Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

  1. Gnanasegaran N, Govindasamy V, Abu Kasim NH
    Int Endod J, 2016 Oct;49(10):937-49.
    PMID: 26354006 DOI: 10.1111/iej.12545
    AIM: To investigate whether dental pulp stem cells from carious teeth (DPSCs-CT) can differentiate into functional dopaminergic-like (DAergic) cells and provide an alternative cell source in regenerative medicine.

    METHODOLOGY: Dental pulp stem cells from healthy (DPSCs) and carious teeth (DPSCs-CT) were isolated from young donors. Both cell lines were expanded in identical culture conditions and subsequently differentiated towards DAergic-like cells using pre-defined dopaminergic cocktails. The dopaminergic efficiencies were evaluated both at gene and protein as well as at secretome levels.

    RESULTS: The efficiency of DPSCs-CT to differentiate into DAergic-like cells was not equivalent to that of DPSCs. This was further reflected in both gene and protein generation whereby key neuronal markers such as nestin, NURR1 and beta-III-tubulin were expressed significantly lower as compared to differentiated DPSCs (P 

  2. Gnanasegaran N, Govindasamy V, Musa S, Abu Kasim NH
    Cytotechnology, 2016 Mar;68(2):343-53.
    PMID: 25322895 DOI: 10.1007/s10616-014-9787-z
    Among the debilitating diseases, neurological related diseases are the most challenging ones to be treated using cell replacement therapies. Recently, dental pulp stem cells (SHED) were found to be most suitable cell choice for neurological related diseases as evidenced with many preclinical studies. To enhance the neurological potential of SHED, we recapitulated one of the pharmacological therapeutic tools in cell replacement treatment, we pre-conditioned dental pulp stem cells (SHED) with culture medium of ReNCell VM, an immortalized neuron progenitor cell, prior to neurogenesis induction and investigated whether this practice enhances their neurogenesis potential especially towards dopaminergic neurons. We hypothesed that the integration of pharmacological practices such as co-administration of various drugs, a wide range of doses and duration as well as pre-conditioning into cell replacement may enhance the efficacy of stem cell therapy. In particular, pre-conditioning is shown to be involved in the protective effect from some membrano-tropic drugs, thereby improving the resistance of cell structures and homing capabilities. We found that cells pre-treated with ReNCell VM conditioned medium displayed bipolar structures with extensive branches resembling putative dopaminergic neurons as compared to non-treated cells. Furthermore, many neuronal related markers such as NES, NR4A2, MSI1, and TH were highly expressed (fold changes > 2; p 
  3. Gnanasegaran N, Govindasamy V, Musa S, Kasim NH
    Int J Med Sci, 2014;11(4):391-403.
    PMID: 24669199 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.7697
    Human adipose stem cells (ASCs) has been in the limelight since its discovery as a suitable source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in regenerative medicine. Currently, two major techniques are used to isolate ASCs, namely liposuction and tissue biopsy. These two methods are relatively risk-free but the question as to which method could give a more efficient output remains unclear. Thus, this study was carried out to compare and contrast the output generated in regards to growth kinetics, differentiation capabilities in vitro, and gene expression profiling. It was found that ASCs from both isolation methods were comparable in terms of growth kinetics and tri-lineage differentiation. Furthermore, ASCs from both populations were reported as CD44(+), CD73(+), CD90(+), CD166(+), CD34(-), CD45(-) and HLA-DR(-). However, in regards to gene expression, a group of overlapping genes as well as distinct genes were observed. Distinct gene expressions indicated that ASCs (liposuction) has endoderm lineage propensity whereas ASCs (biopsy) has a tendency towards mesoderm/ectoderm lineage. This information suggests involvement in different functional activity in accordance to isolation method. In conclusion, future studies to better understand these gene functions should be carried out in order to contribute in the applicability of each respective cells in regenerative therapy.
  4. Yazid FB, Gnanasegaran N, Kunasekaran W, Govindasamy V, Musa S
    Clin Oral Investig, 2014 Dec;18(9):2103-12.
