Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

  1. Tan TW, Chen BC, Tan HL, Chang CM
    JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep, 2017 Apr;15(4):862-872.
    PMID: 28398972 DOI: 10.11124/JBISRIR-2016-003034
    REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE: This review aims to determine the best available evidence related to the effectiveness of amylmetacresol and 2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol throat lozenges in patients with acute sore throat due to upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). The objective is to examine the analgesic properties of amylmetacresol and 2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol (AMC/DCBA) throat lozenge comparing with placebo for the relief of pain in patients with acute sore throat due to URTIs.The review question is:More specifically, the objectives are to.
  2. Learn-Han, L., Yoke-Kqueen, C., Shiran, M.S., Sabrina, S., Noor Zaleha, A.S., Sim, J.H., et al.
    Fifty-nine isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (S. enterica) isolated from indigenous vegetables, ‘selom’ (Oenanthe stolonifera) associated with 13 different serovars were obtained from Chemistry Department of Malaysia. The isolates encompass the common serovar, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Weltevreden (S. Weltevreden) (39%) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Agona (S. Agona) (8.5%). Frequencies of the other 11 Salmonella serovars were ranged from 1.7% to 5.1%. All isolates were characterized by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ERIC-PCR), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), plasmid profiling and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The results demonstrated ERIC-PCR, RAPD and composite analysis of both are suitable typing methods for S. enterica by demonstrating good discriminative ability and can be utilize as a rapid approach of comparing S. enterica isolates for epidemiological investigation. From this study, ERIC-PCR is exhibited lower discriminatory power when compare with RAPD. On the other hand, plasmid profiles yielded 32 profiles with molecular size ranging from 1129 bp to 17911 bp. Thirteen antimicrobial agents were included in this study and all isolates showed 100% (59/59) resistant to erythromycin and showed Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance (MAR) indexes ranging from 0.08 to 0.68. Dendrogram generated from antimicrobial resistance profiling exhibited poor discriminatory capability at serovar level. Although poultry still remain as the common reservoir for multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella. The isolation of 13 Salmonella serovars from selom that showed high MDR in this study is alarming. These results supported the notion that indigenous vegetable (selom) are gaining more antimicrobial resistance and could be potential health hazards.
  3. Chai-Hoon, K., Jiun-Horng, S., Shiran, M.S., Son, R., Sabrina, S., Noor Zaleha, A.S., et al.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) have been widely used as an infection model for mammalian related pathogens with promising results. The bacterial factors required for virulence in non-mammalian host C. elegans play a role in mammalian systems. Previous reported that Salmonella found in vegetable and poultry meat could be potential health hazards to human. This study evaluated the pathogenicity of various serovars of Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) that recovered from local indigenous vegetables and poultry meat using C. elegans as a simple host model. Almost all S. enterica isolates were capable of colonizing the intestine of C. elegans, causing a significant reduction in the survival of nematodes. The colonization of Salmonella in C. elegans revealed that the ability of S. enterica in killing C. elegans correlates with its accumulation in the intestine to achieve full pathogenicity. Using this model, the virulence mechanisms of opportunistic pathogenic S. enterica were found to be not only relevant for the interactions of the bacteria with C. elegans but also with mammalian hosts including humans. Hence, C. elegans model could provide valuable insight into preliminary factors from the host that contributes to the environmental bacterial pathogenesis scenario.
  4. Nurul-Syakima AM, Learn-Han L, Yoke-Kqueen C
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(21):9071-5.
    PMID: 25422181
    BACKGROUND: microRNAs are small non-coding RNA that control gene expression by mRNA degradation or translational inhibition. These molecules are known to play essential roles in many biological and physiological processes. miR-205 may be differentially expressed in head and neck cancers; however, there are conflicting data and localization of expression has yet to be determined.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: miR-205 expression was investigated in 48 cases of inflammatory, benign and malignant tumor tissue array of the neck, oronasopharynx, larynx and salivary glands by Locked Nucleic Acid in situ hybridization (LNA-ISH) technology.

