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  1. Hong CY
    Med J Malaysia, 1976 Mar;30(3):239-40.
    PMID: 958055
  2. Hong CY, Khanna DK
    Med J Malaysia, 1976 Jun;30(4):319-20.
    PMID: 979737
  3. Hong CY, Wong NK, Abdullah M
    Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, 2015 Mar;33(1):26-32.
    PMID: 25840631 DOI: 10.12932/AP0463.33.1.2015
    Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein (THP) and uromodulin are the most abundant glycoproteins in non-pregnant women's/men's and pregnant women's urine, respectively. However, the bioactivities of these glycoproteins are still unclear.
  4. Hong CY, Chia KS, Ling SL
    Med J Malaysia, 2000 Jun;55(2):220-9.
    PMID: 19839150
    Background: Urinary excreton of low molecular weight proteins such as beta2-microglobulin and retinol binding protein (RBP), and enzymes such as N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), may be useful as indicators of renal tubular dysfunction in diabetes mellitus.
    Objective: To describe the profile of urinary protein and enzyme excretion in 240 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Singapore.
    Materials and Methodology: Cross-sectional study of consecutive patients presenting for follow-up at a Government primary care clinic. Information was obtained from interview, physical examination and laboratory analysis. Data analysis included descriptive statistics on urinary protein and enzyme excretion, comparison of unadjusted and adjusted means of these among patient subgroups, as well as correlation with control of diabetes and other clinical parameters.
    Results: Albuminuria correlated with urine B2-microglobulin (r=0.34, p<0.01) and RBP (r=0.46,p<0.01). hypertensive patients had significantly higher mean urine albumin (geometric mean 15.13mg/gCr) and B2-microglobulin (363.18ug/gCr) levels compared to patients without hypertension (7.07mg/gCR; 219,20ug/gCr; p<0.05). Patients with complications of diabetes also had higher albumin (15.55 vs 6.20mg/gCr), B2-microglobulin (344.47 vs 288.83ug/gCr) and RBP excretion (152.02 vs 94.54mg/gCr). Two-hour postprandial sugar correlated with B2-microglobulin (r=0.33, p<0.01), RBP (r=0.35, p<0.01) and NAG (r=0.28, p<0.01). Urinary protein excretion did not correlate with HbA1c, fasting blood sugar, age of patient or duration since diagnosis.
    Conclusion: These results among 240 Chinese patients in Singapore were consistent with reports from other study populations.
  5. Hong CY, Chia KS, Hughes K, Ling SL
    Singapore Med J, 2004 Apr;45(4):154-60.
    PMID: 15094983
    Ethnic differences exist in patients with diabetes mellitus. Not much is known about such differences in Asian populations. The aim of the study was to determine ethnic differences among Chinese, Malay and Indian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Singapore.
  6. Sahadevan S, Saw SM, Gao W, Tan LC, Chin JJ, Hong CY, et al.
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2008 Nov;56(11):2061-8.
    PMID: 19016940 DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.01992.x
    To study the prevalence of dementia in Singapore among Chinese, Malays, and Indians.
  7. Venketasubramanian N, Tan LC, Sahadevan S, Chin JJ, Krishnamoorthy ES, Hong CY, et al.
    Stroke, 2005 Mar;36(3):551-6.
    PMID: 15692124
    Stroke prevalence data among mixed Asian populations are lacking. Prevalence rates of stroke were studied among Singaporeans aged > or =50 years of Chinese, Malay, and Indian origin.
  8. Sindhu CK, Nijar AK, Leong PY, Li ZQ, Hong CY, Malar L, et al.
    Malays Fam Physician, 2019;14(3):18-27.
    PMID: 32175037
    Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in Malaysia. Awareness of risk factors, symptoms and warning signs of CRC will help in early detection. This paper presents the level of CRC awareness among the urban population in Malaysia.
    Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 till December 2016 at three government clinics in the Klang Valley. The validated Bowel Cancer Awareness Measure questionnaire in both English and Malay was used. The mean knowledge scores for the warning signs and risk factors of CRC in different socio-demographic groups were compared using ANOVA in SPSS version 23. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05 and a 95% confidence level.
    Results: Of the 426 respondents, 29.1% were unable to recall the warning signs and symptoms of CRC. Average recall was less than two warning signs and symptoms (mean 1.62, SD 1.33). The mean total knowledge score for CRC was 9.91 (SD 4.78), with a mean knowledge scores for warning signs and risk factors at 5.27 (SD 2.74) and 4.64 (SD 2.78), respectively. Respondents with a higher level of education were found to have higher level of knowledge regarding the warning signs of CRC. There was a significant positive association between knowledge score for warning signs and level of confidence in detecting warning signs. Regarding the total knowledge score for CRC, 3.3% of respondents scored zero. For warning signs and risk factors, 8.2% and 8.5% of respondents had zero knowledge scores, respectively.
    Conclusions: Generally, awareness of CRC is poor among the urban population of Klang Valley. Greater education and more confidence in detecting warning signs are significantly associated with better knowledge of warning signs. CRC awareness programs should be increased to improve awareness.
  9. Tan LC, Venketasubramanian N, Hong CY, Sahadevan S, Chin JJ, Krishnamoorthy ES, et al.
    Neurology, 2004 Jun 08;62(11):1999-2004.
    PMID: 15184604
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of Parkinson disease (PD) in Singapore and compare the rates between Singaporean Chinese, Malays, and Indians.

    METHODS: A three-phase community-based survey among a disproportionate random sample of 15,000 individuals (9,000 Chinese, 3,000 Malays, 3,000 Indians) aged 50 years and above who live in central Singapore was conducted. In phase 1, trained interviewers conducted a door-to-door survey using a validated 10-question questionnaire. In phase 2, medical specialists examined participants who screened positive to any of the questions. Participants suspected to have PD had their diagnosis confirmed in phase 3 by a movement disorders specialist.

    RESULTS: The participation rate was 67% among 22,279 eligible individuals. Forty-six participants with PD were identified of which 16 were newly diagnosed cases. The prevalence rate of PD for those aged 50 and above in Singapore was 0.30% (95% CI: 0.22 to 0.41), age-adjusted to US 1970 census. The prevalence rates increased significantly with age. The age-adjusted prevalence rates among Chinese (0.33%, 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.48), Malays (0.29%, 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.67), and Indians (0.28%, 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.67) were the same (p = 1.0).

    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PD in Singapore was comparable to that of Western countries. Race-specific rates were also similar to previously reported rates and similar among the three races. Environmental factors may be more important than racially determined genetic factors in the development of PD.

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