Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 24 in total

  1. Ramakrishnan, G., Che Hamzah, J., Sharanjeet-Kaur S.
    Medicine & Health, 2019;14(2):17-29.
    Glaucoma is a group of neurodegenerative disease linked with imbalance in the aqueous humor flow due to resistance in the aqueous drainage system. This increases the intraocular pressure (IOP), which causes damage to the optic nerve head and leads to irreversible blindness. As IOP is the only treatable risk factor for glaucoma, its 24 hours biorhythm need to be understood before managing it. Monitoring IOP is a critically important part in the management of glaucoma. Various approach and technology have been initiated and on-going for a frequent, round-the-clock IOP measurement to determine the IOP peaks and fluctuations. We review the current innovative approach and its importance as well as discussing the shortcomings of each method to obtain the 24 hour IOP profile.
  2. Yong MH, Che Hamzah J
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 07;75(4):342-348.
    PMID: 32723992
    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness, health related quality of life (HRQoL) and cost effectiveness of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) compared to topical anti-glaucoma medications in step-up treatment of patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG).

    METHODS: Seventeen POAG patients with suboptimal IOP control despite pre-existing topical medications were subjected to adjunct SLT (50 applications 180 degrees) or second line medical therapy. Current medications were continued, and patients were followed up for 6 months for degree of intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering. HRQoL was assessed using Glaucoma Quality of Life 36-item (GlauQoL-36), Assessment of Quality of Life-7D (AQoL-7D) and Vision related Quality of Life (VisQoL). Costs involved were calculated and compared to the effect (IOP reduction) achieved in each arm.

    RESULTS: Ten patients were in the SLT group and 7 in the topical medication (MED) group. Mean baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) was 18.90±3.48mmHg in SLT group and 15.57±2.23mmHg in MED group. Mean reduction of IOP was 4.30±1.64mmHg in SLT group and 2.71±2.56 mmHg in MED group at 6 months which was not statistically significant (p=0.14) between two groups. All the HRQoL questionnaires did not show significant changes in the groups or between groups when compared baseline with 6-month post treatment (p-values ranging from 0.247 to 0.987). For every 1mmHg reduction in IOP, cost involved in MED group (RM53.61) was 165% of the cost involved in SLT group (RM32.56).

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study has shown that SLT was as effective clinically and tolerable as topical anti glaucoma medications and was possibly more cost effective in the step-up treatment of patients with POAG at 6 months follow- up.

