Displaying all 10 publications

  1. Arifin K, Daud WR, Kassim MB
    PMID: 24508875 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2013.12.107
    Bis(dithiolene) tungsten carbonyl complex, W(S2C2Ph2)2(CO)2 was successfully synthesized and the structure, frontier molecular orbital and optical properties of the complex were investigated theoretically using density functional theory calculations. The investigation started with a molecular structure construction, followed by an optimization of the structural geometry using generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) in a double numeric plus polarization (DNP) basis set at three different functional calculation approaches. Vibrational frequency analysis was used to confirm the optimized geometry of two possible conformations of [W(S2C2Ph2)2(CO)2], which showed distorted octahedral geometry. Electronic structure and optical characterization were done on the ground states. Metal to ligand and ligand to metal charge transfer were dominant in this system.
  2. Wan Daud WR, Djuned FM
    Carbohydr Polym, 2015 Nov 5;132:252-60.
    PMID: 26256348 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.06.011
    Acetone soluble oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose acetate (OPEFB-CA) of DS 2.52 has been successfully synthesized in a one-step heterogeneous acetylation of OPEFB cellulose without necessitating the hydrolysis stage. This has only been made possible by the mathematical modeling of the acetylation process by manipulating the variables of reaction time and acetic anhydride/cellulose ratio (RR). The obtained model was verified by experimental data with an error of less than 2.5%. NMR analysis showed that the distribution of the acetyl moiety among the three OH groups of cellulose indicates a preference at the C6 position, followed by C3 and C2. XRD revealed that OPEFB-CA is highly amorphous with a degree of crystallinity estimated to be ca. 6.41% as determined from DSC. The OPEFB-CA films exhibited good mechanical properties being their tensile strength and Young's modulus higher than those of the commercial CA.
  3. Basri S, Kamarudin SK, Daud WR, Yaakob Z, Kadhum AA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:547604.
    PMID: 24883406 DOI: 10.1155/2014/547604
    PtRu catalyst is a promising anodic catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) but the slow reaction kinetics reduce the performance of DMFCs. Therefore, this study attempts to improve the performance of PtRu catalysts by adding nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe). Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are used to increase the active area of the catalyst and to improve the catalyst performance. Electrochemical analysis techniques, such as energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), are used to characterize the kinetic parameters of the hybrid catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is used to investigate the effects of adding Fe and Ni to the catalyst on the reaction kinetics. Additionally, chronoamperometry (CA) tests were conducted to study the long-term performance of the catalyst for catalyzing the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). The binding energies of the reactants and products are compared to determine the kinetics and potential surface energy for methanol oxidation. The FESEM analysis results indicate that well-dispersed nanoscale (2-5 nm) PtRu particles are formed on the MWCNTs. Finally, PtRuFeNi/MWCNT improves the reaction kinetics of anode catalysts for DMFCs and obtains a mass current of 31 A g(-1) catalyst.
  4. Zainuddin Z, Wan Daud WR, Pauline O, Shafie A
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Dec;102(23):10978-86.
    PMID: 21996481 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.09.080
    In the organosolv pulping of the oil palm fronds, the influence of the operational variables of the pulping reactor (viz. cooking temperature and time, ethanol and NaOH concentration) on the properties of the resulting pulp (yield and kappa number) and paper sheets (tensile index and tear index) was investigated using a wavelet neural network model. The experimental results with error less than 0.0965 (in terms of MSE) were produced, and were then compared with those obtained from the response surface methodology. Performance assessment indicated that the neural network model possessed superior predictive ability than the polynomial model, since a very close agreement between the experimental and the predicted values was obtained.
  5. Daud SM, Kim BH, Ghasemi M, Daud WR
    Bioresour Technol, 2015 Nov;195:170-9.
    PMID: 26141668 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.06.105
    Microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) are emerging green processes producing useful products from renewable sources without causing environmental pollution and treating wastes. The separator, an important part of METs that greatly affects the latter's performance, is commonly made of Nafion proton exchange membrane (PEM). However, many problems have been identified associated with the Nafion PEM such as high cost of membrane, significant oxygen and substrate crossovers, and transport of cations other than protons protons and biofouling. A variety of materials have been offered as alternative separators such as ion-exchange membranes, salt bridges, glass fibers, composite membranes and porous materials. It has been claimed that low cost porous materials perform better than PEM. These include J-cloth, nylon filter, glass fiber mat, non-woven cloth, earthen pot and ceramics that enable non-ion selective charge transfer. This paper provides an up-to-date review on porous separators and plots directions for future studies.
  6. Myint S, Daud WR, Mohamad AB, Kadhum AA
    J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl, 1996 Apr 26;679(1-2):193-5.
