A library of 26 novel carboxamides deriving from natural fislatifolic acid has been prepared. The synthetic strategy involved a bio-inspired Diels-Alder cycloaddition, followed by functionalisations of the carbonyl moiety. All the compounds were evaluated on Bcl-xL, Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 proteins. In this series of cyclohexenyl chalcone analogues, six compounds behaved as dual Bcl-xL/Mcl-1 inhibitors in micromolar range and one exhibited sub-micromolar affinities toward Mcl-1 and Bcl-2. The most potent compounds evaluated on A549 and MCF7 cancer cell lines showed moderate cytotoxicities.
In the present study, a series of nine stable 3,4,5-methoxylphenyl-containing asymmetrical diarylpentanoids, derivatives of curcuminoids, have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for their in-vitro anti-cancer potential against a panel of BRAF- and KRAS-mutated colorectal cancer cell lines including T84, LoVo and SW620, HT29, RKO and NCI-H508, respectively. Structure-activity relationship study on cytotoxicity of tested compounds suggested that the presence of meta-hydroxyl and adjacent dimethoxyl groups are crucial for enhanced cytotoxicity of diarylpentanoids. Among the evaluated analogs, 8 has been identified as the lead compound due to its highest chemotherapeutic index of 9.9 and nano molar scale cytotoxicity against SW620 and RKO. Colonies formation and cell cycle analyses on 8-treated RKO cells showed that 8 exhibits strong anti-proliferative activity by inducing G2/M-phase cell arrest. Subsequent flow cytometry based annexin-V and DCFHDA studies suggested that 8 could induce apoptosis through intracellular ROS-dependent pathway. Further Western blot studies confirmed that 8 has induced intrinsic apoptosis in RKO cells through the up-regulations of Bad and Bax pro-apoptotic proteins and down-regulations of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL pro-survival proteins. In all, the present results suggest that 8 could be a potent lead which deserves further modification and investigation in the development of small molecule-based anti-colorectal cancer agents.
Six N-nitroaryl-2-amino-1,3-dichloropropane derivatives have been prepared and evaluated against 18 cancer cell lines and two non-cancerous cell lines. Analysis of cell viability data and IC50 values indicated that the presence of a trifluoromethyl group in the nitroaryl moiety is an important structural feature associated with the compounds' cytotoxicities.
Hexacyclic derivatives share vital pharmacological properties, considered useful in Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was synthesis and its evaluation for acetyl cholinesterase inhibitory activity of novel hexacyclic analogues. Compound 4f, showed potent inhibitory activity against acetyl cholinesterase enzyme with IC(50) 0.72 μmol/L.
Series of pyrolidine analogues were synthesized and examined as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. Among the compounds, compounds 4k and 6k were the most potent inhibitors of the series. Compound 4k, showed potent inhibitory activity against acetyl cholinesterase enzyme with IC(50) 0.10 μmol/L. Pyrolidine analogues might be potential acetyl cholinesterase agents for AD.
A series of 16 oxadiazole and triazolothiadiazole derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated as mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors. Five derivatives were found to display high inhibition on the tyrosinase activity ranging from 0.87 to 1.49 microM. Compound 5 exhibited highest tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC(50) value of 0.87+/-0.16 microM. The in silico protein-ligand docking using AUTODOCK 4.1 was successfully performed on compound 5 with significant binding energy value of -5.58 kcal/mol. The docking results also showed that the tyrosinase inhibition might be due to the metal chelating effect by the presence of thione functionality in compounds 1-5. Further studies revealed that the presence of hydrophobic group such as cycloamine derivatives played a major role in the inhibition. Piperazine moiety in compound 5 appeared to be involved in an extensive hydrophobic contact and a 2.9A hydrogen bonding with residue Glu 182 in the active site.
Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) cyclohexenyl chalcone derivatives, 4-hydroxypanduratin A and panduratin A, showed good competitive inhibitory activities towards dengue 2 virus NS3 protease with the Ki values of 21 and 25 microM, respectively, whilst those of pinostrobin and cardamonin were observed to be non-competitive. NMR and GCMS spectroscopic data formed the basis of assignment of structures of the six compounds isolated.