  3. Che Hamzah J, Daka Q, Azuara-Blanco A
    Eye (Lond), 2020 01;34(1):155-160.
    PMID: 31772381 DOI: 10.1038/s41433-019-0669-7
    Glaucoma services are overwhelmed and struggling to accommodate current demand. Reducing the need for hospital based services would improve our ability to see those most at risk of vision loss, which could both reduce demand and improve patient outcomes. Digital technologies that provide opportunities for home monitoring of glaucoma progression have potential to contribute to solve these challenges and, potentially, improve glaucoma care. This article will review the literatures of well-established technologies that support home monitoring for glaucoma, specifically home tonometry (with rebound tonometry) and perimetry with Moorfields Motion Displacement Test and Melbourne Rapid Field.
  4. Hassan Basri M, Khoo CS, Che Hamzah J
    Acta Neurol Belg, 2021 Apr;121(2):573-574.
    PMID: 33068282 DOI: 10.1007/s13760-020-01519-8
  5. Low KL, Lai YP, Alias R, Che Hamzah J
    Cureus, 2022 Nov;14(11):e31516.
    PMID: 36532911 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.31516
    Epithelial conjunctival malignancies are one of the most prevalent ocular surface tumors. Primary basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the conjunctiva is extremely rare. We report the case of a 67-year-old Indian gentleman who presented with a fleshy conjunctival lesion for one year on his right eye. Examination revealed a lightly pigmented conjunctival mass adjacent to the limbus. The surface was irregular and non-ulcerated with few feeder vessels. The working diagnosis was ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN). A wide excisional biopsy using the no-touch technique and double-freeze-thaw cryotherapy to the conjunctival margins was performed. The bare scleral area was covered with an amniotic membrane. Histopathological examination revealed a basaloid cell neoplasm favoring BCC, and a tumor-free margin was achieved. Three cycles of topical mitomycin-C 0.02% were prescribed as adjunct chemotherapy postoperatively. There was no evidence of recurrence three months after treatment. The primary BCC of the conjunctiva is unusual and can resemble OSSN. Therefore, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with atypical features of OSSN.
  6. Mohd Lokman M, Catherine Bastion ML, Che Hamzah J
    Cureus, 2022 Dec;14(12):e32328.
    PMID: 36628049 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.32328
    Retinal artery macroaneurysm (RAM) is an acquired retinal arteriole dilatation with vision-threatening complications. Diagnosis of this condition can be made clinically, supported by multi-modal imaging modalities, commonly optical coherence tomography (OCT) and dye-based angiography studies which show the lesion itself and the complications to the adjacent retina. We report a case of an 83-year-old patient with renal impairment who had the diagnosis and monitoring of RAM done using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) as an alternative to conventional fluorescein angiography. This case highlighted the use of OCT-A using Cirrus 5000 with AngioPlex (Zeiss, Jena, Germany) as a useful diagnostic and monitoring tool for RAM with its features that enables objective quantification of the disease activity via vessel and perfusion density pre- and post-laser treatment.
  7. Lee J, Che Hamzah J, Mohd Khialdin S, Naffi AA
    Cureus, 2023 May;15(5):e39153.
    PMID: 37332448 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.39153
    We report a case of bilateral open globe injury that resulted from a durian fruit falling on a 62-year-old woman's unprotected face during durian picking in her orchard. On presentation, the bilateral vision was light perception. The right eye sustained a curvilinear corneal laceration with expelled intraocular content. Meanwhile, the left eye sustained a corneoscleral laceration with expelled uvea and retina. Additionally, the right upper lid margin was lacerated. Emergency wound exploration, primary toilet, and suturing were performed on bilateral eyes. Preoperatively, she received intramuscular anti-tetanus toxoid and intravenous ciprofloxacin. Intravitreal ceftazidime and vancomycin were given intraoperatively as endophthalmitis prophylaxis. Postoperatively, the vision remained as light perception. There were no signs of endophthalmitis in both eyes. Although traumatic globe injury due to durian is uncommon, individuals should wear protective gear while in a durian orchard to avoid such unprecedented accidents. Prompt yet scrupulous action should be taken to save the globe and further possible complications.
  8. Zakaria NA, Cheng TC, Nasaruddin RA, Che Hamzah J
    Cureus, 2023 Aug;15(8):e43303.
    PMID: 37700979 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.43303
    This case report aims to describe a case of unilateral central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) with cilioretinal artery sparing, which was complicated by neovascular glaucoma (NVG). A 75-year-old Indian woman with underlying normal tension glaucoma presented with the sudden onset of painless generalized blurring of the right eye's vision for a week. Her right eye vision was hand motion with the presence of a right relative afferent pupillary defect. Fundus examination revealed retinal whitening over the macula sparing the papillomacular bundle with generalized retinal arteriolar attenuation, which was suggestive of right CRAO with cilioretinal artery sparing. Systemic examination revealed high blood pressure (175/75 mmHg) without ocular bruit or audible murmur on auscultation. Optical coherence tomography of the macula showed inner retinal thickening over the temporal macula. Ultrasound carotid Doppler and computed tomography angiography of the carotid showed more than 75% stenosis over the right distal internal carotid artery. Unfortunately, she developed rubeosis iridis over her right eye two weeks after her presentation, which required pan-retinal photocoagulation. She subsequently progressed to NVG, requiring maximum anti-glaucoma medications to stabilize intraocular pressure. In conclusion, CRAO is a sight-threatening medical emergency. Thorough investigations are required to determine the underlying cause so that early intervention can be done to reduce the risk of a similar attack in the fellow eye and the risk of a cerebrovascular event or cardiac ischemia, which could be life-threatening. The presence of a cilioretinal artery does not prevent ocular neovascularization in CRAO. Hence, patients should also be closely monitored after the initial diagnosis to prevent devastating complications such as NVG.
  9. Mohd Zain A, Md Noh UK, Hussein S, Che Hamzah J, Mohd Khialdin S, Md Din N
    J Glaucoma, 2019 04;28(4):321-324.
    PMID: 30585941 DOI: 10.1097/IJG.0000000000001164
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between long-term intranasal steroid use and intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 100 eyes from 50 patients on long-term intranasal steroids (>2 y) for allergic rhinitis and 90 eyes from 45 controls were included in this study. Patients on other forms of steroids and risk factors for glaucoma were excluded. IOP was measured and nonmydriatic stereoscopic optic disc photos were taken for each eye. The vertical cup-to-disc ratio and the status of the optic disc were evaluated.

