Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 129 in total

  1. Flora B, Kumar R, Tiwari P, Kumar A, Ruokolainen J, Narasimhan AK, et al.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2023 Jun;142:105845.
    PMID: 37060714 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2023.105845
    A successful attempt has been made to improve the mechanical properties of Hydroxyapatite (HAp) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite nanoparticles (NPs). Various proportions of HAp and rGO were synthesized to improve the mechanical properties. HAp NPs were prepared using the wet precipitation method and further calcined to form crystalline particles. The physicochemical characterization of the HAp NPs revealed that the crystalline size and percentage of crystallinity were calculated to be 42.49 ± 1.2 nm and 44% post calcination. Furthermore, the rGO-HA composites were prepared using ball milling and obtained in the shape of pellets with different ratios of rGO (10, 20, 30, 40, 50% wt.). The mechanical properties have been evaluated through a Universal testing machine. Compared to calcined HAp (cHAp), the strength of variants significantly enhanced with the increased concentration of rGO. The compressive strength of HA-rGO with the ratio of the concentration of 60:40% by weight is a maximum of about 10.39 ± 0.43 MPa. However, the porosity has also been bolstered by increasing the concentration of rGO, which has been evaluated through the liquid displacement method. The mean surface roughness of the composites has also been evaluated from the images through Image J (an image analysis program).
    Matched MeSH terms: Durapatite/chemistry
  2. Akram M, Alshemary AZ, Goh YF, Wan Ibrahim WA, Lintang HO, Hussain R
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 Nov 1;56:356-62.
    PMID: 26249601 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.06.040
    We have successfully used continuous microwave flow synthesis (CMFS) technique for the template free synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite. The continuous microwave flow reactor consisted of a modified 2.45GHz household microwave, peristaltic pumps and a Teflon coil. This cost effective and efficient system was exploited to produce semi-crystalline phase pure nano-sized hydroxyapatite. Effect of microwave power, retention time and the concentration of reactants on the phase purity, degree of crystallinity and surface area of the final product was studied in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study the phase purity and composition of the product, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the effect of process parameters on the morphology of hydroxyapatite. The TEM analysis confirmed the formation of spherical particles at low microwave power; however the morphology of the particles changed to mesoporous needle and rod-like structure upon exposing the reaction mixture to higher microwave power and longer retention time inside the microwave. The in-vitro ion dissolution behavior of the as synthesized hydroxyapatite was studied by determining the amount of Ca(2+) ion released in SBF solution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Durapatite/chemical synthesis*; Durapatite/chemistry
  3. Beh CY, Cheng EM, Mohd Nasir NF, Khor SF, Eng SK, Abdul Majid MS, et al.
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 2021 Oct 15;600:187-198.
    PMID: 34015511 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2021.03.158
    An investigation on relationship among the physicochemical, optical and dielectric properties of the hydroxyapatite/cornstarch (HA/Cs) composites with the starch proportion of 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 wt% is presented in this work. The HA/Cs composites have been characterized via FTIR, XRD, DRS and impedance analyzer. This work depicts that the strong interaction is exhibited between the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and starch as the starch proportion increases. This increment trend results in the higher crystallinity of the HA/Cs composites. The highly crystallized HA/Cs with hydroxyapatite nucleation center presents low optical properties (diffuse reflectance and optical band gap energy). The HA/Cs composite with 80 wt% starch proportion (H2C8) show higher dielectric properties (dielectric constant, loss factor and conductivity) due to the stronger interfacial interaction and close-packed HA/Cs crystalline structure. The relationship among the physicochemical, optical and dielectric properties of the HA/Cs composite is studied in this work for potential of instrumentation design.
    Matched MeSH terms: Durapatite*
  4. Kim J, Sambudi NS, Cho K
    J Environ Manage, 2019 Feb 01;231:788-794.
    PMID: 30419434 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.10.100
    Owing to their high-risk factor, many attempts have been made to remove radionuclides from water. Sr2+ ions are the target of removal by synthesized hydroxyapatite in this research. A facile method for synthesizing high-surface-area hydroxyapatite by in-situ precipitation using excess diammonium phosphate solution and without any additive was developed. The highest surface area achieved using this method was 177.00 m2/g, and the synthesized hydroxyapatite was also mesoporous. The effects of different pH, temperatures, and ion concentrations during synthesis on the properties of the hydroxyapatite were assessed, and it was found that a low temperature and high pH were optimal for synthesizing high-surface-area hydroxyapatite. The maximum strontium removal capacity of 28.51 mg/g was achieved when the pH-7.5 solution was used. This performance is competitive in comparison with previously developed synthesized materials. Synthesized hydroxyapatite could effectively remove radioactive strontium from an aqueous solution for nuclear waste management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Durapatite*
  5. Daood U, Fawzy AS
    Dent Mater, 2020 03;36(3):456-467.
    PMID: 32008748 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2020.01.005
    OBJECTIVE: The aim is to investigate the potential significance of combining minimally invasive high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) with hydroxyapatite (HA) nanorods treatment for the remineralization of demineralized coronal dentine-matrix.