    RESULTS: miR-205 expression was significantly differentially expressed across all of the inflammatory, benign and malignant tumor tissues of the neck. A significant increase in miR-205 staining intensity (p<0.05) was observed from inflammation to benign and malignant tumors in head and neck tissue array, suggesting that miR-205 could be a biomarker to differentiate between cancer and non-cancer tissues.

    CONCLUSIONS: LNA-ISH revealed that miR-205 exhibited significant differential cytoplasmic and nuclear staining among inflammation, benign and malignant tumors of head and neck. miR-205 was not only exclusively expressed in squamous epithelial malignancy. This study offers information and a basis for a comprehensive study of the role of miR-205 that may be useful as a biomarker and/or therapeutic target in head and neck tumors.

  5. Li CF, Lim TW, Han LL, Fang R
    PMID: 3835698
    An epidemio-meteorotropic analytical study of Selangor, in the Southwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, examines the monthly incidence of dengue for the period 1973-1982 to assess possible quantitative association with the monthly rainfall. The relationships between rainfall, abundance of A. aegypti and dengue infection during 1982 in Jinjang, a dengue-prone area in Selangor, were also examined. A quantitative association between rainfall and the number of dengue cases was found during the first wet period. The lag time between the onset of heavy rain and dengue outbreak was about two to three months. A 120% increase in the number of dengue cases was observed when the monthly rainfall was 300 mm or more. Positive associations were seen between the incidence of dengue and the Aedes house index and the Breteau index in Jinjang. The relationships between these three variables and rainfall suggest that the latter might have exerted its effect on dengue infection partly through the creation of more breeding sites for A. aegypti. Assessment of the importance of A. aegypti in the transmission of dengue in this locality was not possible because of the lack of adjustment for A. albopictus, the other known vector of dengue in the state, and for social and other environmental factors influencing infection rates. In spite of this and the interpretational problems common in aggregate studies, the present analyses have provided relatively strong statistical evidence of an association between rainfall and dengue outbreaks in Selangor, thereby indicating that it is a factor worthy of careful surveillance and monitoring.
  6. Yoke-Kqueen C, Learn-Han L, Noorzaleha AS, Son R, Sabrina S, Jiun-Horng S, et al.
    Lett Appl Microbiol, 2008 Mar;46(3):318-24.
    PMID: 18179445 DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2007.02311.x
    The aims of this communication were to study characterization of serogroups among Salmonella isolates and the relationship of antimicrobial resistance to serogroups. Multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) was performed on 189 Salmonella enterica isolates associated with 38 different serovars that were recovered from poultry and four types of indigenous vegetables.
  7. Chen X, Li QY, Li GD, Xu FJ, Jiang Y, Han L, et al.
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 2016 Sep;109(9):1177-83.
    PMID: 27260265 DOI: 10.1007/s10482-016-0718-1
    A novel aerobic, non-motile, Gram-positive, rod-shaped actinobacterium, designated YIM 100951(T), was isolated from the faeces of civets (Viverra zibetha) living in the National Nature Protect Region in Selangor, Malaysia. Strain YIM 100951(T) shows high similarities with Microbacterium barkeri DSM 20145(T) (97.6 %), Microbacterium oryzae MB10(T) (97.3 %), Microbacterium lemovicicum ViU22(T) (97.1 %) and Microbacterium indicum BBH6(T) (97.0 %) based on their 16S rRNA genes. However, phylogenetic analysis showed that strain YIM 100951(T) formed a clade with Microbacterium halotolerans YIM 70130(T) (96.7 %), Microbacterium populi 10-107-8(T) (96.7 %) and Microbacterium sediminis YLB-01(T) (96.9 %). DNA-DNA hybridization was carried out between strains YIM 100951(T) and M. barkeri DSM 20145(T), the result showed a value of 23.2 ± 4.5 %. In addition, some of the physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain YIM 100951(T) are different from the closely related strains. Thus, we suggest that strain YIM 100951(T) represents a novel species of the genus Microbacterium, for which the name Microbacterium gilvum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 100951(T) (=DSM 26235(T) = CCTCC AB 2012971(T)).
  8. Learn-Han L, Yoke-Kqueen C, Shiran MS, Vui-Ling CM, Nurul-Syakima AM, Son R, et al.
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2012;11(1):277-91.
    PMID: 22370930 DOI: 10.4238/2012.February.8.3
