Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 27 in total

  1. Sapari P, Ismail BS
    Environ Monit Assess, 2012 Oct;184(10):6347-56.
    PMID: 22089624 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-011-2424-9
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential risk of pretilachlor, thiobencarb, and propanil pollutants in the water system of the rice fields of the Muda area. The study included two areas that used different irrigation systems namely non-recycled (N-RCL) and recycled (RCL) water. Regular water sampling was carried out at the drainage canals during the weeding period from September to October 2006 in the main season of 2006/2007 and April-May 2007 in off season of 2007. The herbicides were extracted by the solid-phase extraction method and identified using a GC-ECD. Results showed that the procedure for identification of the three herbicides was acceptable based on the recovery test values, which ranged from 84.1% to 96.9%. A wide distribution pattern where more than 79% of the water samples contained the herbicide pollutants was observed at both the areas where N-RCL and RCL water was supplied for the two seasons. During September to October 2006, high weedicide residue concentration was observed at the N-RCL area and it ranged from 0.05 to 1.00 μg/L for pretilachlor and propanil and 10-25 μg/L for thiobencarb. In the case of the area with RCL water, the weedicide residue ranged from 1 to 5 μg/L for pretilachlor and propanil and 10-25 μg/L for thiobencarb. The highest residue level reached was 25-50, 50-100, and 100-200 μg/L for pretilachlor, propanil, and thiobencarb, respectively. During April to May 2007, high residue concentration frequently occurred at the area supplied with N-RCL irrigation water and it ranged from 0.05 to 1.00, 10 to 25, and 25 to 50 μg/L for pretilachlor, propanil, and thiobencarb, respectively. The highest residue level reached was 25-50 μg/L for pretilachlor and 100-200 μg/L for propanil and thiobencarb. There was an accelerated increase in the concentration of the herbicide residues, with the maximum levels reached at the early period of weedicide application, followed by a sharp decrease after the rice fields were completely covered with the rice crop. During the main season of 2006/2007, the concentration of propanil residue gradually rose, although that of the other herbicides declined.
  2. Ismail BS, Kalithasan K
    J Environ Sci Health B, 2003 Mar;38(2):133-46.
    PMID: 12617552
    Studies on persistence, mobility and the effect of repeated application of permethrin on its half-life were carried out under field conditions. The half-life of permethrin in the top 20 cm of the soil increased from 11.5 to 23.6 days as the application rates increased from 35 to 140 g ha(-1). Induced by heavier rainfall, more residues moved downward in trial 2 than in trial 1. Repeated applications enhanced degradation rates and mobility of permethrin in the soil. The residue level in the 0-5-cm layer was reduced at day 28 after 17 consecutive applications to a level lower than after 5 applications. The half-life of permethrin was reduced from 15.9 days to 11.2 days after 5 and 17 applications, respectively. The residue reached the 15-20 cm layer much earlier (approximately 3 days after treatment) in soil that received 17 applications as compared to those with two applications.
  3. Ismail BS, Kalithasan K
    J Environ Sci Health B, 2004 May;39(3):419-29.
    PMID: 15186031
    The adsorption, desorption, and mobility of permethrin in six tropical soils was determined under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. The six soils were selected from vegetable growing areas in Malaysia. Soil organic matter (OM) was positively correlated (r2 = 0.97) with the adsorption of permethrin. The two soils, namely, Teringkap 1 and Lating series with the highest OM (3.2 and 2.9%) released 32.5 and 30.8% of the adsorbed permethrin after four consecutive repetitions of the desorption process, respectively, compared to approximately 75.4% of the Gunung Berinchang soil with the lowest OM (1.0%) under the same conditions. The mobility of permethrin down the soil column was inversely correlated to the organic matter content of the soil. Permethrin residue penetrated only to the 10-15 cm zone in the Teringkap 1 soil with 3.2% OM but penetrated to a depth of more than 20 cm in the other soils. The Berinchang series soil with the lowest OM (1.0%) yielded leachate with 14.8% permethrin, the highest level in leachates from all the soils tested. Therefore, the possibility for permethrin to contaminate underground water may be greater in the presence of low organic matter content, which subsequently allows a higher percentage of permethrin to move downwards through the soil column.