    METHODS: HA having nanorods structure were synthetized using ultrasonication with precipitation method. HA nanorods were characterized by TEM for average-size/shape. Following phosphoric acid demineralization, dentine specimens were treated with HA-nanorods with/without subsequent HIFU exposure for 5 s, 10 s and 20 s then stored in artificial saliva for 1-month. Dentine specimens were characterized using different SEM and Raman spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the biochemical stability and HA-nanorods were examined using ATR-FTIR to observe attachment of nanoparticles. Also, surface nanoindentation properties were evaluated using AFM in tapping-mode.

    RESULTS: HA-nanorods displayed well-defined, homogenous plate-like nanostructure. TEM revealed intact collagen-fibrils network structure with high density due to obliteration of interfibrillar spaces with clear evidence of remineralization in combined HA/HIFU treatment. With HA-nanorods treatment collagen-network structure was visible, consisting of fibrils interlaced into a compact pattern with evidence of minerals deposition. AFM investigation revealed clear mineral formation with the increase of HIFU exposure time. Bands associated with inorganic phase dominate well in HIFU exposed specimens with PO stretching within dentine mineral identified at 960 cm-1. Characteristic dentine structure for control and HIFU 20 s specimens is reflected as oscillatory mean Amide-I intensity with measurement giving a precise sinusoidal response of polarization angle β within dentinal tissue. Nanoindentation testing showed a gradual significant increase in elastic-modulus with the increase in HIFU exposure time after 1-month storage. FTIR spectrum of the HIFU exposed dentine displayed bands at 1650 cm-1, 1580 cm-1 and 1510 cm-1 that can be attributed to Amide-I, II and III.

    SIGNIFICANCE: The synergetic effect of HIFU exposure on remineralization potential of demineralized dentine-matrix following nano-hydroxyapatite treatment was revealed. This synergetic effect is dependent on HIFU exposure time.

