A recombinant Trichoderma reesei cellulase was used for the ultrasound-mediated hydrolysis of soluble carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and insoluble cellulose of various particle sizes. The hydrolysis was carried out at low intensity sonication (2.4-11.8 W cm(-2) sonication power at the tip of the sonotrode) using 10, 20, and 40% duty cycles. [A duty cycle of 10%, for example, was obtained by sonicating for 1 s followed by a rest period (no sonication) of 9 s.] The reaction pH and temperature were always 4.8 and 50°C, respectively. In all cases, sonication enhanced the rate of hydrolysis relative to nonsonicated controls. The hydrolysis of CMC was characterized by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The Michaelis-Menten parameter of the maximum reaction rate Vmax was enhanced by sonication relative to controls, but the value of the saturation constant Km was reduced. The optimal sonication conditions were found to be a 10% duty cycle and a power intensity of 11.8 W cm(-2) . Under these conditions, the maximum rate of hydrolysis of soluble CMC was nearly double relative to control. In the hydrolysis of cellulose, an increasing particle size reduced the rate of hydrolysis. At any fixed particle size, sonication at a 10% duty cycle and 11.8 W cm(-2) power intensity improved the rate of hydrolysis relative to control. Under the above mentioned optimal sonication conditions, the enzyme lost about 20% of its initial activity in 20 min. Sonication was useful in accelerating the enzyme catalyzed saccharification of cellulose.
Four different lipases were compared for ultrasound-mediated synthesis of the biodegradable copolymer poly-4-hydroxybutyrate-co-6-hydroxyhexanoate. The copolymerization was carried out in chloroform. Of the enzymes tested, Novozym 435 exhibited the highest copolymerization rate, in fact the reaction rate was observed to increase with about 26-fold from 30 to 50°C (7.9×10(-3)Ms(-1)), sonic power intensity of 2.6×10(3)Wm(-2) and dissipated energy of 130.4Jml(-1). Copolymerization rates with the Candida antarctica lipase A, Candida rugosa lipase, and Lecitase Ultra™ were lower at 2.4×10(-4), 1.3×10(-4) and 3.5×10(-4)Ms(-1), respectively. The catalytic efficiency depended on the enzyme. The efficiency ranged from 4.15×10(-3)s(-1)M(-1) for Novozym 435-1.48×10(-3)s(-1)M(-1) for C. rugosa lipase. Depending on the enzyme and sonication intensity, the monomer conversion ranged from 8.2% to 48.5%. The sonication power, time and temperature were found to affect the rate of copolymerization. Increasing sonication power intensity from 1.9×10(3) to 4.5×10(3)Wm(-2) resulted in an increased in acoustic pressure (P(a)) from 3.7×10(8) to 5.7×10(8)Nm(-2) almost 2.4-3.7 times greater than the acoustic pressure (1.5×10(8)Nm(-2)) that is required to cause cavitation in water. A corresponding acoustic particle acceleration (a) of 9.6×10(3)-1.5×10(4)ms(-2) was calculated i.e. approximately 984-1500 times greater than under the action of gravity.
This review is focused on the production of microbial lipases by high cell density fermentation. Lipases are among the most widely used of the enzyme catalysts. Although lipases are produced by animals and plants, industrial lipases are sourced almost exclusively from microorganisms. Many of the commercial lipases are produced using recombinant species. Microbial lipases are mostly produced by batch and fed-batch fermentation. Lipases are generally secreted by the cell into the extracellular environment. Thus, a crude preparation of lipases can be obtained by removing the microbial cells from the fermentation broth. This crude cell-free broth may be further concentrated and used as is, or lipases may be purified from it to various levels. For many large volume applications, lipases must be produced at extremely low cost. High cell density fermentation is a promising method for low-cost production: it allows a high concentration of the biomass and the enzyme to be attained rapidly and this eases the downstream recovery of the enzyme. High density fermentation enhances enzyme productivity compared with the traditional submerged culture batch fermentation. In production of enzymes, a high cell density is generally achieved through fed-batch operation, not through perfusion culture which is cumbersome. The feeding strategies used in fed-batch fermentations for producing lipases and the implications of these strategies are discussed. Most lipase-producing microbial fermentations require oxygen. Oxygen transfer in such fermentations is discussed.