    The diversity of specific bacteria taxa, such as the actinomycetes, has not been reported from the Antarctic island of Barrientos. The diversity of actinomycetes was estimated with two different strategies that use PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. First, a PCR was applied, using a group-specific primer that allows selective amplification of actinomycete sequences. Second, a nested-PCR approach was used that allows the estimation of the relative abundance of actinomycetes within the bacterial community. Molecular identification, which was based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, revealed eight genera of actinomycetes, Actinobacterium, Actinomyces, an uncultured Actinomycete, Streptomyces, Leifsonia, Frankineae, Rhodococcus, and Mycobacterium. The uncultured Actinomyces sp and Rhodococcus sp appear to be the prominent genera of actinomycetes in Barrientos Island soil. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns were used to look for correlations between actinomycete abundance and environmental characteristics, such as type of rookery and vegetation. There was a significant positive correlation between type of rookery and abundance of actinomycetes; soil samples collected from active chinstrap penguin rookeries had the highest actinomycete abundance. Vegetation type, such as moss, which could provide a microhabitat for bacteria, did not correlate significantly with actinomycete abundance.
  9. Learn-Han L, Yoke-Kqueen C, Salleh NA, Sukardi S, Jiun-Horng S, Chai-Hoon K, et al.
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 2008 Oct;94(3):377-87.
    PMID: 18548329 DOI: 10.1007/s10482-008-9254-y
    Forty-eight strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Agona and 33 strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Weltevreden were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting using 3 different arbitrary primer, Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ERIC-PCR) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. By using RAPD, 81 strains (44 strains of S. Agona and 33 strains of S. Weltevreden) can be clustered into 14 groups and 6 single isolates whereas ERIC-PCR produced 7 clusters and 3 single isolates. Thirteen antimicrobial agents were used and all the isolates were resistant to erythromycin and showed Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance indexes, ranging from 0.08 to 0.62. Poultry still remain as the common reservoir for multi-drug-resistant Salmonella. On the other hand, vegetables contaminated with S. Weltevreden showed a gain in antimicrobial resistance. Besides that, consistent antibiograms were observed from S. Weltevreden isolated at Kajang wet market on 2000/08/02.
  10. Wang M, Han L, Liu S, Zhao X, Yang J, Loh SK, et al.
    Biotechnol J, 2015 Sep;10(9):1424-33.
    PMID: 26121186 DOI: 10.1002/biot.201400723
    Renewable energy from lignocellulosic biomass has been deemed an alternative to depleting fossil fuels. In order to improve this technology, we aim to develop robust mathematical models for the enzymatic lignocellulose degradation process. By analyzing 96 groups of previously published and newly obtained lignocellulose saccharification results and fitting them to Weibull distribution, we discovered Weibull statistics can accurately predict lignocellulose saccharification data, regardless of the type of substrates, enzymes and saccharification conditions. A mathematical model for enzymatic lignocellulose degradation was subsequently constructed based on Weibull statistics. Further analysis of the mathematical structure of the model and experimental saccharification data showed the significance of the two parameters in this model. In particular, the λ value, defined the characteristic time, represents the overall performance of the saccharification system. This suggestion was further supported by statistical analysis of experimental saccharification data and analysis of the glucose production levels when λ and n values change. In conclusion, the constructed Weibull statistics-based model can accurately predict lignocellulose hydrolysis behavior and we can use the λ parameter to assess the overall performance of enzymatic lignocellulose degradation. Advantages and potential applications of the model and the λ value in saccharification performance assessment were discussed.
  11. Yoke-Kqueen C, Ab Mutalib NS, Sidik SM, Learn-Han L, Geok-Chin T
    Oncol Rep, 2012 Mar;27(3):753-63.
    PMID: 22159872 DOI: 10.3892/or.2011.1581
    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is classified among the ten most frequent cancers in Malaysia. A common polymorphism at codon 72 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene and its influence on cancer risk has been studied for different types of cancer with mixed and inconsistent results with limited published data on the Malaysian population so far. In the present study, the frequency of p53 codon 72 polymorphism in 60 patients with NMSC was investigated from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue obtained from Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM). Additionally, random amplified polymorhic DNA -polymorphic chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) was employed for preliminary biomarker development. NMSC FFPE samples (70%) possess Arg/Arg, 20% with Pro/Pro and 10% with Arg/Pro. In total, there was no significant difference in the p53 codon 72 genotypes between histological types of NMSC, gender, race, tumor location and age group. However, there was an apparent age-associated increase in the Arg/Arg genotype but did not reach statistical significance (P=0.235). NMSC types and demographic characteristics did not influence genotype distribution. On the other hand, BCC and SCC distributions are influenced by age group, race and tumor location.
