• 1 Biomedical Electronic Engineering Program, School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Arau 02600, Perlis, Malaysia
  • 2 Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Dengkil 43800, Selangor, Malaysia
  • 3 Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Microwave Research Institute (MRI), Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam 40450, Selangor, Malaysia
  • 4 Bioprocess Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugor 11800, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
  • 5 Bioprocessing and Biomanufacturing Research Centre, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
Materials (Basel), 2021 Apr 14;14(8).
PMID: 33919814 DOI: 10.3390/ma14081960


Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been widely used as a scaffold in tissue engineering. HA possesses high mechanical stress and exhibits particularly excellent biocompatibility owing to its similarity to natural bone. Nonetheless, this ceramic scaffold has limited applications due to its apparent brittleness. Therefore, this had presented some difficulties when shaping implants out of HA and for sustaining a high mechanical load. Fortunately, these drawbacks can be improved by combining HA with other biomaterials. Starch was heavily considered for biomedical device applications in favor of its low cost, wide availability, and biocompatibility properties that complement HA. This review provides an insight into starch/HA composites used in the fabrication of bone tissue scaffolds and numerous factors that influence the scaffold properties. Moreover, an alternative characterization of scaffolds via dielectric and free space measurement as a potential contactless and nondestructive measurement method is also highlighted.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.