    PMID: 24549764 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-014-1207-4
    The aim of this study was to investigate the immunodulatory properties of dental pulp stem cells derived from healthy (SCD) and inflamed pulp deciduous (SCDIP) tissues. The overall hypothesis is that SCDIP possess equal immune properties with SCD and could be used as an alternative tissue source in regenerative medicine.
  5. Xin LZ, Govindasamy V, Musa S, Abu Kasim NH
    Med Hypotheses, 2013 Oct;81(4):704-6.
    PMID: 23932760 DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2013.07.032
    Dental tissues contains stem cells or progenitors that have high proliferative capacity, are clonogenic in vitro and demonstrate the ability to differentiate to multiple type cells involving neurons, bone, cartilage, fat and smooth muscle. Numerous experiments have demonstrated that the multipotent stem cells are not rejected by immune system and therefore it may be possible to use these cells in allogeneic settings. In addition, these remarkable cells are easily abundantly available couple with less invasive procedure in isolating comparing to bone marrow aspiration. Here we proposed dental stem cells as candidate for cardiac regeneration based on its immature characteristic and propensity towards cardiac lineage via PI3-Kinase/Aktsignalling pathway.
  6. Mamidi MK, Pal R, Govindasamy V, Zakaria Z, Bhonde R
    Med Hypotheses, 2011 Apr;76(4):599-601.
    PMID: 21277690 DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2011.01.010
    The staggering number of publications featuring the use of stem cells has revolutionized regenerative medicine research. Preclinical studies indicate that allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be useful for the treatment of several clinical disorders, including sepsis, acute renal failure, acute myocardial infarction, and more recently, acute lung injury (ALI). However, considerable success would not be obtained in clinical trials due to poor survival of transplanted cells under the influence of inflammatory conditions. Despite robust approaches like cellular reprogramming, scaffolds and conditioned media have been tested to overcome this problem; however the success rate of these approaches remain questionable. Recently, pretreatment of bioactive compounds in vitro have been shown to suppress cell apoptosis and promote cell survival. Quite likely a similar phenomenon can take place in vivo. Based on such studies, we hypothesize that MSCs derived from human post-natal tissues could be conditioned and prepared for targeted disease therapy. Depending on the disease condition, the MSCs could be treated prior to delivery with appropriate bioactive compounds to allow them survive longer and perform a better role as biocatalyst. The advantage of this approach could be the tailor made availability of MSCs preconditioned with appropriate bioactive compounds for disease specific therapy. Therefore, the choice of suitable bioactive molecule is likely to enhance the efficacy of targeted stem cell therapy and preconditioning may provide a novel strategy in maximizing biological and functional properties of MSCs.
  7. Jayaraman P, Nathan P, Vasanthan P, Musa S, Govindasamy V
    Cell Biol Int, 2013 Oct;37(10):1122-8.
    PMID: 23716460 DOI: 10.1002/cbin.10138
    Stem cell biology has gained remarkable interest in recent years, driven by the hope of finding cures for numerous diseases including skin wound healing through transplantation medicine. Initially upon transplantation, these cells home to and differentiate within the injured tissue into specialised cells. Contrariwise, it now appears that only a small percentage of transplanted cells integrate and survive in host tissues. Thus, the foremost mechanism by which stem cells participate in tissue repair seems to be related to their trophic factors. Indeed, stem cells provide the microenvironment with a wide range of growth factors, cytokines and chemokines, which can broadly defined as the stem cells secretome. In in vitro condition, these molecules can be traced from the conditioned medium or spent media harvested from cultured cells. Conditioned medium now serves as a new treatment modality in regenerative medicine and has shown a successful outcome in some diseases. With the emergence of this approach, we described the possibility of using stem cells conditioned medium as a novel and promising alternative to skin wound healing treatment. Numerous pre-clinical data have shown the possibility and efficacy of this treatment. Despite this, significant challenges need to be addressed before translating this technology to the bedside.
