Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 43 in total

  1. Choo KE
    Med J Malaysia, 1983 Jun;38(2):167-9.
    PMID: 6621451
    Two cases of Hypomelanosis of Ito are described; presenting with depigmented whorl-like, zig-zag, bizzare cutaneous manifestations associated with central nervous system disorders.
  2. Afzal MK, Choo KE
    Med J Malaysia, 1980 Sep;35(1):64-7.
    PMID: 7254002
    Achondrogenesis is a lethal neonatal chondrodysplasia with extreme micromelia and marked discrepancy between the relatively large head and the decreased trunk length. The affected neonates are usually delivered prematurely, and are stillborn or die soon after birth. Polyhydramnios is frequently present. It is an inherited autosomal recessive disease. The radiographic features are diagnostic.
  3. Ariffin WA, Karnaneedi S, Choo KE, Normah J
    J Paediatr Child Health, 1996 Apr;32(2):191- 3.
    PMID: 9156534
    Between January 1985 and June 1992, the Paediatric Department of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia has diagnosed congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia in three children, two of whom were siblings. The age of onset ranged from 1 to 3 years. All of them became transfusion-dependent before the age of 4 months. One of them was successfully treated with bone marrow transplantation.
  4. Ariffin WA, Choo KE, Karnaneedi S
    Med J Malaysia, 1992 Sep;47(3):231-4.
    PMID: 1491651
    Three sisters with cassava poisoning are described. A review of the toxic properties of cassava is presented together with discussion on the methods of its preparation, its adverse effects on man, its detoxification in the body, and the treatment of its poisoning.
  5. Normah J, Choo KE, Oppenheimer SJ, Selamah G
    J Paediatr Child Health, 1991 Dec;27(6):376-9.
    PMID: 1756082
    This prospective study was performed to quantify glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme activity in deficient males and female heterozygotes. The methods used in the study were the fluorescent spot test, G6PD enzyme electrophoresis on cellulose acetate and quantitative assays. Forty-seven children who had been detected as spot screen deficient at birth were rescreened. Their first degree relatives were also included in the study. The mean enzyme activity of deficient males was 0.74 iu/g Hb (s.d. +/- 0.8), of female heterozygotes was 6.5 iu/g Hb (s.d. +/- 3.2) and of normal males was 12.1 iu/g Hb (s.d. +/- 3.5). The mean activity in deficient males was 6.1% of normal males. Most (35 of 47) of these fell into class 2 in Beutler's classification of G6PD variants. This indicates a population which may be susceptible to favism. Female heterozygotes had an intermediate enzyme activity with a wide scatter. Using a cut off point of enzyme activity of below 9.0 iu/g Hb gave sensitivity and specificity of 87% and 84% in detecting female heterozygotes. This group could be defined more accurately by combining quantitative assays with family studies.
  6. Karnaneedi S, Choo KE, Ariffin WA, Norimi M
    Med J Malaysia, 1989 Sep;44(3):248-51.
    PMID: 2626139
    A six year old Malay boy with phenylketonuria is presented. The history, clinical examination, biochemical findings and treatment are described followed by a discussion on phenylketonuria.
  7. Tan KK, Choo KE, Ariffin WA
    Toxicon, 1990;28(2):225-30.
    PMID: 2339437
    The records associated with 83 children from 16 months to 12 years of age who were admitted with snake bite to Kota Bharu General Hospital and University Hospital, Universiti Sains Malaysia over a 5 year period were reviewed. Elapid bites were more common than viper bites while sea-snake bites were not recorded. Symptoms were relatively mild, the common clinical features being pain and local swelling. Antivenom therapy was required in 11 children. Only three of the 11 children developed minor adverse reactions to antivenom. Four of the 83 required ventilatory support for respiratory failure and two children died.
  8. Wahab JA, Hanifah MJ, Choo KE
    Singapore Med J, 1995 Dec;36(6):686-9.
