Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 251 in total

  1. Loganathan K, Chacko JP, Saravanan BS, Vaithilingam B
    J Oral Biol Craniofac Res, 2012 Sep-Dec;2(3):210-2.
    PMID: 25737868 DOI: 10.1016/j.jobcr.2012.10.011
    Even though variety of foreign bodies has been reported in a various locations in the craniofacial region, wooden foreign bodies are uncommon. Appropriate management of wooden foreign bodies is considered essential because of their infectious complications and difficulty in radiographic localization. Even though literature is replete with articles on management of foreign bodies in the craniofacial region, specific management of wooden foreign bodies are rarely reported. The purpose of this article is to report two cases of deeply placed wooden foreign body and a protocol for managing them in the maxillofacial region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones
  2. Fatihhi SJ, Harun MN, Abdul Kadir MR, Abdullah J, Kamarul T, Öchsner A, et al.
    Ann Biomed Eng, 2015 Oct;43(10):2487-502.
    PMID: 25828397 DOI: 10.1007/s10439-015-1305-8
    Fatigue assessment of the trabecular bone has been developed to give a better understanding of bone properties. While most fatigue studies are relying on uniaxial compressive load as the method of assessment, in various cases details are missing, or the uniaxial results are not very realistic. In this paper, the effect of three different load histories from physiological loading applied on the trabecular bone were studied in order to predict the first failure surface and the fatigue lifetime. The fatigue behaviour of the trabecular bone under uniaxial load was compared to that of multiaxial load using a finite element simulation. The plastic strain was found localized at the trabecular structure under multiaxial load. On average, applying multiaxial loads reduced more than five times the fatigue life of the trabecular bone. The results provide evidence that multiaxial loading is dominated in the low cycle fatigue in contrast to the uniaxial one. Both bone volume fraction and structural model index were best predictors of failure (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/pathology; Bone and Bones/physiopathology*; Bone and Bones/chemistry*
  3. Mohammadi H, Baba Ismail YM, Shariff KA, Mohd Noor AF
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2021 04;116:104379.
    PMID: 33561674 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2021.104379
    Despite the excellent in vitro and in vivo performance of akermanite ceramic, its poor toughness and strength limit the biomedical application, particularly under load. Herein, the incorporation of strontium enhanced the physicomechanical properties of akermanite and this is ascribed to the decrease in grain size and better sinterability. To investigate the biological performance, the bone-cell interaction with sintered pellets was assessed by in vitro biocompatibility with human fetal osteoblast cell (hFOB). The cell viability using MTT assay revealed that the Ca1.9Sr0.1MgSi2O7 pellets with finer grain size provided better interaction between the cells compared to the unsubstituted counterpart with larger grain size. Our findings highlighted that the synergistic effect of controlled degradation rate and release of Sr2+ into the medium enhanced the in vitro biological properties of akermanite-based materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones
  4. Michael FM, Khalid M, Walvekar R, Ratnam CT, Ramarad S, Siddiqui H, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Oct 01;67:792-806.
    PMID: 27287178 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.05.037
    Bones are nanocomposites consisting of a collagenous fibre network, embedded with calcium phosphates mainly hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocrystallites. As bones are subjected to continuous loading and unloading process every day, they often tend to become prone to fatigue and breakdown. Therefore, this review addresses the use of nanocomposites particularly polymers reinforced with nanoceramics that can be used as load bearing bone implants. Further, nanocomposite preparation and dispersion modification techniques have been highlighted along with thorough discussion on the influence that various nanofillers have on the physico-mechanical properties of nanocomposites in relation to that of natural bone properties. This review updates the nanocomposites that meet the physico-mechanical properties (strength and elasticity) as well as biocompatibility requirement of a load bearing bone implant and also attempts to highlight the gaps in the reported studies to address the fatigue and creep properties of the nanocomposites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones*
  5. Roszalina R, Chai WL, Ngeow WC, Roslan AR
    Med J Malaysia, 2002 Jun;57(2):246-50.
    PMID: 24326664
    Osteoradionecrosis is a severe debilitating complication; it may occur from radiotherapy to the bones. It is a dental surgeon's nightmare as it may be long standing and difficult to manage. Osteoradionecrosis is characterised by hypoxia, hypocellularity and hypovascularity of the affected tissue. This paper reviews osteoradionecrosis in relation to dental treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones*
  6. Kadir MR, Syahrom A, Ochsner A
    Med Biol Eng Comput, 2010 May;48(5):497-505.
