Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 138 in total

  1. Al-Maqtari AA, Razak AA, Hamdi M
    Dent Mater J, 2014;33(4):458-65.
    PMID: 25087658
    This study aimed at investigating and establishing stress distributions in graded multilayered zirconia/alumina ceramic cores and at veneer-core-cement-dentin interfaces, using finite element analysis (FEA), to facilitate the structural design of ceramic cores through computer modeling. An intact maxillary premolar was digitized using CT scanning. An imaging software, Mimics, was used to reconstruct 3D models based on computed tomography (CT) data saved in DICOM format. Eight different 3D models were created for FEA, where each 3D model was meshed and its bottom boundaries constrained. A static load was applied in the oblique direction. The materials were assumed to be isotropic and homogeneous. Highest von Mises stress values were found in areas directly below the load application point, and stress gradually decreased in occlusal loading direction from the external surface toward the dentin. Stress levels occurring at veneer-ceramic core-cement-dentin interfaces were shown to be lower in multilayered ceramic cores than in single-layer models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ceramics*
  2. Lew KS, Othman R, Ishikawa K, Yeoh FY
    J Biomater Appl, 2012 Sep;27(3):345-58.
    PMID: 21862511 DOI: 10.1177/0885328211406459
    This review summarises the major developments of macroporous bioceramics used mainly for repairing bone defects. Porous bioceramics have been receiving attention ever since their larger surface area was reported to be beneficial for the formation of more rigid bonds with host tissues. The study of porous bioceramics is important to overcome the less favourable bonds formed between dense bioceramics and host tissues, especially in healing bone defects. Macroporous bioceramics, which have been studied extensively, include hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, alumina, and zirconia. The pore size and interconnections both have significant effects on the growth rate of bone tissues. The optimum pore size of hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone growth was found to be 300 µm. The existence of interconnections between pores is critical during the initial stage of tissue ingrowth on porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds. Furthermore, pore formation on β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds also allowed the impregnation of growth factors and cells to improve bone tissues growth significantly. The formation of vascularised tissues was observed on macroporous alumina but did not take place in the case of dense alumina due to its bioinert nature. A macroporous alumina coating on scaffolds was able to improve the overall mechanical properties, and it enabled the impregnation of bioactive materials that could increase the bone growth rate. Despite the bioinertness of zirconia, porous zirconia was useful in designing scaffolds with superior mechanical properties after being coated with bioactive materials. The pores in zirconia were believed to improve the bone growth on the coated system. In summary, although the formation of pores in bioceramics may adversely affect mechanical properties, the advantages provided by the pores are crucial in repairing bone defects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ceramics*
  3. Golkar E, Prabuwono AS, Patel A
    Sensors (Basel), 2012;12(11):14774-91.
    PMID: 23202186 DOI: 10.3390/s121114774
    This paper presents a novel, real-time defect detection system, based on a best-fit polynomial interpolation, that inspects the conditions of outer surfaces. The defect detection system is an enhanced feature extraction method that employs this technique to inspect the flatness, waviness, blob, and curvature faults of these surfaces. The proposed method has been performed, tested, and validated on numerous pipes and ceramic tiles. The results illustrate that the physical defects such as abnormal, popped-up blobs are recognized completely, and that flames, waviness, and curvature faults are detected simultaneously.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ceramics
  4. Irzaman, Jamal, Z., Idris, M.S., Kurnia, D., Barmawi, M.
    The specimens used were CaCO3 (Sigma Aldrich, purity 99.9 %). We have 23 parameters and 20 iterations, including two theta zero error, scale factor, thermal effect, coefficients for polynomial describing the background; U, V, W and mixing parameters of the profile peak function, lattice constants, positional parameters and overall isotropic temperature factors. Most the samples show that the crystal structure are rhombohedral with lattice constants a = b = 4.981 Å, c = 17.044 Å and space group is R3C. The microstrain (K) and the particle size (V) of CaCO3 ceramic were calculated using 10 the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of diffraction peaks from (0 1 2), (1 0 4), (0 0 6), (1 1 0), (1 1 3), (2 0 2), (0 1 8), (1 1 6), (2 2 1 ), (1 2 2) crystal planes are 2.1 x 10-2 and
    362 nm, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ceramics
  5. Islam MT, Ullah MH, Singh MJ, Faruque MRI
    Materials (Basel), 2013 Jul 31;6(8):3226-3240.