    PMID: 8781652
    We describe here a case of cryptococcal empyema thoracis and periauricular pyogenic abscess in a child with Bruton's agammaglobulinaemia. The cryptococcal empyema thoracis was treated with intravenous amphotericin B and intravenous fluconazole for six weeks followed by oral fluconazole. The pyogenic periauricular abscess was surgically drained and treated with intravenous ceftazidime and cloxacillin for two weeks. He also received monthly intravenous immunoglobulin.
  9. Choo KE, Sharifah A, Ariffin WA, Mafauzy M
    Singapore Med J, 1990 Jun;31(3):289-92.
    PMID: 2392709
    We report a Malay girl suffering from generalised lipodystrophy, with clinical features of absence of body adipose tissue, hepatomegaly, hyperpigmentation and muscular hypertrophy. She also had hyperlipaemia, hypercholesterolemia and non-ketotic insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus. The possibility of malnutrition-related diabetes mellitus was excluded because of (a) no personal or family history of malnutrition (b) no pancreatic calcification (c) total loss of subcutaneous fat and (d) her requirement for insulin was more than 21.2 units/kg body weight which would be too high even for malnutrition-related diabetes mellitus. Attempts were made to control her diabetes initially with subcutaneous boluses insulin, then continuous intravenous insulin infusion (CIVII) and finally orally with fenfluramine and chlorpropamide.
  10. Lee WS, Puthucheary SD, Parasakthi N, Choo KE
    J Trop Pediatr, 2003 Feb;49(1):37-41.
    PMID: 12630719
    There is widespread resistance of Salmonella species to commonly prescribed antimicrobials the world over. We aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and serovar distribution of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolated from blood cultures of Malaysian children. Positive isolates of NTS from blood cultures obtained from children admitted to the pediatric wards of University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC), a large urban hospital from Kuala Lumpur (1991-2001), and Hospital Kota Bharu (HKB), from the predominantly rural state of Kelantan (1991-1999), Malaysia, were reviewed retrospectively. Serovar distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility were ascertained. A total of 64 and 55 isolates of NTS were obtained from blood cultures of children admitted to UMMC and HKB, respectively. The commonest serovar isolated was Salmonella enteritidis in both centers. The NTS isolated were highly sensitive to the antimicrobials tested: ampicillin 98 per cent, chloramphenicol 98 per cent, gentamicin 97 per cent, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) 98 per cent, and ceftriaxone 100 per cent in UMMC; ampicillin 100 per cent, chloramphenicol 87 per cent, kanamycin 100 per cent, streptomycin 96 per cent, TMP-SMX 93 per cent, and tetracycline 89 per cent in HKB. There were only one and five multi-resistant isolates in UMMC and HKB, respectively. In conclusion, NTS isolated from blood cultures of Malaysian children from Kuala Lumpur and Kota Bharu were highly sensitive to commonly prescribed antibiotics. We speculate that this is due to the restriction of sales of antimicrobials in Malaysia except by prescription. Continuing vigilance and frequent antmicrobial surveillance is necessary.
  11. Choo KE, Davis TM, Henry RL, Chan LP
    J Trop Pediatr, 2001 Aug;47(4):211-4.
    PMID: 11523761
    To investigate the role of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) in the diagnosis of typhoid fever, we studied 227 febrile Malaysian children hospitalized during a 12-month period. The children were: culture-positive for Salmonella typhi (Group 1; n = 108); culture-negative but with typical clinical features of typhoid fever (Group 2; n = 60); or had non-typhoidal illness (Group 3; n = 59). Group 1 children had the highest serum CRP concentrations (geometric mean [SD range]; 43 [12-150] mg/l vs. 26 [8-85] mg/l in Group 2 and 21 [4-110] mg/l in Group 3; p < 0.001). In regression analysis, age, patient group and fever duration were independently associated with serum CRP (p < 0.05) but gender was not. In Group 1 patients, there was a significant positive association between serum CRP and Widal O and H agglutinin titres. In receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis of serum CRP for Groups 1 and 2 combined, compared with Group 3, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.65. These data show that the serum CRP is highest in culture-positive children with enteric fever and reflects the immune response to the infection in this group. Nevertheless, serum CRP had relatively low sensitivity and specificity for confirmed or clinically diagnosed typhoid fever (68 and 58 per cent, respectively at 'cut-off' concentration 30.0 mg/l), and an AUC value only moderately above that associated with no predictive power (0.5). Although of limited use as a primary diagnostic test, a raised serum CRP may still have a place as one of a range of features that facilitate assessment of a febrile child in a typhoid-endemic area.
