OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the organophosphorus pesticide urinary metabolite levels and its predictors among Orang Asli children of the Mah Meri tribe living in an agricultural island in Kuala Langat, Selangor.
METHODS: Data collection was carried out at an island in Kuala Langat, Selangor, where a total of 180 Orang Asli children of the Mah Meri tribe voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected via a validated, modified questionnaire. Urinary organophosphate metabolites, namely dimethylphosphate, diethylphosphate, dimethylthiophosphate, dimethyldithiophosphate, diethylthiophosphate, and diethyldithiophosphate were measured to assess organophosphate pesticide exposure in children.
FINDINGS: Eighty-four (46.7%) of the respondents were positive for urine dialkyl phosphate metabolites. In multivariable analysis, children who frequently consumed apples had 4 times higher risk of pesticide detection than those who consumed apple less frequently. In addition, those who frequently ate cucumbers had 4 times higher risk for pesticide detection than those who ate cucumbers less frequently. Children with a father whose occupation involved high exposure to pesticides (agriculture) had 3 times higher risk of pesticide detection than those with a father in a low-risk occupation (nonagriculture).
CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of the children (46.7%) in the study area tested positive for urinary dialkyl phosphate metabolite levels. Most of the metabolite levels were equal to or higher than that reported in other previous studies. Major factors associated with pesticide detection in children in this study were frequent intake of apple and cucumber and fathers who are working in an agricultural area.
METHODS: This is an extensive literature review of published articles on IPD in selected developing countries from East Asia, South Asia, Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America. We reviewed all the articles retrieved from the knowledge bases that were published between the years 2000 and 2010.
RESULTS: After applying the inclusion, exclusion, and quality criteria, the comprehensive review of the literature yielded 10 articles with data for pneumococcal meningitis, septicemia/bacteremia, and pneumonia. These selected articles were from 10 developing countries from five different regions. Out of the 10 selected articles, 8 have a detailed discussion on IPD, one of them has s detailed discussion on bacteremia and meningitis, and another one has discussed pneumococcal bacteremia. Out of these 10 articles, only 5 articles discussed the case-fatality ratio (CFR). In our article review, the incidence of IPD ranged from less than 5/100,000 to 416/100,000 population and the CFR ranged from 12.2% to 80% in the developing countries.
CONCLUSIONS: The review demonstrated that the clinical burden of IPD was high in the developing countries. The incidence of IPD and CFR varies from region to region and from country to country. The IPD burden was highest in sub-Saharan African countries followed by South Asian countries. The CFR was low in high-income countries than in low-income countries.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the genotoxic risk among children who exposed to pesticides and measure DNA damage due to pesticides exposure.
METHODS: In a cross-sectional study 180 Orang Asli Mah Meri children aged between 7 and 12 years were studied. They were all living in an agricultural island in Kuala Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. The data for this study were collected via modified validated questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire, which consisted of 131 food items. 6 urinary organophosphate metabolites were used as biomarkers for pesticides exposure. For genotoxic risk or genetic damage assessment, the level of DNA damage from exfoliated buccal mucosa cells was measured using the comet assay electrophoresis method.
RESULTS: Out of 180 respondents, 84 (46.7%) showed positive traces of organophosphate metabolites in their urine. Children with detectable urinary pesticide had a longer tail length (median 43.5; IQR 30.9 to 68.1 μm) than those with undetectable urinary pesticides (median 24.7; IQR 9.5 to 48.1 μm). There was a significant association between the extent of DNA damage and the children's age, length of residence in the area, pesticides detection, and frequency of apple consumption.
CONCLUSION: The organophosphate genotoxicity among children is associated with the amount of exposure (detectability of urinary pesticide) and length of residence in (exposure) the study area.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among breast cancer patients at University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC), Kuala Lumpur. A total of 205 patients who were diagnosed between 2007 until 2010 were interviewed using the questionnaires of Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HADS). The associated factors investigated concerned socio-demographics, socio economic background and the cancer status. Descriptive analysis, chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used for the statistical test analysis.
RESULTS: The prevalence of anxiety was 31.7% (n=65 ) and of depression was 22.0% (n=45) among the breast cancer patients. Age group (p= 0.032), monthly income (p=0.015) and number of visits per month (p=0.007) were significantly associated with anxiety. For depression, marital status (p=0.012), accompanying person (p=0.041), financial support (p-0.007) and felt burden (p=0.038) were significantly associated. In binary logistic regression, those in the younger age group were low monthly income were 2 times more likely to be associated with anxiety. Having less financial support and being single were 3 and 4 times more likely to be associated with depression.
CONCLUSIONS: In management of breast cancer patients, more care or support should be given to the young and low socio economic status as they are at high risk of anxiety and depression.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the association between wheezing symptoms among toddlers attending DCCs and indoor particulate matter, PM10, PM2.5, and microbial count level in urban DCCs in the District of Seremban, Malaysia.
METHODS: Data collection was carried out at 10 DCCs located in the urban area of Seremban. Modified validated questionnaires were distributed to parents to obtain their children's health symptoms. The parameters measured were indoor PM2.5, PM10, carbon monoxide, total bacteria count, total fungus count, temperature, air velocity, and relative humidity using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health analytical method.
RESULTS: All 10 DCCs investigated had at least one indoor air quality parameter exceeding the acceptable level of standard guidelines. The prevalence of toddlers having wheezing symptoms was 18.9%. There was a significant different in mean concentration of PM2.5 and total bacteria count between those with and those without wheezing symptoms (P = 0.02, P = 0.006).
CONCLUSIONS: Urban DCCs are exposed to many air pollutants that may enter their buildings from various adjacent sources. The particle concentrations and presence of microbes in DCCs might increase the risk of exposed children for respiratory diseases, particularly asthma, in their later life.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 508 women aged 18 to 55 years from four non-governmental organizations (NGO) in Baghdad city, Iraq. A self-administered questionnaire on breast cancer knowledge and practice was distributed to participants during weekly activity of the NGO.
RESULTS: A total of 61.2% of the respondents had poor knowledge, only 30.3% performed breast self-examination (BSE) and 41.8% said that they did not know the technique to perform BSE. Associations between knowledge and marital status and age were significant. For practice, working status, education, age and family income were significant. After controlling for cofounders, the most important contributing factors for poor knowledge among respondents were marital status and not performing BSE, with adjusted odds ratio of 1.6 and 1.8 respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer knowledge and practice of BSE are poor among women in Baghdad city, Iraq. More promotion regarding breast cancer signs and symptoms and also how to perform BSE should be conducted using media such as television and internet as these constituted the main sources of information for most women in our study.
METHODS: Articles were searched from three databases which were WOS, Scopus, and PubMed. The systemic review identified the primary articles related to SIA that focused on the impact of immunization coverage, challenges, and improvement strategies. The inclusion criteria were open access English articles that were published between 2012 and 2021 and conducted in the Asia region.
RESULTS: There are nine articles described and explained regarding some form of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in their findings across Asia region. The majority of studies selected reported on post vaccination coverage and revealed a multifaceted challenge faced during SIAs which are widely diverse range from the microlevel of interpersonal aspects up to the macrolevel of government policy. Upon further analysis, the intervention at community level was the most dominant strategies reported during the SIA program.
CONCLUSIONS: An effective SIAs program provides the opportunity to increase the national capacity of the polio immunization program, reducing inequities in service delivery and offering additional public health benefits in controlling polio outbreaks in both endemic and nonendemic countries. Strengthening routine immunization (RI) programmes is also important for the sustainability of SIA's programs. Despite the challenges and hurdles, many Asian countries exhibited great political willingness to boost polio immunization coverage through SIA efforts.