  8. Gnanasegaran N, Govindasamy V, Mani V, Abu Kasim NH
    IUBMB Life, 2017 09;69(9):689-699.
    PMID: 28685937 DOI: 10.1002/iub.1655
    In neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, microglial cell activation is thought to contribute to their degeneration by producing neurotoxic compounds. While dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have been regarded as the next possible cell source for cell replacement therapy (CRT), their actual role when exposed in such harsh environment remains elusive. In this study, the immunomodulatory behavior of DPSCs from human subjects was investigated in a coculture system consisting of neuron and microglia which were treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine, which mimics the inflammatory conditions and contribute to degeneration of dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons. Assessments were performed on their proliferation, extent of DNA damage, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), as well as secretion of inflammatory mediators. Notably, DPSCs were shown to attenuate their proliferation, production of ROS, and NO significantly (P 
  9. Gnanasegaran N, Govindasamy V, Kathirvaloo P, Musa S, Abu Kasim NH
    J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2018 02;12(2):e881-e893.
    PMID: 28079995 DOI: 10.1002/term.2401
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by tremors and cognitive issues, and is due to the death of dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons in brain circuits that are responsible for producing neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). Currently, cell replacement therapies are underway to improve upon existing therapeutic approaches such as drug treatments and electrical stimulation. Among the widely available sources, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) from deciduous teeth have gained popularity because of their neural crest origin and inherent propensity toward neuronal lineage. Despite the various pre-clinical studies conducted, an important factor yet to be elucidated is the influence of growth phases in a typical trans-differentiation process. This study selected DPSCs at three distinct time points with variable growth phase proportions (G0/G1, S and G2/M) for in vitro trans-differentiation into DA-ergic-like cells. Using commercially available PCR arrays, we identified distinct gene profiles pertaining to cell cycles in these phases. The differentiation outcomes were assessed in terms of morphology and gene and protein expression, as well as with functional assays. It was noted that DPSCs with the highest G0/G1 phase were comparatively the best, representing at least a 2-fold up regulation (p 
  10. Haque N, Widera D, Govindasamy V, Soesilawati P, Abu Kasim NH
    Curr Mol Med, 2022;22(2):120-131.
    PMID: 33550972 DOI: 10.2174/1566524021666210125114828
    Cell-based regenerative therapies involving stem or progenitor cells are considered as possible therapeutic modalities to treat non-communicable and degenerative diseases. Recently, regenerative outcomes of cell-based therapies have been linked to paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles [EVs] released by the transplanted cells rather than the transplanted cells themselves. EVs contain a cargo that includes microRNAs [miRNAs], mRNAs, as well as proteins. Their role in mediating intercellular communication has been acknowledged in several studies. However, the regenerative potential of the miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins that are present in EVs is a matter of ongoing scientific debate. In this review, we discuss EVs as an alternative to stem cell-based therapy to treat some of the non-communicable and degenerative diseases. Moreover, we also propose that pre-treatment of the cells could help to produce EVs enriched with particular miRNAs, mRNAs, and/or proteins that could support the successful regeneration of a targeted organ.
  11. Loo ZX, Kunasekaran W, Govindasamy V, Musa S, Abu Kasim NH
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:186508.
    PMID: 25548778 DOI: 10.1155/2014/186508
    Human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) and adipose stem cells (ASC) were suggested as alternative cell choice for cardiac regeneration. However, the true functionability of these cells toward cardiac regeneration is yet to be discovered. Hence, this study was carried out to investigate the innate biological properties of these cell sources toward cardiac regeneration. Both cells exhibited indistinguishable MSCs characteristics. Human stem cell transcription factor arrays were used to screen expression levels in SHED and ASC. Upregulated expression of transcription factor (TF) genes was detected in both sources. An almost equal percentage of >2-fold changes were observed. These TF genes fall under several cardiovascular categories with higher expressions which were observed in growth and development of blood vessel, angiogenesis, and vasculogenesis categories. Further induction into cardiomyocyte revealed ASC to express more significantly cardiomyocyte specific markers compared to SHED during the differentiation course evidenced by morphology and gene expression profile. Despite this, spontaneous cellular beating was not detected in both cell lines. Taken together, our data suggest that despite being defined as MSCs, both ASC and SHED behave differently when they were cultured in a same cardiomyocytes culture condition. Hence, vigorous characterization is needed before introducing any cell for treating targeted diseases.