  12. Nurul-Syakima AM, Yoke-Kqueen C, Sabariah AR, Shiran MS, Singh A, Learn-Han L
    Int J Mol Med, 2011 Sep;28(3):327-36.
    PMID: 21637912 DOI: 10.3892/ijmm.2011.714
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that involved in various cancer-related cellular processes. Diverse studies on expression profiling of miRNAs have been performed and the data showed that some miRNAs are up-regulated or down-regulated in cancer. Until now, there are no data published on the miRNA expression in head and neck cancers from Malaysia. Hence, this study aimed to investigate potentially crucial miRNAs in head and neck cancer patients from Malaysian populations. A global miRNA profiling was performed on 12 samples of head and neck cancer tissue using microarray analysis followed by validation using real-time RT-PCR. Microarray analysis identified 10 miRNAs that could distinguish malignant head and neck cancer lesions from normal tissues; 7 miRNAs (hsa-miR-181a-2*, hsa-miR-29b-1*, hsa-miR-181a, hsa-miR-181b, hsa-miR-744, hsa-miR-1271 and hsa-miR-221*) were up-regulated while 3 miRNAs (hsa-miR-141, hsa-miR-95 and hsa-miR-101) were down-regulated. These miRNAs may contribute in a simple profiling strategy to identify individuals at higher risk of developing head and neck cancers, thus helping in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in head and neck cancer pathogenesis.
  13. Wong LP, Han L, Li H, Zhao J, Zhao Q, Zimet GD
    Hum Vaccin Immunother, 2019;15(7-8):1533-1540.
    PMID: 31017500 DOI: 10.1080/21645515.2019.1611157
    The introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in China aims to prevent HPV infection in all women. The issues that China might face include high cost of vaccines made in other countries, shortage in HPV vaccine supply, negative events attributed to vaccination (whether justified or not) that jeopardizes the general public's confidence in the HPV vaccine, cultural and literacy barriers, and sensitivity to receiving a vaccine for a sexually transmitted disease. Ensuring the effective delivery of the HPV vaccine in China, a country with vast economic, geographical, and cultural complexities, will require a commitment of significant resources. In light of the high price of imported vaccines, the availability of locally manufactured HPV vaccines would greatly facilitate the national HPV vaccination program. New evidence supporting the efficacy of a two-dose regime in younger adolescents would also be advantageous in terms of affordability and logistical simplicity of vaccine administration. Furthermore, it would potentially enhance the compliance and uptake, especially for hard to reach women in remote regions.
  14. Murugan P, Han L, Gan CY, Maurer FH, Sudesh K
    J Biotechnol, 2016 Dec 10;239:98-105.
    PMID: 27746304 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2016.10.012
    Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are expensive partly due to the recovery and purification processes. Thus, many studies have been carried out in order to minimize the cost. Here we report on the use of mealworm, which is the larva of mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) to recover PHA granules from Cupriavidus necator. Mealworms were shown to readily consume the freeze-dried C. necator cells and excrete the PHA granules in the form of whitish feces. Further purification using water, detergent and heat resulted in almost 100% pure PHA granules. Comparison with chloroform extraction showed no signs of reduction in the molecular weight and dispersion of the PHA molecules. Scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements revealed that the biologically recovered PHA granules retained their native spherical morphology. The PHA granules were subjected to a battery of tests to determine their purity and properties in comparison to the chloroform extracted PHA. This study has demonstrated the possibility of using mealworms as a biological agent to partially purify the PHA granules.
  15. Hong X, Liu SN, Xu FF, Han LL, Jiang P, Wang ZQ, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2020 Mar 01;37(1):237-250.
    PMID: 33612735
    Spirometra larvae are etiological agents of human sparganosis. However, the systematics of spirometrid cestodes has long been controversial. In order to determine the current knowledge on the evolution and genetic structure of Spirometra, an exhaustive population diversity analysis of spirometrid cestodes using the mitochondrial gene: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) was performed. All publicly available cox1 sequences available in the GenBank and 127 new sequencing genes from China were used as the dataset. The haplotype identify, network, genetic differentiation and phylogenetic analysis were conducted successively. A total of 488 sequences from 20 host species, representing four spirometrid tapeworms (S. decipiens, S. ranarum, S. erinaceieuropaei and Sparganum proliferum) and several unclassified American and African isolates from 113 geographical locations in 17 countries, identified 45 haplotypes. The genetic analysis revealed that there are four clades of spirometrid cestodes: Clade 1 (Brazil + USA) and Clade 2 (Argentina + Venezuela) included isolates from America, Clade 3 contained African isolates and one Korean sample, and the remainders from Asia and Australia belonged to Clade 4; unclassified Spirometra from America and Africa should be considered the separate species within the genus; and the taxonomy of two Korea isolates (S. erinaceieuropaei KJ599680 and S. decipiens KJ599679) was still ambiguous and needs to be further identified. In addition, the demographical analyses supported population expansion for the total spirometrid population. In summary, four lineages were found in the spirometrid tapeworm, and further investigation with deeper sampling is needed to elucidate the population structure.