  4. Ismail BS, Ooi KE
    J Environ Biol, 2012 May;33(3):573-7.
    PMID: 23029905
    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate adsorption, desorption and mobility of metsulfuron-methyl in soils of the oil palm agroecosystem consisting of the Bernam, Selangor, Rengam and Bongor soil series. The lowest adsorption of metsulfuron-methyl occurred in the Bongor soil (0.366 ml g(-1)), and the highest in the Bemam soil (2.837 ml g(-1). The K(fads) (Freundlich) values of metsulfuron-methyl were 0.366, 0.560, 1.570 and 2.837 ml g(-1) in Bongor, Rengam, Selangor and Bemam soil, respectively. The highest K(fdes) value of metsulfuron-methyl, observed in the Bemam soil, was 2.563 indicating low desorption 0.280 (relatively strong retention). In contrast, the lowest K(fdes) value of 0.564 was observed for the Bongor soil, which had the lowest organic matter (1.43%) and clay content (13.2%). Soil organic matter and clay content were the main factors affecting the adsorption of metsulfuron-methyl. The results of the soil column leaching studies suggested that metsulfuron-methyl has a moderate potential for mobility in the Bernam and Bongor soil series with 19.3% and 39%, respectively for rainfall at 200 mm. However, since metsulfuron-methyl is applied at a very low rate (the maximum field application rate used was 30 g ha(-1)) and is susceptible to biodegradation, the potential forground water contamination is low.
  5. Ismail BS, Ngan CK
    J Environ Sci Health B, 2005;40(2):341-53.
    PMID: 15825685
    A comparison of dissipation of chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, and profenofos in a Malaysian agricultural soil between the field experiment and simulation by the PERSIST model was studied. A plot of sweet pea (Pisum sativum) from a farm in the Cameron Highlands was selected for the field experiment. The plot was treated with chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, and profenofos. Core soil collection was conducted according to the sampling schedule. Residues of the three pesticides were analyzed in the laboratory. Simulations of the three pesticides' persistency were also conducted using a computer-run software PERSIST. Generally, predicted data obtained using PERSIST were found to be high for the three pesticides except for one field measurement of chlorpyrifos. The predicted data for profenofos, which is the most mobile of the three pesticides tested, was not well matched with the observed data compared to chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos.
  6. Ismail BS, Azlizan BA
    J Environ Sci Health B, 2002 Jul;37(4):345-53.
    PMID: 12081026
    The persistence of metsulfuron-methyl (methyl 2-[[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)aminocarbonyl]aminosul fonyl]benzoate) in nonautoclaved and autoclaved Selangor, Lating, and Serdang series soils incubated at different temperatures and with different moisture contents was investigated under laboratory conditions using cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) as the bioassay species. Significant degradation of metsulfuron-methyl was observed in nonautoclaved soil compared with the autoclaved soil sample, indicating the importance of microorganisms in the breakdown process. At higher temperatures the degradation rate in nonautoclaved soil improved with increasing soil moisture content. In nonautoclaved Selangor, Lating and Serdang series soils, the half-life was reduced from 4.79 to 2.78 days, 4.9 to 3.5, and from 3.3 to 1.9 days, respectively, when the temperature was increased from 20 degrees to 30 degrees C at 80% field capacity. Similarly, in nonautoclaved soil, the half-life decreased with an increasing soil moisture from 20% to 80% at 30 degrees C in the three soils studied. In the autoclaved soil, the half-life values were slightly higher than those obtained in the nonautoclaved soils, perhaps indicating that the compound may be broken down by nonbiological processes. The fresh weight of the bioassay species was reduced significantly in Serdang series soil treated with metsulfuron-methyl at 0.1 ppm. However, the reduction in fresh weight of the seedlings was least in Lating series soil, followed by Selangor series soil.
