This study aimed to evaluate the bioactivities and biocompatibilities of porous polylactic acid (PLA) reinforced with cellulose nanofiber (CNF) scaffolds. The in vitro degradation behaviors of the porous PLA/CNF scaffolds were systematically measured for up to 8 weeks in a phosphate-buffered saline medium at 37 °C. The reinforcement of CNF resisted the biodegradation of the scaffolds. The in vitro cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of the scaffolds were determined using the Beas2B American Type Culture Collection cells. The 3-(4,5-cimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide cytotoxicity and proliferation tests showed that the scaffolds were non-toxic, and epithelial cells grew well on the scaffold after 7 days of culture, whereas the percentage of cell proliferation on the PLA/CNF15 scaffold was the largest, 130 %. A scratch wound-healing assay was performed to evaluate the suitability of the scaffolds for cell migration. The results demonstrated that the scaffolds exhibited good cell migration towards nearly complete wound closure.
A packaging material that is environment-friendly with excellent mechanical and physicochemical properties, biodegradable and ultraviolet (UV) protection and thermal stability was prepared to reduce plastic waste. Six different concentrations of Pennisetum purpureum/Napier cellulose nanowhiskers (NWCs) (i.e. 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 wt%) were used to reinforce polylactic acid (PLA) by a solvent casting method. The resulting bionanocomposite film samples were characterised in terms of their morphology, chemical structure, crystallinity, thermal degradation and stability, light transmittance, water absorption, biodegradability, and physical and mechanical properties. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy showed the excellent dispersion of NWC in the PLA matrix occurred with NWC concentrations of 0.5-1.5 wt%. All the bionanocomposite film samples exhibited good thermal stability at approximately 343-359 °C. The highest water absorption was 1.94%. The lowest transparency at λ800 was 16.16% for the PLA/3.0% NWC bionanocomposite film, which also has the lowest UVA and UVB transmittance of 7.49% and 4.02%, respectively, making it suitable for packaging materials. The PLA/1.0% NWC film exhibited the highest crystallinity of 50.09% and high tensile strength and tensile modulus of 21.22 MPa and 11.35 MPa, respectively.
The in vitro degradation and mechanical properties of a 3D porous Pennisetum purpureum (PP)/polylactic acid (PLA)-based scaffold were investigated. In this study, composite scaffolds with PP to PLA ratios of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% were immersed in a PBS solution at 37°C for 40 days. Compression tests were conducted to evaluate the compressive strength and modulus of the scaffolds, according to ASTM F451-95. The compression strength of the scaffolds was found to increase from 1.94 to 9.32MPa, while the compressive modulus increased from 1.73 to 5.25MPa as the fillers' content increased from 0wt% to 30wt%. Moreover, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction were employed to observe and analyse the microstructure and fibre-matrix interface. Interestingly, the degradation rate was reduced for the PLA/PP20scaffold, though insignificantly, this could be attributed to the improved mechanical properties and stronger fibre-matrix interface. Microstructure changes after degradation were observed using FESEM. The FESEM results indicated that a strong fibre-matrix interface was formed in the PLA/PP20scaffold, which reflected the addition of P. purpureum into PLA decreasing the degradation rate compared to in pure PLA scaffolds. The results suggest that the P. purpureum/PLA scaffold degradation rate can be altered and controlled to meet requirements imposed by a given tissue engineering application.
This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the dielectric and physicochemical properties of the porous hydroxyapatite/cornstarch (HAp/Cs) composites in a new perspective. The porous composites have been characterized via SEM, FTIR, XRD and dielectric spectroscopy. The dielectric permittivity spectra were obtained in Ku-band (12.4-18.0 GHz) and it was correlated with the physicochemical properties of the porous HAp/Cs. Porous HAp/Cs composites exhibits low ε' and negative ε″, which influenced by the microstructural morphology, interaction between Hap and Cs, as well as crystalline features due to the various proportion of the HAp/Cs. The physicochemical effect of the composites results in the dielectric polarization and energy loss. This phenomenon indicates the presence of the three obvious relaxation responses in the ε' spectrum (13.2-14.0, 15.2-16.0, and 16.6-17.4 GHz) and the negative behaviours in the ε″ spectrum. The relationships between physicochemical and dielectric properties of the porous composite facilitate the development of the non-destructive microwave evaluation test for the porous composite.
An investigation on relationship among the physicochemical, optical and dielectric properties of the hydroxyapatite/cornstarch (HA/Cs) composites with the starch proportion of 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 wt% is presented in this work. The HA/Cs composites have been characterized via FTIR, XRD, DRS and impedance analyzer. This work depicts that the strong interaction is exhibited between the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and starch as the starch proportion increases. This increment trend results in the higher crystallinity of the HA/Cs composites. The highly crystallized HA/Cs with hydroxyapatite nucleation center presents low optical properties (diffuse reflectance and optical band gap energy). The HA/Cs composite with 80 wt% starch proportion (H2C8) show higher dielectric properties (dielectric constant, loss factor and conductivity) due to the stronger interfacial interaction and close-packed HA/Cs crystalline structure. The relationship among the physicochemical, optical and dielectric properties of the HA/Cs composite is studied in this work for potential of instrumentation design.
Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been widely used as a scaffold in tissue engineering. HA possesses high mechanical stress and exhibits particularly excellent biocompatibility owing to its similarity to natural bone. Nonetheless, this ceramic scaffold has limited applications due to its apparent brittleness. Therefore, this had presented some difficulties when shaping implants out of HA and for sustaining a high mechanical load. Fortunately, these drawbacks can be improved by combining HA with other biomaterials. Starch was heavily considered for biomedical device applications in favor of its low cost, wide availability, and biocompatibility properties that complement HA. This review provides an insight into starch/HA composites used in the fabrication of bone tissue scaffolds and numerous factors that influence the scaffold properties. Moreover, an alternative characterization of scaffolds via dielectric and free space measurement as a potential contactless and nondestructive measurement method is also highlighted.