    RESULTS: The mean IOP for intranasal steroids group was significantly higher (15.24±2.31 mm Hg) compared to the control group (13.91±1.86 mm Hg; P=0.000). However, there were no significant differences in the vertical cup-to-disc ratio and the status of glaucomatous optic disc changes between the groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged use of intranasal steroids cause statistical significant increase in IOP in patients with allergic rhinitis although no significant glaucomatous disc changes were seen. We suggest patients on long-term use of intranasal steroid have a yearly eye examination to be monitored for IOP elevation and those with additional risk factors for glaucoma is closely monitored for glaucoma.

  10. Nik Azis NN, Chew FLM, Rosland SF, Ramlee A, Che-Hamzah J
    J AAPOS, 2019 10;23(5):268.e1-268.e6.
    PMID: 31520719 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2019.01.019
    PURPOSE: To evaluate parents' performance in using the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) Vision Screening App (application) as a vision screening tool among preschool children and to evaluate the reliability of this app.

    METHODS: A total of 195 5- and 6-year-old preschoolers were recruited from children attending Hospital Selayang, Selangor, Malaysia, to test the app. Uncooperative children and those with visual acuity of >logMAR 0.6 were excluded. Results from parents and the screening doctor using the app (Lea symbols) to test visual acuity were compared to each other and to gold standard vision testing by an optometrist using the Lea symbols chart.

    RESULTS: Children 5 years of age represented 46.7% of the study population. The mean age of parents was 37.27 ± 7.68 years. Bland-Altman scatterplot agreement between assessors mainly was within the 95% confidence interval for bilateral eyes screening. Parents obtained a sensitivity of 86.6% (right vision) and 79.5% (left vision) and specificity of 78.9% (right vision) and 71.8% (left vision). Parents took a mean of 191.2 ± 70.82 seconds for bilateral screening. The intraclass correlation coefficient between optometrist and parents in bilateral eyes screening was good (P 0.7, indicating high internal reliability of the app. Most parents (178/195 [91.3%]) strongly agreed on the app's acceptability and ease of use.

    CONCLUSIONS: The AAPOS Vision Screening App used by parents is a promising tool for visual acuity screening among Malaysian preschool children and a reliable app for vision screening.

  11. Azmi MF, Abd Ghafar N, Che Hamzah J, Chua KH, Ng SL
    J Food Biochem, 2021 04;45(4):e13645.
    PMID: 33569805 DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.13645
    This study aimed to investigate the role of Gelam honey (GH) in accelerating reepithelialization of corneal abrasion. Corneal epithelial cells (CEC) isolated from New Zealand white rabbit corneas, were cultured and circular-shaped wounds were created onto them, representing the corneal abrasion model. These wounds were treated with basal (BM) and cornea media (CM) supplemented with GH. The percentage of wound closure was measured on day 0, 3, and 5. Expressions of cytokeratin 3 (CK3), cluster of differentiation 44 (CD 44), and connexin 43 (Cx43) were analyzed via qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. The results showed CEC cultured in GH-enriched media reepithelialized faster compared to control. Corneal abrasion treated with CM supplemented with GH closed completely on day 5. CK3, CD44, and Cx43 expressions correspond to the stages of reepithelialization. In conclusion, GH promotes the healing of the ex vivo corneal abrasion model. Further explorations of its potential as adjuvant therapy in treating corneal injuries are needed. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Honey has been reported to have many medicinal properties including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and the ability to promote skin wound healing. However, the effects of honey on corneal wound healing have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effects of Gelam honey (GH), well-known local honey obtained from the beehive of Gelam trees (Melaleuca spp.), on the ex vivo corneal abrasion model via cell migration study and analysis of genes and proteins during corneal epithelial wound healing. GH has proven to have accelerated effects on the corneal epithelial cell migration during the closure of the ex vivo corneal abrasion wound model. The expressions of the genes and proteins of the corneal epithelial wound healing markers were in accordance with the stages of healing. Therefore, GH has the potential to be developed as adjuvant therapy in the form of GH-based eye drop in treating corneal injuries.
  12. Tharmathurai S, Huwaina AS, Azhany Y, Razak AA, Che-Hamzah J, Fazilawati Q, et al.
    Curr Aging Sci, 2021 Sep 03.
    PMID: 34477541 DOI: 10.2174/1874609814666210903155251
    BACKGROUND: Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is an age-related chronic optic neuropathy causing progressive constriction of visual field, which compromised quality of life (QoL) of older adults.