    Matched MeSH terms: Durapatite*
  6. Iswarya S, Theivasanthi T, Gopinath SCB
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2023 Dec;148:106189.
    PMID: 37852086 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2023.106189
    Sodium alginate/hydroxyapatite/Nano cellulose (SA/HA/NC) nanocomposite films that possess good biocompatibility for bone tissue engineering are prepared by a simple solution casting. HA is one of the most frequently used bioceramic materials to achieve a high biocompatibility. The bionanocomposite films are analysed by XRD, SEM, EDAX and FTIR studies. XRD confirms the existence of fillers in the polymer. FTIR spectrum shows the different functional modes in the bionanocomposite films. The morphology of fillers and bionanocomposite films are obtained through SEM. The inclusion of NC with different concentrations into the biopolymer film improves the tensile strength. As a result, the loading of 5 wt % of NC and 10 wt% of HA in the SA polymer shows high tensile strength when compared to the pure SA, SA filled with 10 wt% of HA and SA loaded with 10 wt% of HA and inclusion of NC (0.5 and 2.5 wt%). The tensile strength (TS) of bionanocomposite film with 10 wt % of HA is increased by 17%. TS of bionanocomposite film with 0.5 and 2.5 wt% of NC is increased by 177 and 277%, whereas TS of bionanocomposite film loaded 5 wt% of NC is increased by 331%. The swelling, biodegradation and biomineralization tests suggest that this bionanocomposite films are hopeful biomaterials for bone tissue engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Durapatite*
  7. Bang LT, Long BD, Othman R
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:969876.
    PMID: 24723840 DOI: 10.1155/2014/969876
    The present study investigates the chemical composition, solubility, and physical and mechanical properties of carbonate hydroxyapatite (CO3Ap) and silicon-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (Si-CO3Ap) which have been prepared by a simple precipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques were used to characterize the formation of CO3Ap and Si-CO3Ap. The results revealed that the silicate (SiO4(4-)) and carbonate (CO3(2-)) ions competed to occupy the phosphate (PO4(3-)) site and also entered simultaneously into the hydroxyapatite structure. The Si-substituted CO3Ap reduced the powder crystallinity and promoted ion release which resulted in a better solubility compared to that of Si-free CO3Ap. The mean particle size of Si-CO3Ap was much finer than that of CO3Ap. At 750°C heat-treatment temperature, the diametral tensile strengths (DTS) of Si-CO3Ap and CO3Ap were about 10.8 ± 0.3 and 11.8 ± 0.4 MPa, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Durapatite/chemical synthesis*; Durapatite/chemistry*
  8. Hameed HA, Hasan HA, Luddin N, Husein A, Ariffin A, Alam MK
    Biomed Res Int, 2022;2022:3675703.
    PMID: 35496039 DOI: 10.1155/2022/3675703
    AIM: To investigate and compare the cell cytotoxicity, proliferation, cell attachment, and morphology of human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB) cells of coated samples (titanium nanocopper (Ti Cu), titanium nanohydroxyapatite (Ti HA) and titanium nanocopper ion doped hydroxyapatite (Ti Cu/HA) and uncoated samples (Ti) in order to assess the suitability of these surface modifications on Ti-6Al-7Nb for dental implant application.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxicity was studied by examining the hFOB cell response by MTT assessment. The cell morphology was evaluated by inverted microscopy and observed under scanning electronic microscopy (SEM).

    RESULTS: MTT assay results displayed that the Cu content on the surface of Ti-6Al-7Nb alloys did not produce any cytotoxic effect on cell viability. The cell viability rate in all samples ranges from 97% to 126%, indicating that hFOB cells grew at a high proliferation rate. However, no significant differences in cell viability were observed between Ti and Ti Cu and between Ti HA and Ti Cu/HA groups. Microscopic examination demonstrated no difference in the cell morphology of hFOB among all samples. In addition, SEM observation indicated favorable adhesion and spreading of the cells on the coated and uncoated samples.

    CONCLUSIONS: The surface modification of Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy with Cu, HA, and Cu/HA exhibits good cell biocompatibility, and the Cu has no influence on the cell proliferation and differentiation of hFOB.

