A new flavanone derivative, malaysianone A (1), four prenylated flavanones, 6-prenyl-3'-methoxyeriodictyol (2), nymphaeol B (3), nymphaeol C (4) and 6-farnesyl-3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavanone (5), and two coumarins, 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin (6) and scopoletin (7), were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the inflorescences of Macaranga triloba. The structures of these compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-1D and 2D), UV, IR and mass spectrometry. The cytotoxic activity of the compounds was tested against several cell lines, with 5 inhibiting very strongly the growth of HeLa and HL-60 cells (IC(50): 1.3 μg/ml and 3.3 μg/ml, respectively). Compound 5 also showed strong antiplasmodial activity (IC(50): 0.06 μM).
A phytochemical study of the bark of Fissistigma latifolium (Annonaceae) yielded a new aporphine alkaloid, (-)-N-methylguattescidine (1), and eight known alkaloids: liriodenine (2), oxoxylopine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), dimethyltryptamine (5), (-)-remerine (6), (-)-anonaine (7), columbamine (8) and lysicamine (9). The compounds were isolated using various chromatographic methods and structural elucidation was accomplished by means of spectroscopic methods, notably 1D-NMR ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT), 2D-NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC), UV, IR and MS.
The genus Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae) comprises of about 170 species of woody trees, shrubs, subshrubs or herbs in the seasonally dry tropics of the Old and the New World. They are used in medicinal folklore to cure various diseases of 80% of the human population in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Species from this genus have been popular to cure stomachache, toothache, swelling, inflammation, leprosy, dysentery, dyscrasia, vertigo, anemia, diabetis, as well as to treat HIV and tumor, opthalmia, ringworm, ulcers, malaria, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma and as an aphrodisiac. They are also employed as ornamental plants and energy crops. Cyclic peptides alkaloids, diterpenes and miscellaneous compounds have been reported from this genus. Extracts and pure compounds of plants from this genus are reported for cytotoxicity, tumor-promoting, antimicrobial, antiprotozoal, anticoagulant, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, protoscolicidal, insecticidal, molluscicidal, inhibition AChE and toxicity activities.
2,4-Dimethylbenzoylhydrazones 1-30 were synthesized by condensation reactions of 2,4-dimethylbenzoylhydrazide with various aromatic aldehydes and characterized. The assigned structures of compounds 10, 15 and 22 were further supported by single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity. They exerted varying degree of scavenging activity toward DPPH radical with IC₅₀ values between 25.6-190 µM. Compounds 1, 4, 2, 3, 7, and 6 have IC₅₀ values of 25.6, 28.1, 29.3, 29.8, 30.0 and 30.1 µM respectively, showing better activity than an n-propyl gallate standard (IC₅₀ value = 30.30 µM). For super oxide anion scavenging activity compounds 1, 2 and 3 with IC₅₀ values of 98.3, 102.6, and 105.6, respectively, also showed better activity than the n-propyl gallate standard (IC₅₀ value = 106.34 µM).
In the title compound, C16H16N2O3·H2O, the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 30.27 (7)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O and C-H⋯O inter-actions into a three-dimensional network.
Dichloromethane root extract of Rennellia elliptica Korth. showed strong inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro with an IC₅₀ value of 4.04 µg/mL. A phytochemical study of the dichloromethane root extract has led to the isolation and characterization of a new anthraquinone, 1,2-dimethoxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (1), and ten known anthraquinones: 1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (2), nordamnacanthal (3), 2-formyl-3-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (4), damnacanthal (5), lucidin-ω-methyl ether (6), 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (7), rubiadin (8), 3-hydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (9), rubiadin-1-methyl ether (10) and 3-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone (11). Structural elucidation of all compounds was accomplished by modern spectroscopic methods, notably 1D and 2D NMR, IR, UV and HREIMS. The new anthraquinone 1, 2-formyl-3-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (4) and 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (7) possess strong antiplasmodial activity, with IC₅₀ values of 1.10, 0.63 and 0.34 µM, respectively.
A new resveratrol trimer, malaysianol A (1), five known resveratrol oligomers: laevifonol (2), ampelopsin E (3), α-viniferin (4), ε-viniferin (5), diptoindonesin A (6), and bergenin (7) have been isolated from the acetone extract of the stem bark of Dryobalanops aromatica by combination of vacuum and radial chromatography techniques. Their structures were established on the basis of their spectroscopic evidence and comparison with the published data. The cytotoxic activity of the compounds was tested against several cell lines in which compound 4 was found to inhibit strongly the growth of HL-60 cell line.
Dunaliine A (1), a new amino diketone, has been isolated from the leaves of Desmos dunalii together with four known dihydrochalcones: 2',4-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxy-3',5'-dimethyldihydrochalcone (2), 2',4-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxydihydrochalcone (3), 2',4-dihydroxy-4',5',6'-trimethoxydihydrochalcone (4) and 2',4-dihydroxy-5'-methyl-4',6'-dimethoxydihydrochalcone (5). The structures of these compounds were established notably by spectral analysis (1D- and 2D- (1)H, (13)C NMR), UV, IR and HRMS.
In the title benzoyl-hydrazide derivative, C17H18N2O, the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 88.45 (8)° and the azomethine double bond adopts an E conformation. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a chain along the b axis.
Compounds 1-25 showed varying degree of antileishmanial activities with IC50 values ranging between 1.95 and 88.56 μM. Compounds 2, 10, and 11 (IC50=3.29±0.07 μM, 1.95±0.04 μM, and 2.49±0.03 μM, respectively) were found to be more active than standard pentamidine (IC50=5.09±0.04 μM). Compounds 7 (IC50=7.64±0.1 μM), 8 (IC50=13.17±0.46 μM), 18 (IC50=13.15±0.02 μM), and 24 (IC50=15.65±0.41 μM) exhibited good activities. Compounds 1, 3, 4, 5, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 19 were found to be moderately active. Compounds 13, 14, 16, 17, 20-25 showed weak activities with IC50 values ranging between 57 and 88 μM.