score, whereas sleep medicine use (0.1±0.6) had the lowest score. Significantly longer sleep latency and shorter sleep duration were observed in the poor sleepers, regardless of whether it was a dialysis day or not (p<0.001). Poor sleep quality was associated with male sex, old age, small triceps skinfold, hypoproteinemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and poorer nutritional status. In a multivariate analysis model, serum potassium (β=1.41, p=0.010), male sex (β=2.15, p=0.003), and HGS (β=-0.088, p=0.021) were found as independent predictors of sleep quality.
CONCLUSIONS: Poor sleep quality was evident among the HD patients in Malaysia. The sleep quality of the HD patients was associated with nutritional parameters. Routine assessment of sleep quality and nutritional parameters indicated that poor sleepers have a risk of malnutrition and may benefit from appropriate interventions.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 446 older adults aged 50 years and above from 20 randomly selected villages. Respondents were interviewed to collect information on their demographic characteristics and oral health perception, followed by physical examination to measure height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of respondents. The validated Malay version of General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) was used to measure OHRQoL.
RESULTS: About one-third (35.8%) of the respondents had normal BMI. Majority of the respondents were overweight (40.4%) and obese (19.9%), while only a small proportion was underweight (3.9%). Mean GOHAI score was 53.3 (SD = 4.7), indicating low perception of oral health. About 81.6% respondents had moderate to low perception of oral health. Logistic regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between the GOHAI and BMI scores (OR = 2.3; p