Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 38 in total

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  1. Aliakbarpour H, Che Salmah MR, Dieng H
    Environ Entomol, 2010 Oct;39(5):1409-19.
    PMID: 22546435 DOI: 10.1603/EN10066
    Thrips are key pests of mango, Mangifera indica (L.), in Malaysia, including the Northern Peninsular. As Penang has year-round equatorial climate and high of rainfall, the populations of thrips may be subject to variations in composition and size. With a goal of developing an appropriate control strategy, a survey was conducted in Penang to determine species composition and abundance in relation to some environmental factors. Sprayed and unsprayed orchards were sampled on weekly basis through two flowering seasons of 2009 using CO(2) collection technique. Larval population falling into the ground to pupate and adults emerging from the soil were investigated in both orchards. Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan) and Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood) were the most prevalent species in the sprayed and the unsprayed orchards, respectively. The abundance of thrips was high during the flowering period of the dry season and decreased during the flowering period of the rainy season. This latter period coincided with decreased temperature and increased relative humidity. Percentage of adult emergence from the soil was lower in the rainy season than recorded in the dry season in both orchards. Taken together, these observations suggest that T. hawaiiensis and S. dorsalis are the main thrips species pests of mango panicles in Penang. Direct control with insecticides focusing on these two species may help to reduce cosmetic injuries and other damages on mango fruits.
  2. Zuharah WF, Fadzly N, Yusof NA, Dieng H
    J. Insect Sci., 2015;15.
    PMID: 26386041 DOI: 10.1093/jisesa/iev115
    Viable biocontrol agents for mosquito control are quite rare, therefore improving the efficacy of existing biological agents is an important study. We need to have a better understanding of the predation-risk behavioral responses toward prey. This research examined prey choices by Toxorhynchites splendens by monitoring the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles sinensis larvae when exposed to the predator. The results show that Tx. splendens prefers to consume Ae. aegypti larvae. The larvae exhibited different behavioral responses when Tx. splendens was present which suggest vulnerability in the presence of predators. "Thrashing" and "browsing" activities were greater in Ae. aegypti larvae. Such active and risky movements could cause vulnerability for the Ae. aegypti larvae due to increasing of water disturbance. In contrast, Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis larvae exhibited passive, low-risk behaviors, spending most of the time on the "wall" position near the edges of the container. We postulated that Ae. aegypti has less ability to perceive cues from predation and could not successfully alter its behavior to reduce risk of predation risk compared with Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis. Our results suggest that Tx. splendens is a suitable biocontrol agent in controlling dengue hemorrhagic vector, Ae. aegypti.
  3. Zuharah WF, Ahbirami R, Dieng H, Thiagaletchumi M, Fadzly N
    PMID: 27253746 DOI: 10.1590/S1678-9946201658044
    Plant derived insecticides have considerable potential for mosquito control because these products are safer than conventional insecticides. This study aimed to investigate sublethal activities of Ipomoea carica or railway creeper crude acethonilic extract against life history trait of dengue vectors, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti. The late third instar larvae of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti were exposed to a sublethal dose at LC50 and larvae that survived were further cultured. Overall, Ipomea cairica crude extracts affected the whole life history of both Aedes species. The study demonstrated significantly lower egg production (fecundity) and eggs hatchability (fertility) in Ae. albopictus. The sublethal dose of crude extracts reduced significantly the width of larval head capsule and the wing length of both sexes in both Aedes species. The significance of sublethal effects of I. cairica against Aedes mosquitoes was an additional hallmark to demonstrate further activity of this plant despite its direct toxicity to the larvae. The reduced reproductive capacity as well as morphological and physiological anomalies are some of the effects that make I. cairica a potential candidate to be used as a new plant-based insecticide to control dengue vectors.
  4. Marcela P, Hassan AA, Hamdan A, Dieng H, Kumara TK
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 2015 Dec;31(4):313-20.
    PMID: 26675452 DOI: 10.2987/moco-31-04-313-320.1
    Mating behavior between Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, established colony strains were examined under laboratory conditions (30-cm(3) screened cages) for 5 consecutive days. The effect of selected male densities (30, 20, 10) and female density (20) on the number of swarming, mating pairs, eggs produced, and inseminated females were evaluated. Male densities significantly increased swarming behavior, mating pairs, and egg production of heterospecific females, but female insemination was reduced. Aedes aegypti males mate more readily with heterospecific females than do Ae. albopictus males. The current study suggests that Ae. aegypti males were not species-specific in mating, and if released into the field as practiced in genetically modified mosquito techniques, they may mate with both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females, hence reducing populations of both species by producing infertile eggs.