  16. Fu W, Wu S, Wang C, Thangalazhy-Gopakumar S, Kothari U, Shi S, et al.
    Bioengineering (Basel), 2023 Oct 14;10(10).
    PMID: 37892926 DOI: 10.3390/bioengineering10101197
    The prehydrolysate from dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic feedstocks often contains inhibitory compounds that can seriously inhibit the subsequent enzymatic and fermentation processes. Acetic acid is one of the most representative toxic compounds. In this research, alkaline deacetylation of corn stover was carried out using sodium carbonate under mild conditions to selectively remove the acetyl groups of the biomass and reduce the toxicity of the prehydrolysate. The deacetylation process was optimized by adjusting factors such as temperature, treatment time, and sodium carbonate concentration. Sodium carbonate solutions (2~6 wt%) at 30~50 °C were used for the deacetylation step, followed by dilute acid pretreatment with 1.5% H2SO4 at 121 °C. Results showed that the acetyl content of the treated corn stover could be reduced up to 87%, while the hemicellulose loss remained low. The optimal deacetylation condition was found to be 40 °C, 6 h, and 4 wt% Na2CO3, resulting in a removal of 80.55% of the acetyl group in corn stover and a hemicellulose loss of 4.09%. The acetic acid concentration in the acid prehydrolysate decreased from 1.38 to 0.34 g/L. The enzymatic hydrolysis of solid corn stover and the whole slurry after pretreatment increased by 17% and 16%, respectively.
  17. Han L, Gu H, Lu W, Li H, Peng WX, Ling Ma N, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2023 Dec;344:140307.
    PMID: 37769918 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2023.140307
    As chromium (Cr) in ecosystems affects human health through food chain exposure, phytoremediation is an environmentally friendly and efficient way to reduce chromium pollution in the environment. Here, we review the mechanism of absorption, translocation, storage, detoxification, and regulation of Cr in plants. The Cr(VI) form is more soluble, mobile, and toxic than Cr(III), reflecting how various valence states of Cr affect environmental risk characteristics, physicochemical properties, toxicity, and plant uptake. Plant root's response to Cr exposure leads to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis. Cell wall immobilization, vacuole compartmentation, interaction of defense proteins and organic ligand with Cr, and removal of reactive oxygen species by antioxidants continue plant life. In addition, the combined application of microorganisms, genetic engineering, and the addition of organic acids, nanoparticles, fertilization, soil amendments, and other metals could accelerate the phytoremediation process. This review provides efficient methods to investigate and understand the complex changes of Cr metabolism in plants. Preferably, fast-growing, abundantly available biomass species should be modified to mitigate Cr pollution in the environment as these green and efficient remediation technologies are necessary for the protection of soil and water ecology.
  18. Islam A, Akhtaruzzaman M, Chowdhury TH, Qin C, Han L, Bedja IM, et al.
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2016 Feb;8(7):4616-23.
    PMID: 26812212 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b11134
    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on a donor-acceptor-donor oligothienylene dye containing benzothiadiazole (T4BTD-A) were cosensitized with dyes containing cis-configured squaraine rings (HSQ3 and HSQ4). The cosensitized dyes showed incident monochromatic photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) greater than 70% in the 300-850 nm wavelength region. The individual overall conversion efficiencies of the sensitizers T4BTD-A, HSQ3, and HSQ4 were 6.4%, 4.8%, and 5.8%, respectively. Improved power conversion efficiencies of 7.0% and 7.7% were observed when T4BTD-A was cosensitized with HSQ3 and HSQ4, respectively, thanks to a significant increase in current density (JSC) for the cosensitized DSSCs. Intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy results showed a longer lifetime for cosensitized T4BTD-A+HSQ3 and T4BTD-A+HSQ4 compared to that of HSQ3 and HSQ4, respectively.
  19. Xu G, You D, Wong L, Duan D, Kong F, Zhang X, et al.
    Eur J Endocrinol, 2019 Apr;180(4):243-255.
    PMID: 30668524 DOI: 10.1530/EJE-18-0792
    Objective: Previous studies have shown sex-specific differences in all-cause and CHD mortality in type 2 diabetes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a global picture of the estimated influence of type 2 diabetes on the risk of all-cause and CHD mortality in women vs men.

    Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies published from their starting dates to Aug 7, 2018. The sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and their pooled ratio (women vs men) of all-cause and CHD mortality associated with type 2 diabetes were obtained through an inverse variance-weighted random-effects meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were used to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity.

    Results: The 35 analyzed prospective cohort studies included 2 314 292 individuals, among whom 254 038 all-cause deaths occurred. The pooled women vs men ratio of the HRs for all-cause and CHD mortality were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.12-1.23, I2 = 81.6%) and 1.97 (95% CI: 1.49-2.61, I2 = 86.4%), respectively. The pooled estimate of the HR for all-cause mortality was approximately 1.30 in articles in which the duration of follow-up was longer than 10 years and 1.10 in articles in which the duration of follow-up was less than 10 years. The pooled HRs for all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes was 2.33 (95% CI: 2.02-2.69) in women and 1.91 (95% CI: 1.72-2.12) in men, compared with their healthy counterparts.

    Conclusions: The effect of diabetes on all-cause and CHD mortality is approximately 17 and 97% greater, respectively, for women than for men.

  20. Wong LP, Wu Q, Hao Y, Chen X, Chen Z, Alias H, et al.
    Int Health, 2021 May 04.
    PMID: 33945613 DOI: 10.1093/inthealth/ihab023
    BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the association between institution trust and public responses to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak.

    METHODS: An Internet-based, cross-sectional survey was administered on 29 January 2020. A total of 4393 adults ≥18 y of age and residing or working in the province of Hubei, central China were included in the study.

    RESULTS: The majority of the participants expressed a great degree of trust in the information and preventive instructions provided by the central government compared with the local government. Being under quarantine (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.35 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.80 to 3.08]) and having a high institutional trust score (OR 2.23 [95% CI 1.96 to 2.53]) were both strong and significant determinants of higher preventive practices scores. The majority of study participants (n=3640 [85.7%]) reported that they would seek hospital treatment if they suspected themselves to have been infected with COVID-19. Few of the participants from Wuhan (n=475 [16.6%]) and those participants who were under quarantine (n=550 [13.8%]) expressed an unwillingness to seek hospital treatment.

    CONCLUSIONS: Institutional trust is an important factor influencing adequate preventive behaviour and seeking formal medical care during an outbreak.

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