    OBJECTIVE: The study aims to determine the QoL according to the severity of visual field using Bahasa Malaysia version of the Glaucoma Quality of Life- 36 (Glau-QoL 36) in older adults with POAG in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Malaysia: Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, and Hospital Selayang, Selangor. POAG patients who were ≥ 60 years old at the time of recruitment had minimal cataract, underwent cataract or trabeculectomy surgery at least 3 months prior and were on medical and surgical treatment. The severity of POAG was based on the modified Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) score on two reliable reproducible Humphrey visual field SITA program 24-2 analysis. Face to face, one-on-one interview was conducted using validated Bahasa Malaysia version of GlauQol 36.

    RESULTS: A total of 360 older adults with POAG were recruited. Majority were between ages 60-67 (38.3%) with 64 (17.8%) mild, 93 (25.8%) moderate, 115 (31.9%) severe POAG and 88 (24.4%) end-stage severity of POAG. The majority of the recruited patients were not working (88.9%) and live with their families (68.1%). There was a significant association between GlauQoL 36 score of all domains: daily living, driving, physiological well-being, self-image, anxiety, burden of treatment and confidence in healthcare with the severity of POAG (p<0.001). Increased severity of POAG was associated with decreased QoL in all GlauQoL 36 domains except confidence in healthcare. There was also a significant increase in dependency, with a majority of the end-stage were living with their families (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: QoL and independency of older adults with POAG decrease with worsening of visual field defect. Addressing the problem of visual-related activities in older adults with POAG may reduce their dependency and QoL. Happy living is important to lead to healthy living among older adults with POAG.

  13. Burr JM, Cooper D, Ramsay CR, Che Hamzah J, Azuara-Blanco A
    Br J Ophthalmol, 2021 May 18.
    PMID: 34006510 DOI: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2021-318901
    AIM: To estimate the minimally important difference (MID) in change in National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (VFQ-25) composite score using methods aligned with patient perception.

    METHODS: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from adults with primary angle closure or primary angle closure glaucoma enrolled in the Effectiveness, in Angle-closure Glaucoma, of Lens Extraction study. We included data from 335 participants with patient reported visual function (VFQ-25) and health status measured by the EQ-5D-3L over 36 months. We used the recommended anchor-based methods (receiver operating characteristic (ROC), predictive modelling and mean change) to determine the MID of the VFQ-25. EQ-5D-3L anchor change was defined as none (<0.065); minimal (0.065≤EQ-5D-3L change ≤0.075 points) and greater change (>0.075 points).

    RESULTS: Mean baseline VFQ-25 score was 87.6 (SD 11.8). Estimated MIDs in the change in VFQ-25 scores (95% CI) were 10.5 (1.9 to 19.2); 3.9 (-2.3 to 10.1); 5.8 (1.9 to 7.2) and 8.1 (1.7 to 14.8) for the 'within-patient', 'between-patient' change, ROC and predictive modelling anchor methods respectively. Excluding estimates from the methodologically weaker 'within-patient' method, the MID of a change in VFQ-25 composite score is 5.8 (median value).

    CONCLUSIONS: Estimates of the MID using multiple methods assist in the interpretation of the VFQ scores. In the context of early glaucoma related visual disability, a change score of around six points on the VFQ-25 is likely to be important to patients. Further confirmatory research is required. Studies comparing changes in patient-reported outcome measure scores with a global measure of patients' perceived change are required.

