MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-Two Sprague Dawley (SD) male rats were divided into four groups. The group 1 was administrated with distilled water intragastrically and injected sterile saline subcutaneously. The group 2 was administrated with EA orally and injected with sterile saline subcutaneously. The groups 3 & 4 were subcutaneously exposed to Ni for 4 weeks twice daily before tooth extraction procedure, and maintained Ni injection until the animals were sacrificed. After one month Ni exposure, the group 4 was fed with EA while continuing Ni injection. All the groups were anesthetized, and the upper left incisor was extracted. Four rats from each group were sacrificed on 14(th) and 28(th) days. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) were applied to assess in serum rat at 14th and 28(th) days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBRAS) levels were assessed to evaluate the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation accordingly after tooth extraction in homogenized gingival maxilla tissue of rat at 14(th) and 28(th) days. The socket hard tissue was stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E); immunohistochemical technique was used to assess the healing process by Osteocalcin (OCN) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) biomarkers.
RESULTS: Ni-induced rats administered with EA compound (Group 4) dropped the elevated concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly when compared to Ni-induced rats (Group 3) (p<0.05). Ni-induced rats administrated with EA compound (Group 4) showed significant production of SOD and recession in TBRAS level when compared to Ni-induced rats (Group 3) (p<0.05). The immunohistochemistry analysis has revealed that OCN and ALP have presented stronger expression in Ni-induced rats treated with EA (Group 4), as against Ni-induced rats (Group 3).
CONCLUSION: We have concluded that, Ni-induced rats, treated with EA have exerted positive effect on the trabecular bone formation after tooth extraction in nicotinic rats could be due to the antioxidant activity of EA which lead to upregulate of OCN and ALP proteins which are responsible for osteogenesis.
Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify relevant studies on the effects of caffeic acid on bone. A comprehensive search was conducted from July to November 2020 using PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. Cellular, animal and human studies reporting the effects of caffeic acid, as a single compound, on bone cells or bone were considered.
Results: The literature search found 226 articles on this topic, but only 24 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. The results showed that caffeic acid supplementation reduced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption, possibly through its antioxidant potential and increased expression of osteoblast markers. However, some studies showed that caffeic acid did not affect bone resorption in ovariectomized rats and might impair bone mechanical properties in normal rats.
Conclusion: Caffeic acid potentially regulates the bone remodelling process by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption, as well as osteoblast apoptosis. Thus, it has medicinal values against bone diseases.
Methods: Three-month-old Sprague Dawley male rats (n=30) were randomised into five groups (n=6/group). Bone loss was induced by pantoprazole (3 mg/kg p.o.) in four groups, and they were treated concurrently with either calcium carbonate (77 mg p.o.), calcium carbonate (77 mg p.o.) plus annatto tocotrienol (60 mg/kg p.o.) or Caltrate Plus (31 mg p.o.) for 60 days. The rats were euthanised at the end of the experiment, and their femurs were harvested for X-ray micro-computed tomography, bone cellular histomorphometry and bone mechanical strength analysis.
Results: Pantoprazole caused significant deterioration of trabecular bone microstructures but did not affect other skeletal indices. Calcium supplementation with or without annatto tocotrienol prevented the deterioration of trabecular microstructures at the femur but did not improve other skeletal indices. Annatto tocotrienol did not enhance the skeletal actions of calcium, whereas Caltrate Plus did not affect the bone health indices in these rats.
Conclusion: Calcium supplementation per se can prevent the deterioration of bone trabecular microstructures in rats receiving long-term treatment of pantoprazole.
Methods: Three-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to normal control, H. pylori-inoculated group (negative control) and H. pylori-inoculated group receiving triple therapy consisting of omeprazole [2.035 mg/kg body weight (b.w)], amoxicillin (102.80 mg/kg b.w) and clarithromycin (51.37 mg/kg b.w) (n=6/group). H. pylori infection developed for four weeks after inoculation, followed by two-week triple therapy. At the end of the treatment period, femoral bones of the rats were harvested for analysis. Bone mineral density and content of the femurs were determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, while bone strength was measured with a universal mechanical tester.
Results: Bone mineral content was significantly lower in the negative control group compared to the triple therapy group (p=0.014). Triple therapy decreased strain (vs negative control, p=0.002) and displacement of the femur (vs normal control, p=0.004; vs untreated control, p=0.005). No significant difference was observed in other parameters among the study groups (p>0.05).
Conclusion: Short-term triple therapy increases bone mineral content but decreases bone strength of rats. Skeletal prophylaxis should be considered for patients on short-term triple therapy containing PPI.
METHODS: Ovariectomized, diabetic female rats were given M. pumilum leave aqueous extract (MPLA) (50 and 100 mg/kg/day), estrogen, glibenclamide and estrogen plus glibenclamide for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment, fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum insulin, Ca2+, PO43- and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) levels were measured. Rats were sacrificed and femur bones were harvested for determination of expression level and distribution of RANK, RANKL, OPG and oxidative stress and inflammatory proteins by molecular biological techniques.
RESULTS: 100 mg/kg/day MPLA treatment decreased the FBG and BALP levels but increased the serum insulin, Ca2+ and PO43- levels in estrogen deficient, diabetic rats. Expression and distribution of RANKL, NF-κB p65, IKKβ, IL-6, IL-1β and Keap-1 decreased however expression and distribution of RANK, OPG, BMP-2, Type-1 collagen, Runx2, TRAF6, Nrf2, NQO-1, HO-1, SOD and CAT increased in the bone of estrogen deficient, diabetic rats which received 100 mg/kg/day MPLA with greater effects than estrogen-only, glibenclamide-only and estrogen plus glibenclamide treatments.
CONCLUSION: MPLA helps to overcome the adverse effect of estrogen deficiency and DM on the bone and thus this herb could potentially be used for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with diabetes.
OBJECTIVE: This review is aimed to discuss the literature reporting the effects of tocotrienols on osteoclasts, the cells specialized for resorbing bone.
RESULTS: Out of the total 22 studies from the literature search, only 11 of them were identified as relevant, which comprised of eight animal studies, two in vitro studies and only one combination of both. The in vivo studies indicated that tocotrienols improve the bone health and reduce bone loss via inhibition of osteoclast formation and resorption activity, which could be through regulation of RANKL and OPG expression as seen from their levels in the sera. This is well supported by data from the in vitro studies demonstrating the suppression of osteoclast formation and resorption activity following treatment with tocotrienol isomers.
CONCLUSION: Thus, tocotrienols are suggested to be potential antioxidants for prevention and treatment of bone-related diseases characterized by increased bone loss.
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