A series of indole alkaloids of the ibogan-type was assessed for their cytotoxic effects as well as their potential in reversing MDR in vincristine-resistant KB cells. Of a total of 25 compounds tested, 3(S)-cyanocoronaridine, 3(S)-cyanoisovoacangine, 3(S)-cyanovoacangine, and 10,11-demethoxychippiine were found to show appreciable cytotoxicity toward KB cells, while coronaridine, heyneanine, 19-epi-heyneanine, dippinine B, and dippinine C, were found to reverse MDR in vincristine-resistant KB cells.
A series of indole alkaloids of the aspidofractinine-type was assessed for their potential in reversing MDR in vincristine-resistant KB cells. Of the compounds tested, kopsiflorine, kopsamine, pleiocarpine, 11-methoxykopsilongine, lahadinine A and N-methoxycarbonyl-11,12-methylenedioxy-delta 16,17-kopsinine were found to show appreciable activity.
Four new bisindoles of the vobasine-iboga type, conodiparines A-D were obtained from Tabernaemontana corymbosa which showed appreciable activity in reversing resistance in vincristine-resistant KB cells.
Vasorelaxation activity guided separation of the methanol extract of Calophyllum scriblitifolium bark led to the isolation of 6 chromanones (calofolic acids A-F, 1-6). Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and their absolute configurations were investigated by a combination of CD spectroscopy and DFT calculation. All isolated chromanones showed dose-dependent vasorelaxation activity on isolated rat aorta.
An efficient one-pot microwave assisted stereoselective synthesis of novel dihydro-2'H-spiro[indene-2,1'-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole]-tetraone derivatives through three-component 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides generated in situ from ninhydrin and sarcosine with a series of 1-aryl-1H-pyrrole-2,5-diones is described. The synthesised compounds were screened for their antimycobacterial and AChE inhibition activities. Compound 4b (IC50 1.30µM) has been found to display twelve fold antimycobacterial activity compared to cycloserine and it is thirty seven times more active than pyrimethamine. Compound 4h displays maximum AchE inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 0.78±0.01µmol/L.
A series of thirty-four diarylpentanoids derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Eleven compounds (19, 20, 21, 24, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33 and 34) were found to significantly inhibit α-glucosidase in which compounds 28, 31 and 32 demonstrated the highest activity with IC50 values ranging from 14.1 to 15.1 µM. Structure-activity comparison shows that multiple hydroxy groups are essential for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Meanwhile, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl and furanyl moieties were found to be crucial in improving α-glucosidase inhibition. Molecular docking analyses further confirmed the critical role of both 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl and furanyl moieties as they bound to α-glucosidase active site in different mode. Overall result suggests that diarylpentanoids with both five membered heterocyclic ring and polyhydroxyphenyl moiety could be a new lead design in the search of novel α-glucosidase inhibitor.
The syntheses and bioactivities of symmetrical curcumin and its analogues have been the subject of interest by many medicinal chemists and pharmacologists over the years. To improve our understanding, we have synthesized a series of unsymmetrical monocarbonyl curcumin analogues and evaluated their effects on prostaglandin E2 production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 and U937 cells. Initially, compounds 8b and 8c exhibited strong inhibition on the production of PGE2 in both LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 (8b, IC50=12.01μM and 8c, IC50=4.86μM) and U937 (8b, IC50=3.44μM and 8c, IC50=1.65μM) cells. Placing vanillin at position Ar2 further improved the potency when both compounds 15a and 15b significantly lowered the PGE2 secretion level (RAW264.7: 15a, IC50=0.78μM and 15b, IC50=1.9μM while U937: 15a, IC50=0.95μM and 15b, IC50=0.92μM). Further experiment showed that compounds 8b, 8c, 15a and 15b did not target the activity of downstream inflammatory COX-2 mediator. Finally, docking simulation on protein targets COX-2, IKK-β, ERK, JNK2, p38α and p38β were performed using the conformation of 15a determined by single-crystal XRD.
We report the potential of carbon nanodots (CNDs) as a molecular scaffold for enhancing the antimicrobial activities of small dendritic poly(amidoamines) (PAMAM). Carbon nanodots prepared from sago starch are readily functionalized with PAMAM by using N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Electron microscopy images of these polyaminated CNDs show that they are approximately 30-60nm in diameter. Infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy analyses of the water-soluble material established the presence of the polyamidoaminated moiety and the intrinsic fluorescence of the nanodots. The polyaminated nanodots (CND-PAM1 and CND-PAM2) exhibit in vitro antimicrobial properties, not only to non-multidrug resistant bacteria but also to the corresponding Gram-negative multidrug bacteria. Their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges from 8 to 64μg/mL, which is much lower than that of PAMAM G1 or the non-active PAMAM G0 and CNDs. Additionally, they show synergistic effect in combination with tetracycline or colistin. These preliminary results imply that CNDs can serve as a promising scaffold for facilitating the rational design of antimicrobial materials for combating the ever-increasing threat of antibiotic resistance. Moreover, their fluorescence could be pertinent to unraveling their mode of action for imaging or diagnostic applications.