  7. Ismail BS, Ampong N, Omar O
    Microbios, 2000;103(405):73-83.
    PMID: 11092189
    Effects of metsulphuron-methyl on the activities of amylase, invertase and xylanase in loamy sand and clay were evaluated for up to 28 days under laboratory conditions. Metsulphuron-methyl at 1.0 microg/g caused a significant reduction in amylase, invertase and xylanase activities for the entire period of study, especially at 28 days incubation in both soils. The lowest activities of the three enzymes were observed in the presence of 5.0 microg/g at 28 days incubation.
  8. Ismail BS, Siddique MA
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2011 May;22(1):81-9.
    PMID: 24575211
    Experiments were carried out in the laboratory and greenhouse to determine the growth inhibitory effects of Grassohopper's cyperus (Cyperus iria L.) on the seedlings of 5 Malaysian rice varieties namely MR211, MRQ74, MR220, MR84 and MR232. Three concentrations of the aqueous extract of the weed (12.5, 25.0 and 50.0 g/l) and weed debris (5, 10 and 20 g dry debris/1000 g soil) were used to test the allelopathic effect of C. iria on the growth of the rice plants. The weed leaf, stem and root extracts reduced the growth of the rice seedlings and showed selective activity in the varieties. The C. iria leaf and stem extracts showed comparatively higher growth inhibitory effects than those from the root. The weed extract caused more reduction in the root length of the rice plant compared to the shoot length. Among the rice varieties tested, MR232 was found to be more susceptible to the weed inhibitory effect. The leaf extract of C. iria at full strength caused root and shoot reduction of MR232 by 88.1% and 73.1% respectively (compared to the control). In most cases the fresh weight of the rice seedlings were more affected than the plant height. Weed debris caused significant reduction of leaf chlorophyll content in all the rice varieties tested with the exception of MR211. The chlorophyll content of MR232 was greatly affected by the weed debris which caused reduction of 36.4% compared to the control. The inhibitory effects of weed extracts and debris on rice growth parameters were found to be concentration dependent.
  9. Halimah M, Tan YA, Ismail BS
    J Environ Sci Health B, 2004;39(5-6):765-77.
    PMID: 15620085
    Four methods were developed for the analysis of fluroxypyr in soil samples from oil palm plantations. The first method involved the extraction of the herbicide with 0.05 M NaOH in methanol followed by purification using acid base partition. The concentrated material was subjected to derivatization and then cleaning process using a florisil column and finally analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD). By this method, the recovery of fluroxypyr from the spiked soil ranged from 70 to 104% with the minimum detection limit at 5 microg/kg. The second method involved solid liquid extraction of fluroxypyr using a horizontal shaker followed by quantification using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with UV detector. The recovery of fluroxypyr using this method, ranged from 80 to 120% when the soil was spiked with fluroxypyr at 0.1-0.2 microg/g soil. In the third method, the recovery of fluroxypyr was determined by solid liquid extraction using an ultrasonic bath. The recovery of fluroxypyr at spiking levels of 4-50 microg/L ranged from 88 to 98% with relative standard deviations of 3.0-5.8% with a minimum detection limit of 4 microg/kg. In the fourth method, fluroxypyr was extracted using the solid liquid extraction method followed by the cleaning up step with OASIS HLB (polyvinyl dibenzene). The recovery of fluroxypyr was between 91 and 95% with relative standard deviations of 4.2-6.2%, respectively. The limit of detection in method 4 was further improved to 1 pg/kg. When the weight of soil used was increased 4 fold, the recovery of fluroxypyr at spiking level of 1-50 microg/kg ranged from 82-107% with relative standard deviations of 0.5-4.7%.
  10. Sannasi P, Kader J, Ismail BS, Salmijah S
    Bioresour Technol, 2006 Mar;97(5):740-7.