  12. Vasanthan P, Govindasamy V, Gnanasegaran N, Kunasekaran W, Musa S, Abu Kasim NH
    J Cell Mol Med, 2015 Mar;19(3):566-80.
    PMID: 25475098 DOI: 10.1111/jcmm.12381
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate translation of mRNA into protein and play a crucial role for almost all biological activities. However, the identification of miRNAs from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), especially from dental pulp, is poorly understood. In this study, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were characterized in terms of their proliferation and differentiation capacity. Furthermore, 104 known mature miRNAs were profiled by using real-time PCR. Notably, we observed 19 up-regulated miRNAs and 29 significantly down-regulated miRNAs in DPSCs in comparison with bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs). The 19 up-regulated miRNAs were subjected to ingenuity analysis, which were composed into 25 functional networks. We have chosen top 2 functional networks, which comprised 10 miRNA (hsa-miR-516a-3p, hsa-miR-125b-1-3p, hsa-miR-221-5p, hsa-miR-7, hsa-miR-584-5p, hsa-miR-190a, hsa-miR-106a-5p, hsa-mir-376a-5p, hsa-mir-377-5p and hsa-let-7f-2-3p). Prediction of target mRNAs and associated biological pathways regulated by each of this miRNA was carried out. We paid special attention to hsa-miR-516a-3p and hsa-miR-7-5p as these miRNAs were highly expressed upon validation with qRT-PCR analysis. We further proceeded with loss-of-function analysis with these miRNAs and we observed that hsa-miR-516a-3p knockdown induced a significant increase in the expression of WNT5A. Likewise, the knockdown of hsa-miR-7-5p increased the expression of EGFR. Nevertheless, further validation revealed the role of WNT5A as an indirect target of hsa-miR-516a-3p. These results provide new insights into the dynamic role of miRNA expression in DPSCs. In conclusion, using miRNA signatures in human as a prediction tool will enable us to elucidate the biological processes occurring in DPSCs.
  13. Abdullah M, Rahman FA, Gnanasegaran N, Govindasamy V, Abu Kasim NH, Musa S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:235941.
    PMID: 24616615 DOI: 10.1155/2014/235941
    Lead (Pb(2+)) exposure continues to be a significant public health problem. Therefore, it is vital to have a continuous epidemiological dataset for a better understanding of Pb(2+) toxicity. In the present study, we have exposed stem cells isolated from deciduous and permanent teeth, periodontal ligament, and bone marrow to five different types of Pb(2+) concentrations (160, 80, 40, 20, and 10 µM) for 24 hours to identify the adverse effects of Pb(2+) on the proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression on these cell lines. We found that Pb(2+) treatment altered the morphology and adhesion of the cells in a dose-dependent manner. There were no significant changes in terms of cell surface phenotypes. Cells exposed to Pb(2+) continued to differentiate into chondrogenesis and adipogenesis, and a severe downregulation was observed in osteogenesis. Gene expression studies revealed a constant expression of key markers associated with stemness (Oct 4, Rex 1) and DNA repair enzyme markers, but downregulation occurred with some ectoderm and endoderm markers, demonstrating an irregular and untimely differentiation trail. Our study revealed for the first time that Pb(2+) exposure not only affects the phenotypic characteristics but also induces significant alteration in the differentiation and gene expression in the cells.
  14. Musa S, Xin LZ, Govindasamy V, Fuen FW, Kasim NH
    Expert Opin Biol Ther, 2014 Jan;14(1):63-73.