  5. Zuharah WF, Fadzly N, Ali Y, Zakaria R, Juperi S, Asyraf M, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Jun;31(2):297-304.
    PMID: 25134898 MyJurnal
    Vector-borne diseases are still rife because of the re-emergence of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of crude leaf extract of Mangifera indica, Gluta renghas, and Melanochyla fasciculiflora against vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever, Aedes aegypti. These plant species are endemic species and widely distributed in Malaysian forests. Leaves of Ma. indica, G. renghas and M. fascculiflora were collected from Teluk Bahang National Park, Penang Malaysia. Fractions of leaves were segregated, air-dried, powdered and extracted using Soxhlet with methanol. The solvent was removed by using rotary evaporator to obtain the crude extract. Using WHO standard larval bioassay test method, third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti were exposed to concentration ranging from 200- 4500 ppm of methanol extract for all plant species. Larval mortality was observed after 24 hours exposure. The highest susceptibility and toxicity was recorded by Mangifera indica with the lowest concentration at 800 ppm followed by M. fasciculiflora and G. renghas. This indicates that crude plant extract is very effective in killing Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. This finding may lead to new low cost alternative, environmentally friendly method for mosquito control programs. To our knowledge, this is the first report on larvicidal bioefficacy from endemic Malaysian plants.
  6. Thiagaletchumi M, Zuharah WF, Ahbi Rami R, Fadzly N, Dieng H, Ahmad AH, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Sep;31(3):466-76.
    PMID: 25382473 MyJurnal
    Specification on residual action of a possible alternative insecticide derived from plant materials is important to determine minimum interval time between applications and the environmental persistence of the biopesticides. The objective of this study is to evaluate crude acethonilic extract of Ipomoea cairica leaves for its residual and persistence effects against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Wild strain of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were used for the purpose of the study. Two test designs, replenishment of water and without replenishment of water were carried out. For the first design, a total of 10 ml of test solution containing Ip. cairica extracts was replenished daily and replaced with 10 ml of distilled water. For the second design, treatment water was maintained at 1500 ml and only evaporated water was refilled. Larval mortality was recorded at 24 hours post-treatment after each introduction period and trials were terminated when mortality rate falls below 50%. Adult emergences from survived larvae were observed and number of survivals was recorded. For the non-replenishment design, mortality rate significantly reduced to below 50% after 28 days, meanwhile for replenishment of water declined significantly after 21 days (P < 0.05). There was no adult emergence observed up to seven days for non-replenishment and first two days for replenishment of water design. The short period of residual effectiveness of crude acethonilic extract of Ip. cairica leaves with high percentage of larval mortality on the first few days, endorses fewer concerns of having excess residues in the environment which may carry the risk of insecticide resistance and environmental pollution.
  7. Saifur RG, Hassan AA, Dieng H, Salmah MR, Saad AR, Satho T
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 2013 Mar;29(1):33-43.
    PMID: 23687853
    We studied the diversity of Aedes breeding sites in various urban, suburban, and rural areas over time between February 2009 and February 2010 in the dengue endemic areas of Penang Island, Malaysia. We categorized the breeding sites and efficiency, and identified the key breeding containers. Among the 3 areas, the rural areas produced the highest container index (55), followed by suburban (42) and urban (32) areas. The numbers of key premises and containers were significantly higher (P < 0.000) in rural areas. The class 1 containers were identified as the key containers with higher productivity and efficiency, although class 2 and class 4 are the highest in numbers. Aedes aegypti immatures were found mostly in drums, water reservoirs, and polyethylene sheets, while mixed breeding was more common in buckets and empty paint cans in urban and suburban areas. Aedes albopictus was found mainly in miscellaneous containers such as drums, empty paint cans, and covers in all areas. The main potential containers indoors were drums, water reservoirs, and empty paint cans, and containers outdoors included empty paint cans, drums, and polyethylene sheets.
  8. Abrika OS, Yam MF, Asmawi MZ, Sadikun A, Dieng H, Hussain EA
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud, 2013 Aug;6(4):199-207.