    Matched MeSH terms: Durapatite
  9. Md Yusop AH, Wan Ali WFF, Jamaludin FH, Szali Januddi F, Sarian MN, Saad N, et al.
    Biotechnol J, 2024 Mar;19(3):e2300464.
    PMID: 38509814 DOI: 10.1002/biot.202300464
    The present study evaluates the corrosion behavior of poly[xylitol-(1,12-dodecanedioate)](PXDD)-HA coated porous iron (PXDD140/HA-Fe) and its cell-material interaction aimed for temporary bone scaffold applications. The physicochemical analyses show that the addition of 20 wt.% HA into the PXDD polymers leads to a higher crystallinity and lower surface roughness. The corrosion assessments of the PXDD140/HA-Fe evaluated by electrochemical methods and surface chemistry analysis indicate that HA decelerates Fe corrosion due to a lower hydrolysis rate following lower PXDD content and being more crystalline. The cell viability and cell death mode evaluations of the PXDD140/HA-Fe exhibit favorable biocompatibility as compared to bare Fe and PXDD-Fe scaffolds owing to HA's bioactive properties. Thus, the PXDD140/HA-Fe scaffolds possess the potential to be used as a biodegradable bone implant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Durapatite/chemistry
  10. Qamar Z, Haji Abdul Rahim ZB, Chew HP, Fatima T
    J Pak Med Assoc, 2017 Jan;67(1):116-120.
    PMID: 28065967
    Dental enamel, an avascular, irreparable, outermost and protective layer of the human clinical crown has a potential to withstand the physico-chemical effects and forces. These properties are being regulated by a unique association among elements occurring in the crystallites setup of human dental enamel. Calcium and phosphate are the major components (hydroxyapatite) in addition to some trace elements which have a profound effect on enamel. The current review was planned to determine the aptitude of various trace elements to substitute and their influence on human dental enamel in terms of physical and chemical properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Durapatite/analysis; Durapatite/chemistry
  11. Bakhsheshi-Rad HR, Hamzah E, Kasiri-Asgarani M, Jabbarzare S, Iqbal N, Abdul Kadir MR
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Mar;60:526-537.
    PMID: 26706560 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.11.057
    The present study addressed the synthesis of a bi-layered nanostructured fluorine-doped hydroxyapatite (nFHA)/polycaprolactone (PCL) coating on Mg-2Zn-3Ce alloy via a combination of electrodeposition (ED) and dip-coating methods. The nFHA/PCL composite coating is composed of a thick (70-80 μm) and porous layer of PCL that uniformly covered the thin nFHA film (8-10 μm) with nanoneedle-like microstructure and crystallite size of around 70-90 nm. Electrochemical measurements showed that the nFHA/PCL composite coating presented a high corrosion resistance (R(p)=2.9×10(3) kΩ cm(2)) and provided sufficient protection for a Mg substrate against galvanic corrosion. The mechanical integrity of the nFHA/PCL composite coatings immersed in SBF for 10 days showed higher compressive strength (34% higher) compared with the uncoated samples, indicating that composite coatings can delay the loss of compressive strength of the Mg alloy. The nFHA/PCL coating indicted better bonding strength (6.9 MPa) compared to PCL coating (2.2 MPa). Immersion tests showed that nFHA/PCL composite-coated alloy experienced much milder corrosion attack and more nucleation sites for apatite compared with the PCL coated and uncoated samples. The bi-layered nFHA/PCL coating can be a good alternative method for the control of corrosion degradation of biodegradable Mg alloy for implant applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Durapatite/chemistry*
  12. Jamlus SA, Jauhari I, Khalid HM
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2014 Oct;43:566-72.
    PMID: 25175251 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2014.06.034
    In this study, HA is superplastically embedded into Titanium substrate and the sample is subsequently deformed superplastically until 70% deformation degree. The former process is termed as superplastic embedment (SPE) while the later as superplastic deformation (SPD). After the SPE, HA is successfully embedded into the substrate, forming a layer with a thickness of about 249 nm. After the SPD the embedded HA layer thickness decreases to 111 nm. The SPD sample is then immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) to evaluate its biological properties. A newly grown apatite is formed as a result of the immersion and the HA layer thickness increases with immersion time. The cohesion and adhesion strength within the HA coating and coating-substrate interface of the SPD samples before and after immersion in the SBF is evaluated through the nanoscratch test technique. The results indicate that the HA layer after SPD is still strong even though after being exposed in SBF environment for quite some time. The study suggests that the superplastically embedded HA nanolayer is still intact mechanically and functioning appropriately as biological activity base even after the SPD process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Durapatite/chemistry*
  13. Bajuri MY, Selvanathan N, Dzeidee Schaff FN, Abdul Suki MH, Ng AMH
    Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2021 06;18(3):377-385.
    PMID: 34043210 DOI: 10.1007/s13770-021-00343-2
    BACKGROUND: Managing massive bone defects, a great challenge to orthopaedics reconstructive surgery. The problem arise is the supply of suitable bone is limited with many complications. Tissue-engineered hydroxyapatite bone (TEHB) scaffold impregnated with osteoprogenitor cells developed as an alternative to promote bone regeneration.

    METHODS: This animal protocol has been approved by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Animal Ethical Committee. The TEHB scaffold prepared from hydroxyapatite using gel casting method. A total of six adolescent female sheep were chosen for this study. Later, all the sheep were euthanized in a proper manner and the bone harvested for biomechanical study. Bone marrow was collected from iliac crest of the sheep and bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) isolated and cultured. BMSCs then cultured in osteogenic medium for osteoprogenitor cells development and the plasma collected was seeded with osteoprogenitor cells mixed with calcium chloride. Bone defect of 3 cm length of tibia bone created from each sheep leg and implanted with autologous and TEHB scaffold in 2 different groups of sheep. Wound site was monitored weekly until the wound completely healed and conventional X-ray performed at week 1 and 24. Shear test was conducted to determine the shear force on the autologous bone and TEHB scaffold after implantation for 24 weeks.