    PMID: 28811432 DOI: 10.3390/ma6083226
    A new metasurface superstrate structure (MSS)-loaded dual band microstrip line-fed small patch antenna is presented in this paper. The proposed antenna was designed on a ceramic-filled bioplastic sandwich substrate with a high dielectric constant. The proposed 7 × 6 element, square-shaped, single-sided MSS significantly improved the bandwidth and gain of the proposed antenna. The proposed MSS incorporated a slotted patch antenna that effectively increased the measured operating bandwidth from 13.3% to 18.8% and from 14.8% to 23.2% in the lower and upper bands, respectively. Moreover, the average gain of the proposed MSS-based antenna was enhanced from 2.12 dBi to 3.02 dBi in the lower band and from 4.10 dBi to 5.28 dBi in the upper band compared to the patch antenna alone. In addition to the bandwidth and gain improvements, more directive radiation characteristics were also observed from the MSS antenna compared to the patch itself. The effects of the MSS elements and the ground plane length on the reflection coefficient of the antenna were analyzed and optimized. The overall performance makes the proposed antenna appropriate for RFID and WLAN applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ceramics
  6. Ahams ST, Shaari A, Ahmed R, Pattah NFA, Idris MC, Haq BU
    Sci Rep, 2021 Mar 02;11(1):4980.
    PMID: 33654175 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-84466-5
    The MAX phase materials such as layered ternary carbides that simultaneously exhibit characteristics of metallic and ceramic materials have received substantial interest in recent years. Here, we present a systematic investigation of the electronic, structural stabilities, and elastic properties of Ti3(Al1-nSin)C2 (n = 0,1) MAX phase materials using the ab initio method via a plane-wave pseudopotential approach within generalized-gradient-approximations. The computed electronic band structures and projected density of states show that both Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2 are metallic materials with a high density of states at the Fermi level emanating mainly from Ti-3d. Using the calculated elastic constants, the mechanical stability of the compounds was confirmed following the Born stability criteria for hexagonal structures. The Cauchy pressure and the Pugh's ratio values establish the brittle nature of the Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2 MAX phase materials. Due to their intriguing physical properties, these materials are expected to be suitable for applications such as thermal shock refractories and electrical contact coatings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ceramics
  7. Fayyaz O, Khan A, Shakoor RA, Hasan A, Yusuf MM, Montemor MF, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2021 Mar 05;11(1):5327.
    PMID: 33674680 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-84716-6
    In the present study, the effect of concentration of titanium carbide (TiC) particles on the structural, mechanical, and electrochemical properties of Ni-P composite coatings was investigated. Various amounts of TiC particles (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g L-1) were co-electrodeposited in the Ni-P matrix under optimized conditions and then characterized by employing various techniques. The structural analysis of prepared coatings indicates uniform, compact, and nodular structured coatings without any noticeable defects. Vickers microhardness and nanoindentation results demonstrate the increase in the hardness with an increasing amount of TiC particles attaining its terminal value (593HV100) at the concentration of 1.5 g L-1. Further increase in the concentration of TiC particles results in a decrease in hardness, which can be ascribed to their accumulation in the Ni-P matrix. The electrochemical results indicate the improvement in corrosion protection efficiency of coatings with an increasing amount of TiC particles reaching to ~ 92% at 2.0 g L-1, which can be ascribed to a reduction in the active area of the Ni-P matrix by the presence of inactive ceramic particles. The favorable structural, mechanical, and corrosion protection characteristics of Ni-P-TiC composite coatings suggest their potential applications in many industrial applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ceramics
  8. Mandizadeh S, Soofivand F, Bagheri S, Salavati-Niasari M
    PLoS One, 2017;12(5):e0162891.
    PMID: 28493874 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162891
    In this work, SrCrxFe12-xO19 (x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5) nanostructures were successfully synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method, and different aminoacids were used as green reductants. Various analysis results show that SrCrxFe12-xO19 nanoparticles synthesized successfully.The present study shows that SrCrxFe12-xO19 nanoparticle could be used as adsorbent for the desulfurization of liquid fuels. Increasing of nanoparticles concentration was caused to increase the adsorption rate of sulfur contents of fuel. The adsorption rate of sulfur contents of fuel in various concentrations 4.5, 9.5, and 18.5 g. L -1 of SrCrxFe12-xO19 nanoparticles in solution was estimated about 39, 50, and 62% for 30 min, respectively. The results of catalytic tests reveals that SrCrxFe12-xO19 nanoparticles have the potential to be used as a new kind of semiconductor catalysts for the desulfurization of liquid fuels. Magnetic property of the final sample was measured at room temperature by a vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) and shown that the intrinsic coercivity of product is about 6000 Oe and it exhibits characteristics of single magnetic domains (Mr/ Ms = 0.53).