    PMID: 23972242 DOI: 10.1016/j.jams.2013.01.020
    There is currently a great deal of research interest in utilizing plant compounds against human diseases, including hypertension. The present study investigated the effects of different extracts and fractions from leaves of Gynura procumbens Merr. on rat atrial contraction in vitro. Isolated left and right atria, mounted in a 20-ml organ bath, were allowed to equilibrate for 15 min before the application of the extracts or fractions. The extracts (petroleum-ether extract (PE) and methanol extract (ME)) and the fractions (chloroform fraction (CHL), ethyl-acetate fraction (EA), n-butanol fraction (NB) and water fraction (WA) of the methanol extract) were tested at three concentrations (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml), with a β-adrenergic agonist (isoprenaline) as a control. All data on contraction responses were log-transformed and analyzed. When exposed to the different extracts, both atria tended to exhibit greater contractive responses with the NB whereas cardiac contractions had a tendency to be reduced with most other extracts. For a given extract, the contraction responses were particularly greater at 0.5 mg/ml for the right atrium and at 1 mg/ml for the left atrium. Further analysis focusing on the NB fraction revealed that positive inotropism was greater in left atria exposed to highly-concentrated F2 and F3 sub-fractions. Taken together, our results suggest that NB extracts and fractions from the G. procumbens-leaf methanol extract have positive inotropic activities and, hence, can be considered as an alternative/traditional medicine against increased blood pressure in humans or can be used in strategies aimed at finding antihypertensive biomolecules from an accessible source.
  9. Kermani N, Abu-Hassan ZA, Dieng H, Ismail NF, Attia M, Abd Ghani I
    PLoS One, 2013;8(5):e62884.
    PMID: 23675435 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062884
    Biological control using pathogenic microsporidia could be an alternative to chemical control of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The microsporidium Nosema bombycis (NB) is one of the numerous pathogens that can be used in the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of DBM. However, its pathogenicity or effectiveness can be influenced by various factors, particularly temperature. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of temperature on NB infection of DBM larvae. Second-instar larvae at different doses (spore concentration: 0, 1×10²,1×10³,1×10⁴, and 1×10⁵) at 15°, 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C and a relative humidity(RH) of 65% and light dark cycle (L:D) of 12∶12. Larval mortality was recorded at 24 h intervals until the larvae had either died or pupated. The results showed that the spore concentration had a significant negative effect on larval survival at all temperatures, although this effect was more pronounced (92%) at 35°C compared with that at 20 and 30°C (≃50%) and 25°C (26%). Histological observations showed that Nosema preferentially infected the adipose tissue and epithelial cells of the midgut, resulting in marked vacuolization of the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that Nosema damaged the midgut epithelial cells. Our results suggest that Nosema had a direct adverse effect on DBM, and could be utilized as an important biopesticide alternative to chemical insecticides in IPM.
  10. Ahmad A, Ahmad AH, Dieng H, Satho T, Ahmad H, Aziz AT, et al.
    J Med Entomol, 2011 Nov;48(6):1236-46.
    PMID: 22238885
    There is accumulating evidence that criminals wrap dead bodies in an attempt to conceal evidence. To anticipate the forensic implications of this phenomenon, we examined whether flies that are naturally associated with cadavers exhibit a delay in attendance or differ in species composition and abundance patterns because of the presence of wrapping material. Wrapped and exposed carcasses of dead monkeys placed in an oil plantation in Kedah, Malaysia, were visited over 50 d. On daily visits to each of the six carcasses, visiting adult flies were sampled using hand nets. Flies of 12 families were encountered. Calliphoridae (Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart and C. megacephala (F.) was the most prevalent family, followed by Sphaeroceridae. Some families tended to be more abundant in WRCs (i.e., Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Phoridae), whereas others (i.e., Piophilidae, Sepsidae, and Psychodidae) were more prevalent in exposed carcasses. Wrapping delayed the arrival of all fly species encountered, with delays varying from 1 to 13 d depending on species. Wrapping did not affect species composition of flies, but prolong the occurrence of some species. The results of the current study emphasize the need to take into consideration the presence of a wrap when estimating postmortem interval.
  11. Saifur RG, Dieng H, Hassan AA, Salmah MR, Satho T, Miake F, et al.
    PLoS One, 2012;7(2):e30919.
    PMID: 22363516 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030919
    The domestic dengue vector Aedes aegypti mosquitoes breed in indoor containers. However, in northern peninsular Malaysia, they show equal preference for breeding in both indoor and outdoor habitats. To evaluate the epidemiological implications of this peridomestic adaptation, we examined whether Ae. aegypti exhibits decreased survival, gonotrophic activity, and fecundity due to lack of host availability and the changing breeding behavior.