Development of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) has been considered as major health burden, globally. In order to develop novel, potential molecules against drug resistant TB, twenty two (22) new 3-substituted-7-benzyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrido[4',3':4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one (6a-k) and 3-substituted-7-benzyl-2-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrido[4',3':4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one (7a-k) derivatives were designed and synthesized by using appropriate synthetic protocols. Pantothenate synthetase (PS) was considered as the target for the molecular docking studies and evaluated the binding pattern at active site, as PS plays a significant role in the biosynthesis of pantothenate in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The preliminary in vitro antibacterial screening of test compounds was carried out against two strains of Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria. The antimycobacterial screening was performed against MTB H37Rv and an isoniazid-resistant clinical isolate of MTB. The compounds 6b, 6c, 6d, 6k, 7b, 7c, 7d and 7k exhibited promising antibacterial activity MIC in the range of 15-73 μM against all bacterial strains used and compounds 6d and 7b showed antimycobacterial activity (IC50 <340 μM in LRP assay) and (MIC <9 μM in broth microdilution method).
Apoptotic cell death is the cause of the loss of insulin-producing β-cells in all forms of diabetes mellitus. The identification of small molecules capable of protecting cytokine-induced apoptosis could form the basis of useful therapeutic interventions. Here in, we present the discovery and synthesis of new benzimidazole derivatives, capable of rescuing pancreatic β-cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis. Three hydrazone derivatives of benzimidazole significantly increased the cellular ATP levels, reduced caspase-3 activity, reduced nitrite production and increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines. These findings suggest that these compounds may protect β-cells from the harmful effects of cytokines and may serve as candidates for therapeutic intervention for diabetes.
We synthesized a series of novel 5-24 derivatives of oxindole. The synthesis started from 5-chlorooxindole, which was condensed with methyl 4-carboxybezoate and result in the formation of benzolyester derivatives of oxindole which was then treated with hydrazine hydrate. The oxindole benzoylhydrazide was treated with aryl acetophenones and aldehydes to get target compounds 5-24. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for urease inhibition; the compound 5 (IC50 = 13.00 ± 0.35 μM) and 11 (IC50 = 19.20 ± 0.50 μM) showed potent activity as compared to the standard drug thiourea (IC50 = 21.00 ± 0.01 μM). Other compounds showed moderate to weak activity. All synthetic compounds were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR and EI MS. The molecular interactions of the active compounds within the binding site of urease enzyme were studied through molecular docking simulations.
A series of twenty-four 2-benzoyl-6-benzylidenecyclohexanone analogs were synthesized and evaluated for their nitric oxide inhibition and antioxidant activity. Six compounds (3, 8, 10, 17, 18 and 19) were found to exhibit significant NO inhibitory activity in LPS/IFN-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, of which compound 10 demonstrated the highest activity with the IC50 value of 4.2 ± 0.2 μM. Furthermore, two compounds (10 and 17) displayed antioxidant activity upon both the DPPH scavenging and FRAP analyses. However, none of the 2-benzoyl-6-benzylidenecyclohexanone analogs significantly scavenged NO radical. Structure-activity comparison suggested that 3,4-dihydroxylphenyl ring is crucial for bioactivities of the 2-benzoyl-6-benzylidenecyclohexanone analogs. The results from this study and the reports from previous studies indicated that compound 10 could be a candidate for further investigation on its potential as a new anti-inflammatory agent.
A series of novel hybrid spiro heterocycles comprising pyrrolizine, spiroxindole and piperidine moieties was synthesized chemo-, regio- and stereoselectively in good yields from 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of a series of 1-acryloyl-3,5-bisarylmethylidenepiperidin-4-ones with azomethine ylides generated in situ from 5-choloroisatin and l-proline in methanol. These cycloadducts displayed significant cholinesterase inhibitory activity. Among the compounds screened, 8g and 8e, showed maximum inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinestrase (BChE) with IC50 values of 3.33 and 3.13μM, respectively.