  12. Singh B, Choo KE, Ibrahim J, Johnston W, Davis TM
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1998 12 23;92(5):532-7.
    PMID: 9861371
    To determine whether glucose turnover is increased in acute falciparum malaria compared to enteric fever in children, steady-state 6,6-D2-glucose turnover was measured in 9 Malaysian children with uncomplicated malaria (6 males and 3 females; median age 10 years, body weight 22 kg) and in 12 with uncomplicated enteric fever (8 males and 4 females; median age 10 years, body weight 24 kg) in acute illness, after quinine (5 malaria patients) and in convalescence. Baseline plasma glucose concentrations in malaria and enteric fever were similar (all values are medians [ranges in brackets]) 5.6 [3.2-11.3] vs. 5.5 [4.2-8.0] mmol/L), as were serum insulin levels (5.6 [0.4-26.5] vs. 6.8 [1.1-22.5] milliunits/L; P > 0.4). Glucose turnover in the malaria patients was higher than in patients with enteric fever (6.27 [2.71-6.87] vs. 5.20 [4.50-6.08] mg/kg.min; P = 0.02) and in convalescence (4.74 [3.35-6.79] mg/kg.min; P = 0.05 vs. acute malaria study), and fell after quinine together with a rise in serum insulin (P = 0.03). Basal plasma lactate concentrations were higher in enteric fever than in malaria (3.4 [1.8-6.4] vs. 0.8 [0.3-3.8] mmol/L; P < 0.0001) and correlated inversely with glucose turnover in this group (rs = -0.60; n = 12; P = 0.02). These data suggest that glucose turnover is 20% greater in malaria than in enteric fever. This might reflect increased non-insulin-mediated glucose uptake in falciparum malaria and/or impaired gluconeogenesis in enteric fever, and may have implications for metabolic complications and their clinical management in both infections.
  13. Choo KE, Tan KK, Chuah SP, Ariffin WA, Gururaj A
    Ann Trop Paediatr, 1994;14(3):231-7.
    PMID: 7825997
    This is a retrospective study of the epidemiology, clinical features, laboratory findings, treatment and outcome of haemorrhagic disease in 42 Kelantanese infants who were admitted to Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia during a 2-year period (1987-1988). Classical haemorrhagic disease of the newborn was the commonest presentation (48%), followed by early onset (29%) and late onset (24%) disease. Home deliveries accounted for 81% of the affected infants. Most of these babies were not given vitamin K at birth in contrast to those delivered in hospitals. All except one infant were breastfed. The six commonest presenting clinical features were pallor, jaundice, umbilical cord bleeding, tense fontanelle, convulsions and hepatomegaly. All the infants had prolonged prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times which were corrected by administration of vitamin K. Subdural haemorrhage was the commonest form of intracranial haemorrhage, followed by subarachnoid haemorrhage. The overall case fatality rate was 14%. The results of this study once again emphasize the value of vitamin K prophylaxis in the newborn.
  14. Lye MS, Nair RC, Choo KE, Kaur H, Lai KP
    J Trop Pediatr, 1996 06;42(3):138-43.
    PMID: 8699578 DOI: 10.1093/tropej/42.3.138
    A community-based intervention trial was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia with the aim of reducing severe acute respiratory tract (ARI) infection in children. Interventions included health education of mothers on childhood pneumonia and training of health staff on case management. In a house-to-house survey 1382 and 1107 children less than 5 years of age in the intervention and control areas, respectively, were followed up every 2 weeks over a 62-week period. The reduction in the incidence of severe ARI cases in the intervention area was significantly greater than in the control area (P < 0.05). The ARI mortality rates were low in both the intervention and control areas ( < 0.1%). Our results indicate that with relatively inexpensive methods and simple interventions, reduction of severe ARI may be effectively achieved. This has important implications for an ARI control programme in Malaysia and other developing countries.