  14. Saeed AQ, Sheikh Abdullah SNH, Che-Hamzah J, Abdul Ghani AT
    J Med Internet Res, 2021 09 21;23(9):e27414.
    PMID: 34236992 DOI: 10.2196/27414
    BACKGROUND: Glaucoma leads to irreversible blindness. Globally, it is the second most common retinal disease that leads to blindness, slightly less common than cataracts. Therefore, there is a great need to avoid the silent growth of this disease using recently developed generative adversarial networks (GANs).

    OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to introduce a GAN technology for the diagnosis of eye disorders, particularly glaucoma. This paper illustrates deep adversarial learning as a potential diagnostic tool and the challenges involved in its implementation. This study describes and analyzes many of the pitfalls and problems that researchers will need to overcome to implement this kind of technology.

    METHODS: To organize this review comprehensively, articles and reviews were collected using the following keywords: ("Glaucoma," "optic disc," "blood vessels") and ("receptive field," "loss function," "GAN," "Generative Adversarial Network," "Deep learning," "CNN," "convolutional neural network" OR encoder). The records were identified from 5 highly reputed databases: IEEE Xplore, Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and PubMed. These libraries broadly cover the technical and medical literature. Publications within the last 5 years, specifically 2015-2020, were included because the target GAN technique was invented only in 2014 and the publishing date of the collected papers was not earlier than 2016. Duplicate records were removed, and irrelevant titles and abstracts were excluded. In addition, we excluded papers that used optical coherence tomography and visual field images, except for those with 2D images. A large-scale systematic analysis was performed, and then a summarized taxonomy was generated. Furthermore, the results of the collected articles were summarized and a visual representation of the results was presented on a T-shaped matrix diagram. This study was conducted between March 2020 and November 2020.

    RESULTS: We found 59 articles after conducting a comprehensive survey of the literature. Among the 59 articles, 30 present actual attempts to synthesize images and provide accurate segmentation/classification using single/multiple landmarks or share certain experiences. The other 29 articles discuss the recent advances in GANs, do practical experiments, and contain analytical studies of retinal disease.

    CONCLUSIONS: Recent deep learning techniques, namely GANs, have shown encouraging performance in retinal disease detection. Although this methodology involves an extensive computing budget and optimization process, it saturates the greedy nature of deep learning techniques by synthesizing images and solves major medical issues. This paper contributes to this research field by offering a thorough analysis of existing works, highlighting current limitations, and suggesting alternatives to support other researchers and participants in further improving and strengthening future work. Finally, new directions for this research have been identified.