    Matched MeSH terms: Ceramics/chemical synthesis; Ceramics/chemistry*
  9. Teo PT, Anasyida AS, Basu P, Nurulakmal MS
    Waste Manag, 2014 Dec;34(12):2697-708.
    PMID: 25242607 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2014.08.015
    Recently, various solid wastes from industry such as glass waste, fly ash, sewage sludge and slag have been recycled into various value-added products such as ceramic tile. The conventional solutions of dumping the wastes in landfills or incineration, including in Malaysia are getting obsolete as the annual huge amount of the solid wastes would boost-up disposal cost and may cause permanent damage to the flora and fauna. This recent waste recycling approach is much better and greener as it can resolve problems associated with over-limit storage of industrial wastes and reduce exploration of natural resources for ceramic tile to continuously sustain the nature. Therefore, in this project, an attempt was made to recycle electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste, obtained from Malaysia's steel making industry, into ceramic tile via conventional powder compaction method. The research work was divided into two stages. The first stage was to evaluate the suitability of EAF slag in ceramic tile by varying weight percentage of EAF slag (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%) and ball clay (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%), with no addition of silica and potash feldspar. In the second stage, the weight percentage of EAF slag was fixed at 40 wt.% and the percentage of ball clay (30 wt.% and 40 wt.%), feldspar (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) and silica (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) added was varied accordingly. Results obtained show that as weight percentage of EAF slag increased up to 60 wt.%, the percentage of apparent porosity and water absorption also rose, with a reduction in tile flexural strength and increased porosity. On the other hand, limiting the weight percentage of EAF slag to 40 wt.% while increasing the weight percentage of ball clay led to a higher total percentage of anorthite and wollastonite minerals, resulting in higher flexural strength. It was found that introduction of silica and feldspar further improved the flexural strength due to optimization of densification process. The highest flexural strength, lowest apparent porosity and water absorption of EAF slag based tile was attained at the composition of 40 wt.% EAF slag--30 wt.% ball clay--10 wt.% feldspar--20 wt.% silica. The properties of ceramic tile made with EAF slag waste (up to 40 wt.%), especially flexural strength are comparable to those of commercial ceramic tile and are, therefore, suitable as high flexural strength and heavy-duty green ceramic floor tile. Continuous development is currently underway to improve the properties of tile so that this recycling approach could be one of the potential effective, efficient and sustainable solutions in sustaining our nature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ceramics/analysis*
  10. Hashim SM, Mohamed AR, Bhatia S
    Adv Colloid Interface Sci, 2010 Oct 15;160(1-2):88-100.
    PMID: 20813344 DOI: 10.1016/j.cis.2010.07.007
    There has been tremendous progress in membrane technology for gas separation, in particular oxygen separation from air in the last 20 years. It provides an alternative route to the existing conventional separation processes such as cryogenic distillation and pressure swing adsorption as well as cheaper production of oxygen with high purity. This review presents the recent advances of ceramic membranes for the separation of oxygen from air at high temperature. It covers the issues and problems with respect to the selectivity and separation performance. The paper also presents different approaches applied to overcome these challenges. The future directions of ceramic-based membranes for oxygen separation from air are also presented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ceramics/chemistry*
  11. Santini A, Tiu SH, McGuinness NJ, Aldossary MS
    J Orthod, 2016 Sep;43(3):193-201.
    PMID: 27487476 DOI: 10.1080/14653125.2016.1205310
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the total light energy (TLE) transmission through three types of ceramic brackets with, bracket alone and with the addition of orthodontic adhesive, at different exposure durations, and to compare the microhardness of the cured adhesive.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three different makes of ceramic brackets, Pure Sapphire(M), Clarity™ ADVANCED(P) and Dual Ceramic(P) were used. Eighteen specimens of each make were prepared and allocated to three groups (n = 6). MARC(®)-resin calibrator was used to determine the light curing unit (LCU) tip irradiance (mW/cm(2)) and TLE (J/cm(2)) transmitted through the ceramic brackets, and through ceramic bracket plus Transbond™ XT Light Cure Adhesive, for 5, 10 and 20 s. Vickers-hardness values at the bottom of the cured adhesive were determined. Statistical analysis used one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA); P = 0.05.