    PMID: 16324841
    This paper reports the sorption of three metallic ions, namely Cr(VI), Cu(II) and Pb(II) in aqueous solution by a consortium culture (CC) comprising an acclimatised mixed bacterial culture collected from point and non-point sources. Metal sorption capability of growing and non-growing cells at initial pH of between 3 and 8 in the 1-100mg/L concentration range were studied based on Q(max) and K(f) values of the Langmuir and linearised Freundlich isotherm models, respectively. Maximal metal loading was generally observed to be dependent on the initial pH. Growing cells displayed significant maximal loading (Q(max)) for Pb(II) (238.09 mg/g) and Cu(II) (178.87 mg/g) at pH 6 and at pH 7 for Cr(VI) (90.91 mg/g) compared to non-growing cells (p < 0.05). At the pH range of 6-8, growing cells showed higher loading capacity compared to non-growing cells i.e. 38-52% for Cr, 17-28% for Cu and 3-17% for Pb. At lower metal concentrations and at more acidic pH (3-4) however, non-growing cells had higher metal loading capacity than growing cells. The metal sorption capacity for both populations were as follows: Pb(II) > Cu(II) > Cr(VI).
  11. Ismail BS, Eng OK, Tayeb MA
    PLoS One, 2015;10(10):e0138170.
    PMID: 26437264 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0138170
    Triazine-2-(14)C metsulfuron-methyl is a selective, systemic sulfonylurea herbicide. Degradation studies in soils are essential for the evaluation of the persistence of pesticides and their breakdown products. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the degradation of triazine-2-(14)C metsulfuron-methyl in soil under laboratory conditions. A High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC) equipped with an UV detector and an on-line radio-chemical detector, plus a Supelco Discovery column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 μm), and PRP-1 column (305 x 7.0 mm, 10 μm) was used for the HPLC analysis. The radioactivity was determined by a Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) in scintillation fluid. The soil used was both sterilized and non-sterilized in order to observe the involvement of soil microbes. The estimated DT50 and DT90 values of metsulfuron-methyl in a non-sterile system were observed to be 13 and 44 days, whereas in sterilized soil, the DT50 and DT90 were 31 and 70 days, respectively. The principal degradation product after 60 days was CO2. The higher cumulative amount of (14)CO2 in (14)C-triazine in the non-sterilized soil compared to that in the sterile system suggests that biological degradation by soil micro-organisms significantly contributes to the dissipation of the compound. The major routes of degradation were O-demethylation, sulfonylurea bridge cleavage and the triazine "ring-opened."
  12. Ismail BS, Prayitno S, Tayeb MA
    Environ Monit Assess, 2015 Jul;187(7):406.
    PMID: 26045037 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-015-4600-9
    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential risk of herbicide contamination (2,4-dichlorophenoxy (2,4-D), 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), metsulfuron, bensulfuron, and pyrazosulfuron) in the rice fields of the Muda Irrigation Scheme, Kedah, Malaysia. The study included two areas with different irrigation water sources namely non-recycled (N-RCL) and recycled (RCL) water. Periodic water sampling was carried out from the drainage canals during the planting period of the wet season 2006/2007 and dry season 2007. The HPLC-UV was used to detect herbicide residues in the water samples collected from the rice fields. The results showed that the concentration of sulfonylurea herbicides such as bensulfuron and metsulfuron in the rice field was 0.55 and 0.51 μg/L, respectively. The potential risk of contamination depended on the actual dosage of each herbicide applied by farmers to their rice fields. The potential risk of water pollution by the five herbicides studied in the area with RCL water tended to be more widespread compared to the area with N-RCL water due to surface water runoff with higher levels of weedicides to the surrounding areas. During the two seasons, 50-73% of the water samples collected from the area receiving RCL water contained the five herbicides studied at concentrations of more than 0.05 μg/L, and this percentage was higher than that from the areas receiving N-RCL water (45-69%). During the wet season, the overall total mean concentration of the eight herbicides found in the samples collected from the area with RCL water (6.27 μg/L) was significantly higher (P  0.05) in the herbicide concentrations between the areas receiving RCL (6.16 μg/L) and N-RCL water (7.43 μg/L) water.