    PMID: 8998560
    An ethanolic extract of cloves was analyzed by gas chromatography directly to identify eugenol and other major phenolic compounds without previous separation of other components. Separation was performed on a fused-silica capillary column of 30 m x 0.53 mm I.D., 0.53 microns film thickness. The detector was a flame ionization detector. Helium gas at a flow-rate of 3 ml/min was used as a carrier gas. The analysis were performed with linear temperature programming. Nine components were detected and special attention was given to the major phenolic compound, eugenol.
  7. Arifin K, Minggu LJ, Daud WR, Yamin BM, Daik R, Kassim MB
    PMID: 24184623 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2013.09.069
    A new homoleptic dithiolene tungsten complex, tris-{1,2-bis(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,2-ethylenodithiolene-S,S'}tungsten, was successfully synthesized via a reaction of the thiophosphate ester and sodium tungstate. The thiophosphate ester was prepared from 3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde via benzoin condensation to produce the intermediate 1,2-bis-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-hydroxy-ethanone compound, followed by a reaction of the intermediate with phosphorus pentasulfide. FTIR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, 1H NMR and 13C NMR and elemental analysis confirmed the product as tris{1,2-bis-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,2-ethylenodithiolene-S,S'}tungsten with the molecular formula of C54H54O12S6W. Crystals of the product adopted a monoclinic system with space group of P2(1)/n, where a=12.756(2) Å, b=21.560(3) Å, c=24.980(4) Å and β=103.998(3)°. Three thioester ligands were attached to the tungsten as bidentate chelates to form a distorted octahedral geometry. Density functional theory calculations were performed to investigate the molecular properties in a generalized-gradient approximation framework system using Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functions and a double numeric plus polarization basis set. The HOMO was concentrated on the phenyl ligands, while the LUMO was found along the W(S2C2)3 rings. The theoretical optical properties showed a slight blue shift in several low dielectric solvents. The solvatochromism effect was insignificant for high polar solvents.
  8. Ibrahim MN, Ngah WS, Norliyana MS, Daud WR, Rafatullah M, Sulaiman O, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2010 Oct 15;182(1-3):377-85.
    PMID: 20619537 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.06.044
    The present study explores the ability of modified soda lignin (MSL) extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) in removing lead (II) ions from aqueous solutions. The effect of contact time, point zero charge (pH(pzc)) and pH of the solution, initial metal ion concentration and adsorbent dosage on the removal process were investigated. Furthermore, the MSL is characterized by SEM, XRF, FT-IR and surface area analysis. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models of adsorption. The kinetic data obtained at different initial concentrations were analyzed using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The results provide strong evidence to support the hypothesis of adsorption mechanism.
  9. Kim BH, Lim SS, Daud WR, Gadd GM, Chang IS
    Bioresour Technol, 2015 Aug;190:395-401.
    PMID: 25976915 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.04.084
    The cathode reaction is one of the most important limiting factors in bioelectrochemical systems even with precious metal catalysts. Since aerobic bacteria have a much higher affinity for oxygen than any known abiotic cathode catalysts, the performance of a microbial fuel cell can be improved through the use of electrochemically-active oxygen-reducing bacteria acting as the cathode catalyst. These consume electrons available from the electrode to reduce the electron acceptors present, probably conserving energy for growth. Anaerobic bacteria reduce protons to hydrogen in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). These aerobic and anaerobic bacterial activities resemble those catalyzing microbially-influenced corrosion (MIC). Sulfate-reducing bacteria and homoacetogens have been identified in MEC biocathodes. For sustainable operation, microbes in a biocathode should conserve energy during such electron-consuming reactions probably by similar mechanisms as those occurring in MIC. A novel hypothesis is proposed here which explains how energy can be conserved by microbes in MEC biocathodes.
  10. Liew JWY, Loh KS, Ahmad A, Lim KL, Wan Daud WR
    PLoS One, 2017;12(9):e0185313.
    PMID: 28957374 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0185313
    Polymer electrolyte membranes based on the natural polymer κ-carrageenan were modified and characterized for application in electrochemical devices. In general, pure κ-carrageenan membranes show a low ionic conductivity. New membranes were developed by chemically modifying κ-carrageenan via phosphorylation to produce O-methylene phosphonic κ-carrageenan (OMPC), which showed enhanced membrane conductivity. The membranes were prepared by a solution casting method. The chemical structure of OMPC samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy. The conductivity properties of the membranes were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The characterization demonstrated that the membranes had been successfully produced. The ionic conductivity of κ-carrageenan and OMPC were 2.79 × 10-6 S cm-1 and 1.54 × 10-5 S cm-1, respectively. The hydrated membranes showed a two orders of magnitude higher ionic conductivity than the dried membranes.
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