    RESULTS: All of the sheep survived without any complications during the study period and radiograph showed new bone formation. Later, the bone harvested was for biomechanical study. The highest shear force for the autologous group was 13 MPa and the lowest was 5 MPa while for the scaffold group, the highest was 10 MPa and the lowest was 3 MPa. Although, proximal and distal interface of autologous bone graft shows higher shear strength compared to the TEHB scaffold but there is no significant difference in both groups, p value > 0.05. Histologically in both proximal and distal interface in both arms shows bone healing and woven bone formation.

    CONCLUSION: TEHB scaffold impregnated with osteoprogenitor cells has the potential to be developed as a bone substitute in view of its strength and capability to promote bone regeneration.

    Matched MeSH terms: Durapatite*
  14. Kattimani VS, Prathigudupu RS, Jairaj A, Khader MA, Rajeev K, Khader AA
    J Contemp Dent Pract, 2019 Aug 01;20(8):987-993.
    PMID: 31797859
    Since a long time, the preservation of the socket is emphasized for various reasons. Many studies have suggested the ridge preservation through socket grafting using various bone graft substitute materials (GSMs). But none of the studies suggested the material of choice for the grafting. So, the systematic review was planned to analyze the outcomes of synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHA) graft material for socket preservation. The review was aimed to determine the existing evidence for the use of SHA GSM for grafting and its usefulness.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The literature search was performed for the studies published in the English language independently by all four authors (search team) in the Medline database through the PubMed search engine for the past 5 years. The study involved predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria for the search. The final lists of clinical trials were analyzed to determine the existing evidence and suggested the mechanism of action.

    REVIEW RESULTS: The search resulted in 117 titles. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of seven studies were found eligible for this systematic review. Out of seven, two studies were found eligible for meta-analysis whereas remaining included for the systematic review.

    CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis favors socket grafting compared to control in terms of preservation of existing bone height and width. The SHA grafting showed successful bone regeneration with less connective tissue component. The histomorphometric evaluation showed a good bone regeneration associated with SHA than xenograft. Within the limitations of this meta-analysis, the synthetic GSM can be used for socket grafting.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: In the wake of increasing graft materials in the market and different origin raw material sources for the preparation of graft materials, clinicians are in dilemma for selection and its use. The success of grafting depends on the selection of appropriate material with a suitable calcium/phosphate (Ca/P) ratio. The review provided available evidence for the use of SHA.