  15. Maziah W, Choo KE, Ray JG, Ariffin WA
    J Trop Pediatr, 1995 06;41(3):185-8.
    PMID: 7636941 DOI: 10.1093/tropej/41.3.185
    In this study, 31 cases of childhood empyema thoracis admitted over 4 1/2 years to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, in Kelantan, Malaysia, were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-two males and nine females were included, with a mean age of 1.9 years (range: 26 days to 7 years). Frequent symptoms were fever, cough, and dyspnoea, while common signs were temperature above 38 degrees C, decreased breath sounds, dullness to chest percussion, and intercostal recession. Radiography demonstrated unilateral moderate to large effusions in 68 per cent of cases, while consolidated lung was seen in 45 per cent of patients. Pleural fluid cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus (48 per cent), Streptococcus pneumoniae (7 per cent), while no growth was seen in 42 per cent of cases. Ninety-four per cent of children had a blood leukocytosis above 10 000 cell/mm3, but blood cultures were negative in 21 out of 26 patients (81 per cent). Most cases were treated with a combination of intravenous antibiotics and chest tube drainage. Antibiotics and pleural tap(s) were used in the remainder. Patients stayed in hospital for an average of 20.7 days (range: 4-52 days). Surgical intervention was necessary in only four children. The mortality rate at the time of discharge was zero, with 100 per cent radiographic resolution among the 23 patients who were followed-up.
  16. Choo KE, Davis TM, Ismail A, Ong KH
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 1997 Dec;57(6):656-9.
    PMID: 9430522
    The objective of this study was to investigate the longevity of positive dot enzyme immunosorbent assay (dot EIA) results for IgM and IgG to a Salmonella typhi outer membrane protein in Malaysian children with enteric fever. The patients were children one month to 12 years of age with clinical evidence of typhoid fever, positive blood or stool cultures for S. typhi, and/or a positive Widal test result who were admitted over a two-year period to General Hospital (Kota Bharu, Malaysia). These patients received standard inpatient treatment for enteric fever including chloramphenicol therapy for 14 days. Dot EIA tests were performed as part of clinical and laboratory assessments on admission, at two weeks, and then at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 months postdischarge. Assessment of the longevity of positive dot EIA IgM and IgG titers was done by Kaplan-Meier analysis. In 94 evaluable patients, 28% were dot EIA IgM positive but IgG negative on admission, 50% were both IgM and IgG positive, and 22% were IgM negative and IgG positive. Mean persistence of IgM dot EIA positivity was 2.6 months (95% confidence interval = 2.0-3.1 months) and that of IgG was 5.4 months (4.5-6.3 months). There were no significant differences between the three subgroups. Thus, positive IgM and IgG results determined by dot EIA within four and seven months, respectively, following documented or suspected enteric fever in a child from an endemic area should be interpreted with caution. In other clinical situations, the dot EIA remains a rapid and reliable aid to diagnosis.
  17. Halder D, Quah BS, Malik AS, Choo KE
    PMID: 9185277
    Neonatal septic arthritis has always been considered as separate from its counterpart in older children. The condition is uncommon but serious. Affected neonates usually survive, but with permanent skeletal deformities. Ten cases of neonatal septic arthritis were diagnosed between January 1989 and December 1993 in the neonatal intensive care units of two referral hospitals in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. All except one neonate was born prematurely. The mean age of presentation was 15.6 days. Joint swelling (10/10), increased warmth (7/10) and erythema of the overlying skin (7/10) were the common presenting signs. Vague constitutional symptoms preceded the definitive signs of septic arthritis in all cases. The total white cell counts were raised with shift to the left. The knee (60%) was not commonly affected, followed by the hip (13%) and ankle (13%). Three neonates had multiple joint involvement. Coexistence of arthritis with osteomyelitis was observed in seven neonates. The commonest organism isolated was methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (9/10). Needle aspiration was performed in nine neonates and one had incision with drainage. Follow up data was available for five neonates and two of these had skeletal morbidity. Early diagnosis by frequent examination of the joints, prompt treatment and control of nosocomial infection are important for management.