  15. Yap KH, Azmin S, Che Hamzah J, Ahmad N, van de Warrenburg B, Mohamed Ibrahim N
    J Neurol, 2021 Nov 06.
    PMID: 34743220 DOI: 10.1007/s00415-021-10874-2
    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) comprise a rare, genetic subgroup within the degenerative ataxias and are dominantly inherited, with up to 48 recognized genetic subtypes. While an updated review on the management of degenerative ataxia is published recently, an evidence-based review focussed on the management of SCA is lacking. Here, we reviewed the pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of SCA by conducting a systematic review on Medline Ovid and Scopus. Of 29,284 studies identified, 47 studies (pharmacological: n = 25; non-pharmacological: n = 22) that predominantly involved SCA patients were included. Twenty studies had a high risk of bias based on the Cochrane's Collaboration risk of bias tool. As per the European Federation of Neurological Societies 2004 guideline for therapeutic intervention, the remaining 27 studies were of Class I (n = 4) and Class II (n = 23) evidence. Only two therapies had Level A recommendations for the management of ataxia symptoms: riluzole and immediate in-patient neurorehabilitation. Ten therapies had Level B recommendations for managing ataxia symptoms and require further investigations with better study design. These include high dose valproate acid, branched-chain amino acid, intravenous trehalose; restorative rehabilitation using cycling regimen and videogame; and cerebellar stimulations using transcranial direct current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Lithium and coaching on psychological adjustment received Level B recommendation for depressive symptoms and quality of life, respectively. Heterogeneous study designs, different genotypes, and non-standardized clinical measures alongside short duration and small sample sizes may hamper meaningful clinical translation. Therefore, rating of recommendations only serve as points of reference.
  16. Shir Yen W, Yathavan S, Ramli MA, Siu Wan F, Che Hamzah J
    Cureus, 2021 Nov;13(11):e19408.
    PMID: 34926008 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.19408
    This is a case report of a rare case of bilateral sequential non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). A 50-year-old Indian gentleman, who is a known case of diabetes and an active smoker, presented with a right eye painless inferior visual field defect upon waking up from sleep. Fundoscopy revealed swollen right optic disc with peripapillary splinter hemorrhage while Humphrey visual field (HVF) showed right inferior altitudinal scotoma. Computed tomography of the brain and orbit proceeded to rule out compressive lesions. Thus, a diagnosis of right eye NAION was made. Three months later, he complained of a worsening visual field of the right eye. His right eye's optic disc was pale; however, the left was hyperemic and swollen with peripapillary splinter hemorrhage. HVF showed right eye tunnel vision while the left eye displayed inferior arcuate scotoma. Further investigation revealed suspicious enhancement of both intra-orbital optic nerves in magnetic resonance imaging suggestive of bilateral optic neuritis. Diagnosis of bilateral atypical optic neuritis was made. Thus, the patient was loaded with intravenous methylprednisolone 1 g/day for five days and subsequently oral steroid in tapering doses along with topical brimonidine tartrate 0.2%. Despite that, his left eye's visual field progressively deteriorated to inferior altitudinal scotoma. Subsequently, the lumbar puncture test performed was unremarkable while repeated MRI of the spine and brain showed no focal enhancing lesion. The patient revealed that he had a history of taking phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor (tadalafil) on and off over the past year. Diagnosis of bilateral sequential NAION was made and he was co-managed with the endocrine team to optimize his diabetic status. His subsequent visual field remained static with right eye tunnel vision and left eye inferior altitudinal scotoma. In conclusion, progressive NAION of the same eye or fellow eye is rare and mandates further investigations. It is important to identify and manage all the systemic and local risk factors to prevent further attacks. Although there is no rigid evidence stating that intake of PDE5 inhibitors can directly lead to NAION, patients with co-existing predisposing risk factors should be warned about possible ischemic ocular side effects of PDE5 inhibitors.
  17. Shir Yen W, Siu Wan F, Che Hamzah J, Khoo Kah Luen K
    Cureus, 2021 Nov;13(11):e19648.
    PMID: 34976447 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.19648
    Objective To describe the epidemiology and to evaluate the visual outcome of open globe injury (OGI) cases in Hospital Pulau Pinang. Method A three-year retrospective study on OGI cases presenting to Hospital Pulau Pinang from January 2018 until December 2020. Result A total of 39 OGI cases (n=39) were included in this study. The average age of the patients was 34.9 ± 21.7 (mean ± standard deviation, SD). There were 33 males (84.6%) and six females (15.4%). In this study, 27 cases (69.2%) were Malaysians, while the remaining 12 cases (30.8%) were foreigners. OGI cases were mostly caused by occupational injuries (n=17, 43.6%) and domestic-related accidents (n=17, 43.6%). The mean initial VA (visual acuity) logMAR was 1.69 ± 0.98 (mean ± SD). Overall, the final VA improved to the mean VA logMAR of 1.04 ± 1.08 (mean ± SD). There was a significant positive correlation between initial VA and final VA logMAR (Spearman's rho = 0.6532, p <0.001). A negative linear correlation was found between calculated raw points of Ocular Trauma Score (OTS) and final VA logMAR (Spearman's rho = -0.7067, p <0.001). Conclusion Young adult males, foreign nationality, occupational injuries, and domestic-related accidents are risk factors of OGI. By uncovering the risk, we can take remedial actions to ensure better public health and clinical strategies to prevent and manage ocular trauma in the future. This study also highlights that initial VA and OTS are effective in predicting visual outcomes of OGI.
  18. Abu Talib DN, Yong MH, Nasaruddin RA, Che-Hamzah J, Bastion MC
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2021 Apr 09;100(14):e25459.
    PMID: 33832156 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000025459
    RATIONALE: Endogenous fungal endophthalmitis (EFE) is a sight-threatening complication of systemic fungemia. As the prevalence rises, treatment remains a challenge especially when there is a failure in first-line treatment or drug-resistant fungus. This case report studies a case of chronic EFE, focusing on the diagnostic procedures, treatment options, monitoring parameters and the treatment outcome.

    PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old man with underlying well controlled diabetes mellitus was treated with 2 weeks' course of intravenous antifungal fluconazole for pyelonephritis as his blood culture grew Candida albicans. Concurrently, he complained of 3 months of bilateral painless progressive blurring of vision. At presentation, his visual acuity (VA) was light perception both eyes. Ocular examination revealed non granulomatous inflammation with dense vitritis of both eyes.

    DIAGNOSIS: He was diagnosed with EFE but the condition responded poorly with the medications.

    INTERVENTIONS: He was treated with intravitreal (IVT) amphotericin B and fluconazole was continued. Vitrectomy was performed and intraoperative findings included bilateral fungal balls in the vitreous and retina with foveal traction in the left eye. Postoperatively, vision acuity was 6/24, N8 right eye and 2/60, N unable for left eye with extensive left macular scar and hole. Vitreous cultures were negative. He received multiple IVT amphotericin B and was started on topical steroid eye drops for persistent panuveitis with systemic fluconazole. Ocular improvement was seen after switching to IVT and topical voriconazole. Despite this, his ocular condition deteriorated and he developed neovascular glaucoma requiring 3 topical antiglaucoma agents. Panretinal photocoagulation was subsequently performed.

    OUTCOMES: At 3 months' follow-up, his vision acuity remained at 6/24 for right eye and 2/60 for the left eye. There was no recurrence of inflammation or infection in both eyes.

    LESSONS: Voriconazole could serve as a promising broad spectrum tri-azole agent in cases of failure in first-line treatment or drug-resistant fungus.

  19. Low KL, Nurul-Ain M, Che Hamzah J, Wan Hitam WH
    Cureus, 2022 Oct;14(10):e30755.
    PMID: 36447705 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.30755
    Simultaneous oculomotor and trochlear nerve palsy in Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus (HZO) is rare. We report a 78-year-old lady who presented with right ptosis while receiving treatment for HZO keratouveitis. Examination showed crusted vesicular lesions on the right V1 dermatome with right complete ptosis and limited right eye extraocular movement on adduction, supraduction, infraduction, and intorsion. There was mild right eye anterior chamber inflammation, while bilateral fundus examinations were normal. Other neurological and systemic examinations were unremarkable. Neuroimaging was also normal. Corticosteroids treatment was started, in addition to oral acyclovir, given for a total course of six weeks. Her ocular motor cranial neuropathy (OMCN) was partially resolved during the follow-up at one year. OMCN can be an isolated complication of HZO, or it may be associated with other neurological complications. Although recovery for OMCN is anticipated, the patient should be closely monitored for the possibility of developing other devastating neurological complications.
  20. Tharmathurai S, Muhammad-Ikmal MK, Razak AA, Che-Hamzah J, Azhany Y, Fazilawati Q, et al.
    J Glaucoma, 2021 May 01;30(5):e205-e212.
    PMID: 33710066 DOI: 10.1097/IJG.0000000000001830
    PRCIS: Depression increases with severity of visual field defect in older adults with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression among patients with POAG and examine the relationship between depression and the severity of POAG in older adults.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred and sixty patients with POAG aged 60 years or above were recruited from 2 tertiary centers located in an urban and suburban area. The participants were stratified according to the severity of their glaucoma based on the scores from the modified Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) to mild, moderate, severe, and end stage. Face-to-face interviews were performed using the Malay Version Geriatric Depression Scale 14 (mGDS-14) questionnaire. Depression is diagnosed when the score is ≥8. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the subscores between the groups. Multifactorial analysis of variance was also applied with relevant confounding factors.

    RESULTS: Depression was detected in 16% of older adults with POAG; a higher percentage of depression was seen in those with end stage disease. There was a significant increase in the mean score of mGDS-14 according to the severity of POAG. There was evidence of an association between depression and severity of visual field defect (P<0.001). There was a significant difference in mGDS-14 score between the pairing of severity of POAG [mild-severe (P=0.003), mild-end stage (P<0.001), moderate-severe (P<0.001), and moderate-end stage (P<0.001)] after adjustment to living conditions, systemic disease, and visual acuity.

    CONCLUSION: Ophthalmologists should be aware that older adults with advanced visual field defects in POAG may have depression. The detection of depression is important to ensure adherence and persistence to the treatment of glaucoma.

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