  12. Aida HN, Dieng H, Ahmad AH, Satho T, Nurita AT, Salmah MR, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2011 Dec;1(6):472-7.
    PMID: 23569816 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60103-2
    OBJECTIVE: To generate life table characteristics for the dengue vector Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus) under uncontrolled conditions, incorporating both the aquatic and the adult stages.

    METHODS: Ten females derived from wild pupae were allowed to fully blood-feed on restrained mice. 774 eggs were hatched in seasoned water. F1 larvae were followed for development until their F2 counterparts emerged as adults. Some population parameters were monitored (F1) or estimated (F2).

    RESULTS: A. albopictus exhibited increased fecundity and egg hatch success. Immature development was quick. Immature survival was high, with lowest rate in the pupal stage. Adult emergence was about 81% and sex ratio was close to 1:1. Generational mortality (K) was about 28%. A high proportion of females completed a reproductive cycle and the obtained parity rate was predicted to lead to higher fecundity in the next generation.

    CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that natural A. albopictus populations in Penang seem largely determined by quick development in combination with low immature loss and increased oviposition.

  13. Saifur RG, Dieng H, Hassan AA, Satho T, Miake F, Boots M, et al.
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 2010 Dec;26(4):373-80.
    PMID: 21290932
    Moisture plays a major role in the dynamics of mosquito populations, especially those breeding in container habitats. Despite this importance, the role of moisture conditions as they affect oviposition and egg development in Aedes vectors remains largely unexplored. We investigated the effect of exposing gravid female Aedes albopictus mosquitoes and their eggs to different moisture levels (MLs) for various periods on oviposition and hatching. Overall, high-moisture substrates (HMSs; 66% and 72%) provided better environments for egg laying. The timing of initial egg laying was far longer at the lowest substrate moisture level (LSML, 25% and 41.2%) than at HMSs. The numbers of eggs laid were much lower in the drier environments. At LSMLs, gravid females retained increasing numbers of mature eggs until death, and egg retention decreased gradually with increasing ML. The HMSs also provided better environments for larval eclosion. The numbers of eggs hatched were lower at the LSML than the HSML environment. No egg hatching occurred after 1 h exposure to moisture. However, egg hatching occurred by installment, with spontaneous hatching (SH) increasing gradually with increasing ML. High-moisture conditions combined with long exposure (30 h and 48 h) favored SH. These results suggest that Ae. albopictus females can respond to better moisture conditions for increased success of embryonation and larval eclosion. This information may be useful in the colonization of floodwater Aedes species.
  14. Dieng H, Rahman GM, Abu Hassan A, Che Salmah MR, Satho T, Miake F, et al.
    Int J Biometeorol, 2012 Jan;56(1):113-20.
    PMID: 21267602 DOI: 10.1007/s00484-011-0402-0
    Larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse typically inhabit natural and artificial containers. Since these larval habitats are replenished by rainfall, Ae. albopictus may experience increased loss of immature stages in areas with high levels of rainfall. In this study, we investigated the effects of rainfall and container water level on population density, and oviposition activity of Ae. albopictus. In field and laboratory experiments, we found that rainfall resulted in the flushing of breeding habitats. Excess rain negatively impacted larval and pupal retention, especially in small habitats. When filled with water to overflowing, container habitats were significantly repellent to ovipositing females. Taken together, these data suggest that rainfall triggers population loss of Ae. albopictus and related species through a direct detrimental effect (flushing out) and an indirect effect (ovipositional repellency).
  15. Suwanprinya L, Morales NP, Sanvarinda P, Dieng H, Okabayashi T, Morales Vargas RE
    Jpn. J. Infect. Dis., 2017 07 24;70(4):383-387.
    PMID: 28003593 DOI: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2016.236
    Encephalitis has been described worldwide as a severe complication in patients infected by dengue virus. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is a key mechanism involved in the neuronal damage caused by viral encephalitis. In the present study, the capability of dengue virus serotypes 2 (DENV2) and DENV4 to induce ROS production was investigated in a rat microglial cell line, HAPI cells. The cells were infected with DENV2 and DENV4 at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1 for a 2-h adsorption period. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was used as the reference. DENV2- and DENV4-induced microglial activation and significantly increased ROS production corresponded to decreased cell viability. The activity of DENV4 was significantly higher than the activities of DENV2 and JEV at 48 and 72 h post infection. DENV4 partly induced ROS production via an iron-induced Fenton reaction, as demonstrated by the treatment with an iron chelator, deferiprone. Despite the induction of increased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide (NO) production by JEV, DENV2, and DENV4 did not induce NO production, suggesting the activation of different pathways in response to infections by different viruses. In conclusion, DENV2 and DENV4 have the capability to induce ROS production and activate microglia, which have been reported as the key components of neuronal damage.