    PMID: 20224954 DOI: 10.1007/s11517-010-0593-2
    Human bones can be categorised into one of two types--the compact cortical and the porous cancellous. Whilst the cortical is a solid structure macroscopically, the structure of cancellous bone is highly complex with plate-like and strut-like structures of various sizes and shapes depending on the anatomical site. Reconstructing the actual structure of cancellous bone for defect filling is highly unfeasible. However, the complex structure can be simplified into an idealised structure with similar properties. In this study, two idealised architectures were developed based on morphological indices of cancellous bone: the tetrakaidecahedral and the prismatic. The two architectures were further subdivided into two types of microstructure, the first consists of struts only and the second consists of a combination of plates and struts. The microstructures were transformed into finite element models and displacement boundary condition was applied to all four idealised cancellous models with periodic boundary conditions. Eight unit cells extracted from the actual cancellous bone obtained from micro-computed tomography were also analysed with the same boundary conditions. Young's modulus values were calculated and comparison was made between the idealised and real cancellous structures. Results showed that all models with a combination of plates and struts have higher rigidity compared to the one with struts only. Values of Young's modulus from eight unit cells of cancellous bone varied from 42 to 479 MPa with an average of 234 MPa. The prismatic architecture with plates and rods closely resemble the average stiffness of a unit cell of cancellous bone.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology*; Bone and Bones/physiology
  7. Noordin MY, Jiawkok N, Ndaruhadi PY, Kurniawan D
    Proc Inst Mech Eng H, 2015 Nov;229(11):761-8.
    PMID: 26399875 DOI: 10.1177/0954411915606169
    There are millions of orthopedic surgeries and dental implantation procedures performed every year globally. Most of them involve machining of bones and cartilage. However, theoretical and analytical study on bone machining is lagging behind its practice and implementation. This study views bone machining as a machining process with bovine bone as the workpiece material. Turning process which makes the basis of the actually used drilling process was experimented. The focus is on evaluating the effects of three machining parameters, that is, cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut, to machining responses, that is, cutting forces and surface roughness resulted by the turning process. Response surface methodology was used to quantify the relation between the machining parameters and the machining responses. The turning process was done at various cutting speeds (29-156 m/min), depths of cut (0.03 -0.37 mm), and feeds (0.023-0.11 mm/rev). Empirical models of the resulted cutting force and surface roughness as the functions of cutting speed, depth of cut, and feed were developed. Observation using the developed empirical models found that within the range of machining parameters evaluated, the most influential machining parameter to the cutting force is depth of cut, followed by feed and cutting speed. The lowest cutting force was obtained at the lowest cutting speed, lowest depth of cut, and highest feed setting. For surface roughness, feed is the most significant machining condition, followed by cutting speed, and with depth of cut showed no effect. The finest surface finish was obtained at the lowest cutting speed and feed setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/physiology*; Bone and Bones/surgery*
  8. Ng KH, Ng LL
    Eur J Morphol, 1992;30(2):150-5.
    PMID: 1457250
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology; Bone and Bones/radiation effects*
  9. Akhbar MFA, Sulong AW
    Ann Biomed Eng, 2021 Jan;49(1):29-56.
    PMID: 32860111 DOI: 10.1007/s10439-020-02600-2
    As drilling generates substantial bone thermomechanical damage due to inappropriate cutting tool selection, researchers have proposed various approaches to mitigate this problem. Among these, improving the drill bit design is one of the most feasible and economical solutions. The theory and applications in drill design have been progressing, and research has been published in various fields. However, pieces of information on drill design are dispersed, and no comprehensive review paper focusing on this topic. Systemizing this information is crucial and, therefore, the impetus of this review. Here, we review not only the state-of-the-art in drill bit designs-advances in surgical drill bit design-but also the influences of each drill bit geometries on bone damage. Also, this work provides future directions for this topic and guidelines for designing an improved surgical drill bit. The information in this paper would be useful as a one-stop document for clinicians, engineers, and researchers who require information related to the tool design in bone drilling surgery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/injuries; Bone and Bones/surgery*
  10. Tan VP, Macdonald HM, McKay HA
    J. Bone Miner. Res., 2015 Mar;30(3):585-6.
    PMID: 25381875 DOI: 10.1002/jbmr.2399
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/physiology*
  11. Ng AM, Saim AB, Tan KK, Tan GH, Mokhtar SA, Rose IM, et al.
    J Orthop Sci, 2005;10(2):192-9.