    PMID: 24191782 DOI: 10.1517/14712598.2014.858694
    Acute myocardial infarction is the primary cause of heart disease-related death in the world. Reperfusion therapy is currently the backbone of treatment for acute myocardial infarction albeit with many limitations. With the emergence of stem cells as potential therapeutic agents, attempts in using them to enhance cardiac function have increased exponentially. However, it has its own disadvantages, and we postulate that the primary drawback is choosing the right cell type and solving this may significantly contribute to ambitious goal of using stem cells in the regeneration medicine.
  15. Srijaya TC, Pradeep PJ, Zain RB, Musa S, Abu Kasim NH, Govindasamy V
    Stem Cells Int, 2012;2012:423868.
    PMID: 22654919 DOI: 10.1155/2012/423868
    Induced pluripotent stem cell-based therapy for treating genetic disorders has become an interesting field of research in recent years. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the applicability of induced pluripotent stem cells in dental research. Recent advances in the use of induced pluripotent stem cells have the potential for developing disease-specific iPSC lines in vitro from patients. Indeed, this has provided a perfect cell source for disease modeling and a better understanding of genetic aberrations, pathogenicity, and drug screening. In this paper, we will summarize the recent progress of the disease-specific iPSC development for various human diseases and try to evaluate the possibility of application of iPS technology in dentistry, including its capacity for reprogramming some genetic orodental diseases. In addition to the easy availability and suitability of dental stem cells, the approach of generating patient-specific pluripotent stem cells will undoubtedly benefit patients suffering from orodental disorders.
  16. Abu Kasim NH, Govindasamy V, Gnanasegaran N, Musa S, Pradeep PJ, Srijaya TC, et al.
    J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2015 Dec;9(12):E252-66.
    PMID: 23229816 DOI: 10.1002/term.1663
    The discovery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from a myriad of tissues has triggered the initiative of establishing tailor-made stem cells for disease-specific therapy. Nevertheless, lack of understanding on the inherent differential propensities of these cells may restrict their clinical outcome. Therefore, a comprehensive study was done to compare the proliferation, differentiation, expression of cell surface markers and gene profiling of stem cells isolated from different sources, viz. bone marrow, Wharton's jelly, adipose tissue and dental pulp. We found that although all MSCs were phenotypically similar to each other, Wharton's jelly (WJ) MSCs and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were highly proliferative as compared to bone marrow (BM) MSCs and adipose tissue (AD) MSCs. Moreover, indistinguishable cell surface characteristics and differentiation capacity were confirmed to be similar among all cell types. Based on gene expression profiling, we postulate that BM-MSCs constitutively expressed genes related to inflammation and immunodulation, whereas genes implicated in tissue development were highly expressed in AD-MSCs. Furthermore, the transcriptome profiling of WJ-MSCs and DPSCs revealed an inherent bias towards the neuro-ectoderm lineage. Based on our findings, we believe that there is no unique master mesenchymal stem cell that is appropriate to treat all target diseases. More precisely, MSCs from different sources exhibit distinct and unique gene expression signatures that make them competent to give rise to specific lineages rather than others. Therefore, stem cells should be subjected to rigorous characterization and utmost vigilance needs to be adopted in order to choose the best cellular source for a particular disease.
  17. Jayaraman P, Govindasamy V, Gnanasegaran N, Kunasekaran W, Vasanthan P, Musa S, et al.
    Clin Oral Investig, 2016 Jan;20(1):109-16.
    PMID: 26048030 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-015-1497-1
    Long-term culture system is used to prevent the impediment of insufficient cells and is good for low starting materials such as dental pulp or periodontal ligament. In general, although cell viability and functionality are the most common aspects taken into consideration in culturing cells for a long term, they may not truly represent the biological state of the cells. Hence, we explored the behaviour of another important aspect which is the immune properties in long-term cultured cells.
  18. Govindasamy V, Ronald VS, Totey S, Din SB, Mustafa WM, Totey S, et al.
    In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim, 2010 Oct;46(9):764-73.
