Objective: To determine an association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in ESR2 with salt sensitivity of blood pressure (SSBP) and estrogen status in women.
Methods: Candidate gene association study with ESR2 and SSBP conducted in normotensive and hypertensive women and men in two cohorts: International Hypertensive Pathotype (HyperPATH) (n = 584) (discovery) and Mexican American Hypertension-Insulin Resistance Study (n = 662) (validation). Single nucleotide polymorphisms in ESR1 (ER-α) were also analyzed. Analysis conducted in younger (<51 years, premenopausal, "estrogen-replete") and older women (≥51 years, postmenopausal, "estrogen-deplete"). Men were analyzed to control for aging.
Results: Multivariate analyses of HyperPATH data between variants of ESR2 and SSBP documented that ESR2 rs10144225 minor (risk) allele carriers had a significantly positive association with SSBP driven by estrogen-replete women (β = +4.4 mm Hg per risk allele, P = 0.004). Findings were confirmed in Hypertension Insulin-Resistance Study premenopausal women. HyperPATH cohort analyses revealed risk allele carriers vs noncarriers had increased aldosterone/renin ratios. No associations were detected with ESR1.
Conclusions: The variation at rs10144225 in ESR2 was associated with SSBP in premenopausal women (estrogen-replete) and not in men or postmenopausal women (estrogen-deplete). Inappropriate aldosterone levels on a liberal salt diet may mediate the SSBP.
METHODS: We did a genome-wide association study of 189 patients with extranodal NKTCL, nasal type (WHO classification criteria; cases) and 957 controls from Guangdong province, southern China. We validated our findings in four independent case-control series, including 75 cases from Guangdong province and 296 controls from Hong Kong, 65 cases and 983 controls from Guangdong province, 125 cases and 1110 controls from Beijing (northern China), and 60 cases and 2476 controls from Singapore. We used imputation and conditional logistic regression analyses to fine-map the associations. We also did a meta-analysis of the replication series and of the entire dataset.
FINDINGS: Associations exceeding the genome-wide significance threshold (p<5 × 10(-8)) were seen at 51 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapping to the class II MHC region on chromosome 6, with rs9277378 (located in HLA-DPB1) having the strongest association with NKTCL susceptibility (p=4·21 × 10(-19), odds ratio [OR] 1·84 [95% CI 1·61-2·11] in meta-analysis of entire dataset). Imputation-based fine-mapping across the class II MHC region suggests that four aminoacid residues (Gly84-Gly85-Pro86-Met87) in near-complete linkage disequilibrium at the edge of the peptide-binding groove of HLA-DPB1 could account for most of the association between the rs9277378*A risk allele and NKTCL susceptibility (OR 2·38, p value for haplotype 2·32 × 10(-14)). This association is distinct from MHC associations with Epstein-Barr virus infection.
INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this is the first time that a genetic variant conferring an NKTCL risk is noted at genome-wide significance. This finding underlines the importance of HLA-DP antigen presentation in the pathogenesis of NKTCL.
FUNDING: Top-Notch Young Talents Program of China, Special Support Program of Guangdong, Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (20110171120099), Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET-11-0529), National Medical Research Council of Singapore (TCR12DEC005), Tanoto Foundation Professorship in Medical Oncology, New Century Foundation Limited, Ling Foundation, Singapore National Cancer Centre Research Fund, and the US National Institutes of Health (1R01AR062886, 5U01GM092691-04, and 1R01AR063759-01A1).