The hybridoma 192 was used to produce a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), for possible use in screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The factors influencing the MAb production were screened and optimized in a 2 L stirred bioreactor. The production was then scaled up to a 20 L bioreactor. All of the screened factors (aeration rate, stirring speed, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and temperature) were found to significantly affect production. Optimization using the response surface methodology identified the following optimal production conditions: 36.8°C, pH 7.4, stirring speed of 100 rpm, 30% dissolved oxygen concentration, and an aeration rate of 0.09 vvm. Under these conditions, the maximum viable cell density achieved was 1.34 ± 0.21 × 10(6) cells mL(-1) and the specific growth rate was 0.036 ± 0.004 h(-1) . The maximum MAb titer was 11.94 ± 4.81 μg mL(-1) with an average specific MAb production rate of 0.273 ± 0.135 pg cell(-1) h(-1) . A constant impeller tip speed criterion was used for the scale-up. The specific growth rate (0.040 h(-1) ) and the maximum viable cell density (1.89 × 10(6) cells mL(-1) ) at the larger scale were better than the values achieved at the small scale, but the MAb titer in the 20 L bioreactor was 18% lower than in the smaller bioreactor. A change in the culture environment from the static conditions of a T-flask to the stirred bioreactor culture did not affect the specificity of the MAb toward its antigen (17-OHP) and did not compromise the structural integrity of the MAb.
Ultrasonic irradiation greatly improved the Candida antarctica lipase B mediated ring opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone to poly-6-hydroxyhexanoate in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetraflouroborate. Compared to the conventional nonsonicated reaction, sonication improved the monomer conversion by 63% and afforded a polymer product of a narrower molecular weight distribution and a higher degree of crystallinity. Under sonication, the polydispersity index of the product was ~1.44 compared to a value of ~2.55 for the product of the conventional reaction. With sonication, nearly 75% of the monomer was converted to product, but the conversion was only ~16% for the reaction carried out conventionally. Compared to conventional operation, sonication enhanced the rate of polymer propagation by >2-fold and the turnover number of the lipase by >3-fold.
Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of 6-O-glucosyldecanoate from d-glucose and decanoic acid was performed in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a mixture of DMSO and tert-butanol and tert-butanol alone with a decreasing order of polarity. The highest conversion yield (> 65%) of decanoic acid was obtained in the blended solvent of intermediate polarity mainly because it could dissolve relatively large amounts of both the reactants. The reaction obeyed Michaelis-Menten type of kinetics. The affinity of the enzyme towards the limiting substrate (decanoic acid) was not affected by the polarity of the solvent, but increased significantly with temperature. The esterification reaction was endothermic with activation energy in the range of 60-67 kJ mol⁻¹. Based on the Gibbs energy values, in the solvent blend of DMSO and tert-butanol the position of the equilibrium was shifted more towards the products compared to the position in pure solvents. Monoester of glucose was the main product of the reaction.
Production of extracellular laccase by the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus was examined in batch submerged cultures in shake flasks, baffled shake flasks and a stirred tank bioreactor. The biomass growth in the various culture systems closely followed a logistic growth model. The production of laccase followed a Luedeking-Piret model. A modified Luedeking-Piret model incorporating logistic growth effectively described the consumption of glucose. Biomass productivity, enzyme productivity and substrate consumption were enhanced in baffled shake flasks relative to the cases for the conventional shake flasks. This was associated with improved oxygen transfer in the presence of the baffles. The best results were obtained in the stirred tank bioreactor. At 28 °C, pH 4.5, an agitation speed of 600 rpm and a dissolved oxygen concentration of ~25 % of air saturation, the laccase productivity in the bioreactor exceeded 19 U L(-1 )days(-1), or 1.5-fold better than the best case for the baffled shake flask. The final concentration of the enzyme was about 325 U L(-1).