    RESULTS: TLE transmission rose significantly among all samples with increasing exposure durations. TLE reaching the adhesive- enamel interface was less than 10 J/cm(2), and through monocrystalline and polycrystalline ceramic brackets was significantly different (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Ceramics*
  12. Alao AR, Mohd Azhari MA
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2021 12;124:104842.
    PMID: 34555624 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2021.104842
    Indentation size effect (ISE) and R-curve behaviour of Li2O-SiO2 and Li2O-2SiO2 glass ceramics are investigated using micro-indentation and indentation-strength (IS) techniques, respectively. Vickers micro-indentations were applied on both materials at the load of 0.10-19.6 N to determine the load influence on the measured hardness. For the IS-measured fracture toughness, the load ranged from 1.96 to 19.6 N. The hardness decreased with increasing load by 20% and 18% on Li2O-SiO2 and Li2O-2SiO2 glass ceramics, respectively, indicating the ISE behaviour on both materials. The fracture toughness increased with the load by 27% and 59% on Li2O-SiO2 and Li2O-2SiO2 glass ceramics, respectively, signifying the R-curve behaviour. The ISE behaviour of both materials was analysed using the Meyer's, Hays-Kendall (HK), proportional specimen resistance (PSR), Nix-Gao (NG), modified PSR (MPSR) and elastic plastic deformation (EPD) models while the R-curve behaviour was analysed by the fractional power law. The Meyer's index of both materials was less than 2, strongly confirming the ISE existence. The HK, PSR and NG models were only suitable to determine intrinsic Vickers hardness for Li2O-2SiO2 glass ceramic while the MPSR and EPD models were successful for both materials. The fractional power law gave higher R-curve steepness for Li2O-2SiO2 than Li2O-SiO2 glass ceramics. Also, material and brittleness indices predicted, respectively, higher quasi-plasticity and better machinability for Li2O-2SiO2 than Li2O-SiO2 glass ceramics indicating superior performance in the former to the latter. Finally, this study presents a new significant insight into the micro-mechanisms of fracture tolerance behaviour of these glass ceramics which is critical to their functional performance as structural ceramics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ceramics*
  13. Wee FH, Malek F, Al-Amani AU, Ghani F
    Sci Rep, 2014;4:3709.
    PMID: 24424254 DOI: 10.1038/srep03709
    The microwave industry has shown increasing interest in electronic ceramic material (ECM) due to its advantages, such as light weight, low cost, low loss, and high dielectric strength. In this paper, simple antennas covered by superstrate layers for 2.30 GHz to 2.50 GHz are proposed. The antennas are compact and have the capability of producing high performance in terms of gain, directivity, and radiation efficiency. Bismuth titanate with high dielectric constant of 21, was utilized as the ECM, while the superstrate layers chosen included a split ring resonator and dielectric material. The superstrate layers were designed for some improvement in the performance of directivity, gain, and return loss. The proposed antennas were simulated and fabricated. The results obtained were small antennas that possess high gain and high directivity with 360°, omni-directional signal transmission that resonant types of conventional dipole antenna cannot achieve. The gain of the antenna with the superstrate layer was enhanced by about 1 dBi over the antenna without a superstrate layer at 2.40 GHz.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ceramics
  14. Ab-Ghani Z, Jaafar W, Foo SF, Ariffin Z, Mohamad D
    J Conserv Dent, 2015 Sep-Oct;18(5):355-9.
    PMID: 26430296 DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.164028
    To evaluate the shear bond strength between the dentin substrate and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing feldspathic ceramic and nano resin ceramics blocks cemented with resin cement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ceramics
  15. Banjuraizah Johar, Hasmaliza Mohamad, Zainal Arifin Ahmad
    α Cordierite is very important phase in MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system because of their very outstanding thermal, chemical and electrical properties. In this presents study nonstoichiometry cordierite (MgO:Al2O3:SiO2 = 3:1.5:5) using 2 different initial raw materials ( (i)mixture of pure oxide, and ii) mainly mixture of minerals) were fabricated and compared in terms of phase transformation and physical properties. Cordierite was prepared by glass method at low melting temperature (1350°C). Low melting temperature has resulted in partly crystalline glass which has possesses higher hardness, required longer milling time and result in contamination from grinding media. However, α-cordierite has successfully crystallized and fully densified at 850°C/2h. Activation energy for densification was investigated from thermal expansion coefficient (TCE) results. Other properties that were discussed included thermal properties using DTA/TGA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ceramics