    Matched MeSH terms: Durapatite*
  15. Zakaria SM, Sharif Zein SH, Othman MR, Yang F, Jansen JA
    Tissue Eng Part B Rev, 2013 Oct;19(5):431-41.
    PMID: 23557483 DOI: 10.1089/ten.TEB.2012.0624
    Hydroxyapatite is a biocompatible material that is extensively used in the replacement and regeneration of bone material. In nature, nanostructured hydroxyapatite is the main component present in hard body tissues. Hence, the state of the art in nanotechnology can be exploited to synthesize nanophase hydroxyapatite that has similar properties with natural hydroxyapatite. Sustainable methods to mass-produce synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are being developed to meet the increasing demand for these materials and to further develop the progress made in hard tissue regeneration, especially for orthopedic and dental applications. This article reviews the current developments in nanophase hydroxyapatite through various manufacturing techniques and modifications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Durapatite/chemistry*
  16. Sopyan I, Rosli A, Raihana MF
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:81-2.
    PMID: 19024994
    A novel hydrothermal process has been developed various hydroxyapatite(HA) powder. The HA powder was investigated in different calcination temperatures over the range of 200 degrees C-800 degrees C. TG/DTA and XRD analysis revealed that at temperatures of 700-800 degrees C the decomposition processes and phase changes took place. It is due to the appearance of TCP phase substituting the HA phase. FESEM observation showed that the produced hydroxyapatite powder was extraordinarily fine with nanosize primary particles and almost evenly spherical in shaped. Its high purity proved that the powder fulfills medical requirement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Durapatite/chemistry*
  17. Tan KK, Tan GH, Shamsul BS, Chua KH, Ng MHA, Ruszymah BHI, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl C:53-8.
    PMID: 16381285
    Spinal fusion using autologous bone graft is performed in an increasing rate for many spinal disorders. However, graft harvesting procedure is associated with prolonged operation time and potential donor site morbidity. We produced an engineered 'bone graft' substitute by using porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold seeded with autologous bone marrow osteoprogenitor cells (OPCs) and fibrin. This obviates bone graft harvesting, thus eliminates donor site morbidity and shortens the operation time. The aim of this study is to evaluate Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics as scaffold for autologous tissue engineered bone construct for spinal fusion in a sheep model. The sheep's marrow was aspirated from iliac crest. The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) were cultured for several passages in the presence of growth and differentiation factors to increase the number of OPCs. After the cultures reached confluence, they were trypsinized and seeded on Hydroxyapatite scaffold (HA). Approximately 5 million cells were generated after 3 weeks of culture. Microscopically, very tight Colony Forming Units (CFU-Fs) were seen on monolayer culture. The Von Kossa and Alizarin Red staining of monolayer culture showed positive mineralization areas; indicating the presence of OPCs. Sheep underwent a posterolateral spinal fusion in which scaffolds with or without OPCs seeded were implanted on both sides of the lumbar spine (L1-L2). Intended fusion segments were immobilized using wires. At the end of third month, the fusion constructs were harvested for histological examination. Fibrous tissue infiltration found in the inter-connecting pores of plain HA ceramics indicates inefficient new bone regeneration. New bone was found surrounding the HA ceramics seeded with autologous cells. The new bone is probably formed by the sheep BMMSCs that were initially encapsulating HA while it remained intact. The new bone is naturally fused with the vertebrae. In conclusion, the incorporation of autologous bone marrow cells improved the effectiveness of HA ceramics as 'bone graft' substitute for spinal fusion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Durapatite*
  18. Kannan TP, Nik Ahmad Shah NL, Azlina A, Samsudin AR, Narazah MY, Salleh M
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:115-6.
    PMID: 15468845
    This study evaluates the cytotoxic and mutagenic effect of synthetic hydroxyapatite granules (source: School of Material and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia) in the bone marrow cells of mice. Mice are exposed to synthetic hydroxyapatite granules, the bone marrow cells are collected and observed for chromosome aberrations. No chromosome aberrations were noticed in the animals exposed to distilled water (negative control) and to the test substance, synthetic hydroxyapatite granules (treatment) groups. Chromosome aberrations were observed in the animals exposed to Mitomycin C (positive control group). There was no indication of cytotoxicity due to synthetic hydroxyapatite granules in the animals as revealed by the mitotic index. Hence, synthetic hydroxyapatite granules are considered non-mutagenic under the prevailing test conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Durapatite/toxicity*
  19. Shah RK, Fahmi MN, Mat AH, Zainal AA
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:75-6.
    PMID: 15468826
    Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been earmarked as suitable for implantation within the human of its chemical makeup to human bone. In this paper, HA powders were synthesized via the precipitation method where phosphoric acid (H3PO4) was titrated into calcium hydroxide solution [Ca(OH)2]. Two parameters such as temperature and stirring rate were identified as factors that influenced the amount and purity of HA powder. Phase identification of the synthesized powder was done using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results show that HA phase can be synthesized from this titration process of Ca(OH)2 and H3PO4 with yield amount of HA powder around 45 - 61 grams but with less than hundred percent purity. In order to study the effect of heat treatment to HA crystals structure, HA powder was calcined at 850 degrees C for 2 hours. It's found that the degree of crystallinity increases after calcination because of lattice expansion when the materials were heated at higher temperature
    Matched MeSH terms: Durapatite/chemical synthesis*
  20. Mohamed SH, Arifin A, Mohd Ishak ZA, Nizam A, Samsudin AR
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:25-6.
    PMID: 15468801
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of powder-to-liquid ratio on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the tensile properties of denture base material prepared from poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and hydroxyapatite (HA) previously treated with 3-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (gamma-MPS). Specimens for mechanical testing were prepared by adding composites powder (PMMA, BPO and HA) to the monomer (MMA and EGDMA) followed by hand mixing as in dental laboratory description usage. The glass transition temperature was studied by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was observed that the tensile properties and the Tg were affected by the powder-to-liquid ratio. The mechanical characterization of the materials were performed by using single edge notch-tension (SEN-T) specimens; the fracture toughness was slightly higher in formulation which contained HA filler compared to commercial denture base material.
    Matched MeSH terms: Durapatite*
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