    PMID: 15815868
    Osteoprogenitor cells have been reported to be present in periosteum, cancellous and cortical bone, and bone marrow; but no attempt to identify the best cell source for bone tissue engineering has yet been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the growth and differentiation pattern of cells derived from these four sources in terms of cell doubling time and expression of osteoblast-specific markers in both monolayer cells and three-dimensional cell constructs in vitro. In parallel, human plasma derived-fibrin was evaluated for use as biomaterial when forming three-dimensional bone constructs. Our findings showed osteoprogenitor cells derived from periosteum to be most proliferative followed by cortical bone, cancellous bone, and then bone marrow aspirate. Bone-forming activity was observed in constructs formed with cells derived from periosteum, whereas calcium deposition was seen throughout the constructs formed with cells derived from cancellous and cortical bones. Although no mineralization activity was seen in constructs formed with osteoprogenitor cells derived from bone marrow, well-organized lacunae as would appear in the early phase of bone reconstruction were noted. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation showed cell proliferation throughout the fibrin matrix, suggesting the possible application of human fibrin as the bioengineered tissue scaffold at non-load-bearing sites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/cytology*
  12. Matsumura H, Zuraina M
    Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 1999 Jul;109(3):327-40.
    PMID: 10407463
    A nearly complete human skeleton dating to the Early Holocene (epi-Paleolithic culture) excavated from Gua Gunung Runtuh, Malaysia, is described. Cranial, dental, and limb bone measurements are recorded on the skeleton, and compared with early and modern skeletal samples from Southeast Asia and Australia. The comparisons demonstrate that the Gua Gunung specimen is most similar to Australian Aborigines in dental and limb measurements, while the cranial measurements indicate a close affinity to Mesolithic samples from Malaysia and Flores. These findings further suggest that the Gua Gunung skeleton, as well as other fossils from Tabon and Niah, are representative of an early group of people who occupied Sundaland during the late Pleistocene, and may be the ancestors of Australian Aborigines. Some of the dental and limb bone measurements exhibited by the ancestors persist in Southeast Asian populations until the early Holocene. Differences in cranial traits have, however, accumulated since the late Pleistocene in Australian Aborigines and early Southeast Asian peoples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology*
  13. Ing DK
    Med J Malaysia, 1977 Sep;32(1):71-4.
    PMID: 609350
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones*
  14. Hapidin H, Othman F, Soelaiman IN, Shuid AN, Luke DA, Mohamed N
    J. Bone Miner. Metab., 2007;25(2):93-8.
    PMID: 17323178
    The effects of nicotine administration on bone-resorbing cytokines, cotinine, and bone histomorphometric parameters were studied in 21 Sprague-Dawley male rats. Rats aged 3 months and weighing 250-300 g were divided into three groups. Group 1 was the baseline control (BC), which was killed without treatment. The other two groups were the control group (C) and the nicotine-treated group (N). The N group was treated with nicotine 7 mg/kg body weight and the C group was treated with normal saline only. Treatment was given by intraperitoneal injection for 6 days/week for 4 months. The rats were injected intraperitoneally with calcein 20 mg/kg body weight at day 9 and day 2 before they were killed. ELISA test kits were used to measure the serum interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cotinine (a metabolite of nicotine) levels at the beginning of the study and upon completion of the study. Histomorphometric analysis was done on the metaphyseal region of the trabecular bone of the left femur by using an image analyzer. Biochemical analysis revealed that nicotine treatment for 4 months significantly increased the serum IL-1, IL-6, and cotinine levels as compared to pretreatment levels. In addition, the serum cotinine level was significantly higher in the N group than in the C group after 4 months treatment. Histomorphometric analysis showed that nicotine significantly decreased the trabecular bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), double-labeled surface (dLS/BS), mineralizing surface (MS/BS), mineral appositional rate (MAR), and bone formation rate (BFR/BS), while causing an increase in the single-labeled surface (sLS/BS), osteoclast surface (Oc.S/BS), and eroded surface (ES/BS) as compared to the BC and C groups. In conclusion, treatment with nicotine 7 mg/kg for 4 months was detrimental to bone by causing an increase in the bone resorbing cytokines and cotinine levels. Nicotine also exerted negative effects on the dynamic trabecular histomorphometric parameters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology*; Bone and Bones/cytology; Bone and Bones/drug effects
  15. Chai, W.L.
    Ann Dent, 2009;16(1):24-30.