  16. Muhammad NAF, Abu Kassim NF, Ab Majid AH, Abd Rahman A, Dieng H, Avicor SW
    PLoS One, 2020;15(11):e0241688.
    PMID: 33175896 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0241688
    Urbanization could potentially modify Aedes albopictus' ecology by changing the dynamics of the species, and affecting their breeding sites due to environmental changes, and thus contribute to dengue outbreaks. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the biting rhythm, fecundity and longevity of adult female Ae. albopictus in relation to urbanization strata; urban, suburban and rural areas in Penang Island, Malaysia. The experiments were done in comparison to a laboratory strain. Twenty-four hours biting activity of all the mosquito strains showed a clear bimodal biting activity, with morning and evening twilight peaks. The interaction effect between biting time and mosquito strains was not significant. Meanwhile, differences in fecundity among mosquito strains were statistically significant (F(3,442) = 10.559, P < 0.05) with urban areas having higher mean number of eggs (mean = 107.69, standard error = 3.98) than suburban (mean = 94.48, standard error = 5.18), and rural areas (mean = 72.52, standard error = 3.87). Longevity of adult females were significantly higher (F(3,441) = 31.259, P < 0.05) for mosquito strains from urban areas compared to the other strains. These findings would provide crucial information for the planning of control programs in Malaysia, particularly Penang.
  17. Ahbirami R, Zuharah WF, Yahaya ZS, Dieng H, Thiagaletchumi M, Fadzly N, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Sep;31(3):456-65.
    PMID: 25382472
    Bioprospecting of plant-based insecticides for vector control has become an area of interest within the last two decades. Due to drawbacks of chemical insecticides, phytochemicals of plant origin with mosquito control potential are being utilized as alternative sources in integrated vector control. In this regard, the present study aimed to investigate oviposition deterring and oviciding potentials of Ipomoea cairica (L.) (Family: Convolvulaceae) crude leaf extract against dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Ipomoea cairica is an indigenous plant that has demonstrated marked toxicity towards larvae of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Leaves of I. cairica were extracted using Soxhlet apparatus with acetone as solvent. Oviposition deterrent activity and ovicidal assay was carried out in oviposition site choice tests with three different concentrations (50, 100, 450 ppm). Acetone extract of I. cairica leaf strongly inhibited oviposition with 100% repellence to Ae. aegypti at lower concentration of 100 ppm, while for Ae. albopictus was at 450 ppm. The oviposition activity index (OAI) values which ranged from -0.69 to -1.00 revealed that I. cairica demonstrated deterrent effect. In ovicidal assay, similar trend was observed whereby zero hatchability was recorded for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus eggs at 100 and 450 ppm, respectively. It is noteworthy that I. cairica leaf extract had significantly elicited dual properties as oviposition deterrent and oviciding agent in both Aedes species. Reduction in egg number through oviposition deterring activity, reduction in hatching percentage and survival rates, suggested an additional hallmark of this plant to be integrated in Aedes mosquito control. Ipomoea cairica deserved to be considered as one of the potential alternative sources for the new development of novel plant based insecticides in future.
  18. Ghani IA, Dieng H, Abu Hassan ZA, Ramli N, Kermani N, Satho T, et al.
    PLoS One, 2013;8(12):e81642.
    PMID: 24349104 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081642
    Due to problems with chemical control, there is increasing interest in the use of microsporidia for control of lepidopteran pests. However, there have been few studies to evaluate the susceptibility of exotic species to microsporidia from indigenous Lepidoptera.
  19. Dieng H, Saifur RG, Hassan AA, Salmah MR, Boots M, Satho T, et al.
    PLoS One, 2010;5(7):e11790.
    PMID: 20668543 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011790
    The mosquito Ae. albopictus is usually adapted to the peri-domestic environment and typically breeds outdoors. However, we observed its larvae in most containers within homes in northern peninsular Malaysia. To anticipate the epidemiological implications of this indoor-breeding, we assessed some fitness traits affecting vectorial capacity during colonization process. Specifically, we examined whether Ae. albopictus exhibits increased survival, gonotrophic activity and fecundity due to the potential increase in blood feeding opportunities.
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