  13. Halimah M, Tan YA, Aini K, Ismail BS
    J Environ Sci Health B, 2003 Jul;38(4):429-40.
    PMID: 12856925
    Improved methods for extraction and clean up of fluroxypyr residue in water have been established. Two methods of fluroxypyr extraction were used, namely, Direct Measurement of fluroxypyr and Concentration of fluroxypyr onto A Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) Adsorbent, followed by elution with solvent before determination of fluroxypyr. The recovery for Direct Measurement of fluroxypyr in water containing 8-100 microg L(-1), ranged from 86 to 110% with relative standard deviation of 0.7 to 2.15%. For the second method, three types of SPE were used, viz. C18, C18 end-capped and polyvinyl dibenzene (ISOLUTE ENV+). The procedure involved concentrating the analyte from fluroxypyr-spiked water at pH 3, followed by elution of the analyte with 4 mL of acentonitrile. The recovery of fluroxypyr from the spiked sample at 1 to 50 microg L(-1) after eluting through either C18 or C18 end-capped ranged from 40-64% (with relative standard deviation of 0.7 to 2.15) and 41-65% (with standard deviation of 1.52 to 11.9). The use of ISOLUTE ENV+, gave better results than the C18, C18 end-capped or the Direct Measurement Methods. The recovery and standard deviation of fluroxypyr from spiked water using ISOLUTE ENV+ ranged from 91-102% and 2.5 to 5.3, respectively.
  14. Tayeb MA, Ismail BS, Khairiatul-Mardiana J
    Environ Monit Assess, 2017 Oct 11;189(11):551.
    PMID: 29022154 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-017-6236-4
    This study focused on the residue detection of the herbicides triclopyr and glufosinate ammonium in the runoff losses from the Tasik Chini oil palm plantation area and the Tasik Chini Lake under natural rainfall conditions in the Malaysian tropical environment. Triclopyr and glufosinate ammonium are post-emergence herbicides. Both herbicides were foliar-sprayed on 0.5 ha of oil palm plantation plots, which were individualized by an uneven slope of 10-15%. Samples were collected at 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 days after treatment. The concentrations of both herbicides quickly diminished from those in the analyzed sample by the time of collection. The highest residue levels found in the field surface leachate were 0.031 (single dosage, triclopyr), 0.041 (single dosage, glufosinate ammonium), 0.017 (double dosage, triclopyr), and 0.037 μg/kg (double dosage, glufosinate ammonium). The chromatographic peaks were observed at "0" day treatment (2 h after herbicide application). From the applied active ingredients, the triclopyr and glufosinate losses were 0.025 and 0.055%, respectively. The experimental results showed that both herbicides are less potent than other herbicides in polluting water systems because of their short persistence and strong adsorption onto soil clay particles.
  15. Maznah Z, Halimah M, Ismail BS
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2018 May;100(5):677-682.
    PMID: 29516138 DOI: 10.1007/s00128-018-2312-x
    The residual levels and persistence of thiram in the soil, water and oil palm seedling leaves were investigated under field conditions. The experimental plots were carried out on a clay loam soil and applied with three treatments namely; manufacturer's recommended dosage (25.6 g a.i. plot-1), manufacturer's double recommended dosage (51.2 g a.i. plot-1), and control (water) were applied. Thiram residues were detected in the soil from day 0 to day 3 in the range of 0.22-27.04 mg kg-1. Low concentrations of thiram were observed in the water and leave samples in the range of 0.27-2.52 mg L-1 and 1.34-12.28 mg kg-1, respectively. Results have shown that thiram has a rapid degradation and has less persistence due to climatic factors. These findings suggest that thiram is safe when applied at manufacturer's recommended dosage on oil palm seedlings due to low residual levels observed in soil and water bodies.
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