    PMID: 20725801 DOI: 10.1007/s11626-010-9332-0
    Stem cells isolated from dental pulp possess the capacity for self-renewal and the potential for multi-lineage differentiation. However, dental pulp stem cells have different characteristics in terms of their culture conditions. The success of stem cells culture is governed by its micro-environmental niche. Therefore, we studied the effects of culture niche on long-term expansion of dental pulp stem cells in terms of cell morphology, growth kinetics, senescence pattern, cell surface marker expression differentiation capacity, and seeding plating density of dental pulp stem cells in four different, widely used media composition Among the various basal media tested, α-minimum essential media and knock out-minimum essential media supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum were found to be the most optimal media composition in preserving the phenotypic characteristics and differentiation potential for prolonged periods as compared with DMEM-F12 and DMEM-LG. Plating density has been shown to affect overall yield. As a conclusion, the adoption of an appropriate culture system significantly improved cell yield, thus enabling the attainment of sufficient yields for therapeutic applications economizing in terms of cost of production and minimizing seeding cell density for maximum yield.
  19. Vasanthan P, Jayaraman P, Kunasekaran W, Lawrence A, Gnanasegaran N, Govindasamy V, et al.
    Naturwissenschaften, 2016 Aug;103(7-8):62.
    PMID: 27379400 DOI: 10.1007/s00114-016-1387-7
    Human deciduous periodontal ligament stem cells have been introduced for as an easily accessible source of stem cells from dental origin. Although recent studies have revealed the ability of these stem cells in multipotential attribute, their efficiency of hepatic lineage differentiation has not been addressed so far. The aim of this study is to investigate hepatic lineage fate competence of periodontal ligament stem cells through direct media induction. Differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells was conducted by the exposure of two phase media induction. First phase was performed in the presence of hepatocyte growth factors to induce a definitive endoderm formation. In the subsequent phase, the cells were treated with oncostatin M and dexamethosone followed by insulin and transferrin to generate hepatocyte-like cells. Hepatic-related characters of the generated hepatocyte-like cells were determined at both mRNA and protein level followed by functional assays. Foremost changes observed in the generation of hepatocyte-like cells were the morphological features in which these cells were transformed from fibroblastic shape to polygonal shape. Temporal expression of hepatic markers ranging from early endodermal up to late markers were detected in the hepatocyte-like cells. Crucial hepatic markers such as glycogen storage, albumin, and urea secretion were also shown. These findings exhibited the ability of periodontal ligament stem cells of dental origin to be directed into hepatic lineage fate. These cells can be regarded as an alternative autologous source in the usage of stem cell-based treatment for liver diseases.
  20. Fui LW, Lok MPW, Govindasamy V, Yong TK, Lek TK, Das AK
    J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2019 12;13(12):2218-2233.
    PMID: 31648415 DOI: 10.1002/term.2966
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation seems to be a promising new therapy for diabetic wound healing (DWH), and currently, arrays of MSCs from various sources ranging from umbilical, adipose to dental sources are available as a treatment modality for this disease. However, it now appears that only a fraction of transplanted cells actually assimilate and survive in host tissues suggesting that the major mechanism by which stem cells participate in tissue repair are most likely related to their secretome level. These include a wide range of growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines, which can be found from the conditioned medium (CM) used to culture the cells. Basic studies and preclinical work confirm that the therapeutic effect of CMs are comparable with the application of stem cells. This review describes in detail the wound healing process in diabetes and the cellular and biological factors that influence the process. Subsequently, through a comprehensive literature search of studies related to wound healing in diabetics, we aim to provide an overview of scientific merits of using MSCs-CM in the treatment of diabetic wound as well as the significant caveats, which restricts its potential use in clinical set-ups. To our best knowledge, this is one of the first review papers that collect the importance of stem cells as an alternative treatment to the DWH. We anticipate that the success of this treatment will have a significant clinical impact on diabetic wounds.
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