    This systematic review focuses on the management of two types of osseous defects, i.e. dehiscence and fenestration that arise during the placement of dental implant in the edentulous area (delayed implant placement). A systematic online search of main database from 1975 to 2009 was made. Five randomised controlled trials have been identified based on the inclusion criteria. Different management procedures were identified, in which guided bone regeneration procedure was most commonly advocated. Resorbable and non-resorbable m'embranes were compared, in which resorbable membrane was preferred as it caused less complicatiQn of membrane exposure or risk of infection. The benefit of using bone substitute along with membrane in rypairing bony defects cannot be concluded.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones
  16. Isa, Z.M., Hobkirk, J.A.
    Ann Dent, 2000;7(1):-.
    Currently many dental implant systems with varied and numerous components are available commercially, and with new implant systems and designs emerging, it is essential that the user understands that any system selected should be based on sound scientific principles and capable of osseoil!tegration. This has been defined in many different ways, with biomaterial, biological and biomechanical factors being the main considerations. The final restoration is based on both biological tissue and mechanical components. As the success of osseointegration is based on the clinical outcome, clinicians must ensure that the stresses that the superstructure, implant, and surrounding bone are subjected to are within the tolerable limits of the various components, even though the degree of tolerance has not yet been fully defined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones
  17. Noor Khairiah AK, Mohamad Nazrulhisham MN, John G
    Med J Malaysia, 2018 04;73(2):116-118.
    PMID: 29703878 MyJurnal
    Primary osteosarcoma of the spine is indeed rare and only several sporadic cases have been reported. It tends to occur in a slightly older age group than those with appendicular skeleton tumours. We present here an unusual case of aggressive lumbosacral osteosarcoma in a young teenager complicated by extensive dural spread, skip lesions and intravascular extension. Although a histopathological examination is mandatory to establish the diagnosis, this case emphasises the need of imaging to ascertain the full extent of disease spread especially in deciding the type of treatment to be instituted and to evaluate the response to the treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones
  18. Dele-Afolabi, Temitope T., Azmah M.A. Hanim, Norkhairunnisa Mazlan, Shafreeza Sobri, Calin, Recep
    Porous ceramic components with decently controlled porosity offers remarkable advantages in industrial and structural applications such as fluid filtration, thermal insulation and scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. In this review study of porous ceramic components, requisite processing techniques necessary for the development of porous ceramics with imbued microstructural model intended for a specific application. An appraisal of the fabrication was made with respect to their economic viability wherein cost effective methods having great potentials in decently controlling the pore network imbued within the host ceramic matrix was preferred over the capital intensive counterparts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones
  19. Chin KY
    J Osteoporos, 2017;2017:3710959.
    PMID: 28163951 DOI: 10.1155/2017/3710959
    Aspirin is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor commonly used in primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Its users are elderly population susceptible to osteoporosis. It also inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 essential in bone remodeling. This prompts the question whether it can influence bone health among users. This review aimed to summarize the current literature on the use of aspirin on bone health. A literature search on experimental and clinical evidence on the effects of aspirin on bone health was performed using major scientific databases. In vitro studies showed that aspirin could enhance the survival of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, the progenitors of osteoblasts, and stimulate the differentiation of preosteoblasts. Aspirin also inhibited the nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB) pathway and decreased the expression of receptor activator of NFκB ligand, thus suppressing the formation of osteoclast. Aspirin could prevent bone loss in animal models of osteoporosis. Despite a positive effect on bone mineral density, the limited human epidemiological studies revealed that aspirin could not reduce fracture risk. A study even suggested that the use of aspirin increased fracture risk. As a conclusion, aspirin may increase bone mineral density but its effect on fracture prevention is inconclusive. More data are needed to determine the effects of aspirin and bone health in human.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones
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