  18. Choo KE, Davis TM, Mansur MA, Azman E, Achana S
    J Paediatr Child Health, 1996 Oct;32(5):428-32.
    PMID: 8933405
    OBJECTIVE: Preliminary epidemiological data suggest that dyslipidaemia contributes significantly to rising mortality due to atherosclerosis in Peninsular Malays. The aim of this study was to determine whether abnormal serum lipid profiles are present at birth in this population.

    METHODOLOGY: The patients were 487 non-diabetic Malay women who had an uncomplicated antenatal course and delivered healthy singleton babies at term. Cord blood and maternal post-partum venous blood samples were taken for assay of serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations using standard enzymatic methods.

    RESULTS: Maternal total serum cholesterol concentrations (mean +/- SD; 7.5 +/- 2.5 mmol/L) were higher than in other reported series (range of published means 5.2-6.5 mmol/L) with a correspondingly low high-density lipoprotein (HDL): total cholesterol ratio. The mean cord blood total serum cholesterol (1.7 +/- 1.0 mmol/L) was consistent with previously reported population means (1.5-1.9 mmol/L) but there was a relatively high low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and depressed HDL: cholesterol ratio. Significant correlations between maternal and neonatal serum total (P = 0.038) and especially HDL-cholesterol (P < 0.001) were observed. Maternal and cord blood serum triglyceride levels were comparable to those in other series.

    CONCLUSIONS: These cross-sectional data provide evidence that abnormal serum cholesterol profiles are found in pregnant Malay women and their neonates which may have implications for the prevalence of macrovascular disease in the Malay population.

  19. Choo KE, Oppenheimer SJ, Ismail AB, Ong KH
    Clin Infect Dis, 1994 Jul;19(1):172-6.
    PMID: 7948526
    A dot enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using 50-kD outer-membrane proteins (OMPs) of Salmonella typhi was compared with the Widal test for the serodiagnosis of typhoid fever in 109 febrile children admitted to a hospital in an endemic area. In the culture-positive typhoid group, the initial dot EIA was positive in 40 of 42 cases and the initial Widal test was positive in 41. In the culture-negative clinical typhoid group, both the dot EIA and the Widal test were positive in 17 of 18 cases. In the nontyphoidal fever group, the dot EIA was negative in all of 49 cases and the Widal test was negative in 44. With culture used as the gold standard, the dot EIA is as sensitive as the Widal test (95% vs. 98%), has a similar high negative predictive value (96% vs. 98%), and is more specific (75% vs. 67%). In addition, the dot EIA offers the advantages of simplicity, speed, early diagnosis, economy, and flexibility (i.e., other diagnostic tests can be conducted simultaneously).
  20. Choo KE, Ariffin WA, Ahmad T, Lim WL, Gururaj AK
    Ann Trop Paediatr, 1990 Mar;10(1):89-98.
    PMID: 1694651
    A 2.5-year retrospective study of pyogenic meningitis in hospitalized children in Kelantan was carried out with regard to aetiology, clinical features, investigation, treatment and outcome. There were 58 children with 43 cases (74.1%) occurring below the age of 1 year. Frequent presenting symptoms included fever (98.3%), fits (77.6%), anorexia (39.7%), vomiting (34.5%) and drowsiness (12.1%). On admission, 37 (63.7%) had neck stiffness, 10 (17.2%) had Kernig's sign and 32 (55.2%) had coma. CSF cultures were positive for Haemophilus influenzae in 29 (50%), Streptococcus pneumonia in 13 (22.4%) and Neisseria meningitidis in 3 (5.2%). The antibiotic sensitivity profiles showed that the three main organisms were 100% sensitive to Chloramphenicol, Streptococcus pneumoniae was 100% sensitive to penicillin, Neisseria meningitidis was 100% sensitive to penicillin and ampicillin, and Haemophilus influenzae was 90% sensitive to penicillin and ampicillin. The total hospital mortality was 18.9%. All but two of the eleven deaths occurred in children younger than 1 year. Nineteen of the 35 (54.3%) survivors attended for at least one follow-up after discharge from hospital. Of these 19 children, 47.4% had neurological sequelae.
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