  16. Cik Rohaida, C.H., Idris, B., Rusnah, M., Mohd Reusmaazran, Y., Narimah, A.B.
    Phase composition of calcium phosphate ceramic is a characteristic directly related to the biological response of implants due to the differences in mechanical and biochemical properties of these compounds. The biodegradation rate of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) can be controlled by altering the HA to β-TCP ratios. In this study the crystalline phase evolution of BCP synthesized via precipitation from aqueous solution of (NH4)2PO4 titrated into heated solution of Ca (NO3)2 was evaluated. The resulting powder was fabricated into porous scaffold using polyurethane foam method. Bulk powders were sintered from 700 - 1400°C to determine the most significant sintering temperature to obtain a stable and well crystallize BCP phases. The porous scaffolds were then sintered at selected temperature and the effects of various sintering times from 5,7,9,11,13 and 15 h were investigated. Bulk powders were characterized by dilatometer, IR analysis and XRD and porous scaffolds were analyzed by XRD and SEMEdx. RIR method was performed to show that the HA to β-TCP ratios were increased with increasing of sintering time and reached the maximum HA value at 11h. It is found that, the possibilities to manipulate the HA to β-TCP ratios in BCP porous scaffold by just controlling the sintering time of the scaffold without controlling the starting powder characteristics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ceramics
  17. Nur Azam Badarulzaman, Lee, Chung Heung, Ahmad Azmin Mohamad, Zainal Arifin Ahmad, Purwadaria, Sunara
    Ni–SiC composite coatings were electrodeposited from a Watts-type bath containing 5 g/l SiC particles in suspension. The particles were dispersed with the aid of mechanical agitation at 75 rpm and 150 rpm. EDX analysis confirmed the existence of Ni and SiC in the coatings. The effects of agitation speed on hardness properties of the coatings were investigated. SEM results showed that lower agitation speed could improve the amount of co-deposited SiC particles and increase the hardness of the composite coatings. The bonding between the Ni metal matrix and the SiC ceramic particles was compact.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ceramics
  18. Yusof Abdullah, Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof, Azali Muhamad, Zaifol Samsu, Nurhaslinda Ee Abdullah
    Boron carbide (B4C) is a ceramic material which is effective to absorb thermal neutron due to wide neutron absorption cross section. In this work, B4C is added into concrete as fine aggregates to test the attenuation properties by getting the attenuation coefficient of the concrete/B4C. The samples of concrete/B4C were exposing to the thermal neutron radiation source (241-Americium-Berylium) at the dos rate of 29.08 mR/h. The result show that the attenuation coefficient of the sample with 20wt% B4C is 0.299cm -1 and the sample without B4C is 0.238cm -1 and hence, concrete/B4C is suitable as a shield for thermal neutron radiation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ceramics
  19. Jamal, Z., Idris, M.S., Irzaman, Barmawi, M.
    Ceramic of BaxSr1-xTiO3 (BST) for x =0.3; 0.5 and 0.7 were successfully deposited by solid solution method. The BST ceramic were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD spectra was recorded on a Philips type PW 3701 diffractometer using CuKD (Oco = 1.54056 Å) radiation at 30 KV and 30 mA (900 watt). The spectra shows that BST ceramic are polycrystalline with tetragonal structure. The lattice constants analysis of the grown ceramics was analyzed by visual basic program. Using Cohen’s and Cramer’s algorithms in visual basic program, , the lattice constants are a = b = 3.877 Å; c = 3.970 Å for Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3 ceramic, a = b = 3.979 Å; c = 3.981 Å. for Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 ceramic and a = b = 3.965 Å; c = 4.005 Å for Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 ceramic, respectively. The reform value of the lattice constant of BST ceramic is possibly associated with the anti site defects of Ba and Sr.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ceramics
  20. Ahmad Zahirani Ahmad Azhar, Hasmaliza Mohamed, Mani Maran Ratnam, Zainal Arifin Ahmad
    The microstructure and mechanical properties of ceramic composites produced from alumina, yttria stabilized zirconia and chromia oxide system was investigated. The Cr2O3 weight percent was varied from 0 wt% to 1.0 wt%. Each batch of composition was mixed, uniaxially pressed to 13mm diameter and sintered at 1600 ◦C for 4 h in pressureless conditions. Studies on the effects of the sample microstructures on their mechanical and physical properties such as fracture toughness and bulk density were carried out. Results show that an addition of 0.6 wt% of Cr2O3 produces the best mechanical properties. Furthermore, microstructural observations show that the Al2O3 grain size is significantly dependent on the amount of Cr2O3 additives used. Maximum value obtained with 0.6 wt % Cr2O3 for the fracture toughness is 5.36 MPa.m1/2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ceramics
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