The new series of pentacyclic triterpenoids reduced lantadene A (3), B (4), and 22β-hydroxy-3-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (5) analogs were synthesized and tested in vitro for their NF-κB and IKKβ inhibitory potencies and cytotoxicity against A549 lung cancer cells. The lead analog (11) showed sub-micromolar activity against TNF-α induced activation of NF-κB and exhibited inhibition of IKKβ in a single-digit micromolar dose. At the same time, 11 showed promising cytotoxicity against A549 lung cancer cells with IC50 of 0.98 μM. The Western blot analysis further showed that the suppression of NF-κB activity by the lead analog 11 was due to the inhibition of IκBα degradation, a natural inhibitor of NF-κB. The physicochemical evaluation demonstrated that the lead analog 11 was stable in the simulated gastric fluid of pH 2, while hydrolyzed at a relatively higher rate in the human blood plasma to release the active parent moieties. Molecular docking analysis showed that 11 was hydrogen bonded with the Arg-31 and Gln-110 residues of the IKKβ.
The discovery of potent inhibitors of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis in recent years has been proven to be an important game changer in pharmaceutical industry. It is known that excessive production of PGE2 triggers a vast array of biological signals and physiological events that contributes to inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, cancer, and pain. In this Letter, we report the synthesis of a series of minor prenylated chalcones and flavonoids which was found to be significantly active in suppressing the PGE2 production secreted by lipopolysaccharide-induced mouse macrophage cells (RAW 264.7). Among the compounds tested, 14b showed a dose-response inhibition of PGE2 production with an IC50 value of 2.1 μM. The suppression upon PGE2 secretion was not due to cell death since 14b did not reduce the cell viability in close proximity to the PGE2 inhibition concentration. The obtained atomic coordinates for the single-crystal XRD of 14b was then applied in the docking simulation to determine the potential important binding interactions with murine COX-2 and mPGES-1 putative binding sites.
Novel mono and bis spiropyrrolidine derivatives were synthesized via an efficient ionic liquid mediated, 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition methodology and evaluated in vitro for their AChE and BChE inhibitory activities in search for potent cholinesterase enzyme inhibitors. Most of the synthesized compounds displayed remarkable AChE inhibitory activities with IC50 values ranging from 1.68 to 21.85 μM, wherein compounds 8d and 8j were found to be most active inhibitors against AChE and BChE with IC50 values of 1.68 and 2.75 μM, respectively. Molecular modeling simulation on Torpedo californica AChE and human BChE receptors, showed good correlation between IC50 values and binding interaction template of the most active inhibitors docked into the active site of their relevant enzymes.
Bisindole analogs 1-17 were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro β-glucuronidase inhibitory potential. Out of seventeen compounds, the analog 1 (IC50=1.62±0.04 μM), 6 (IC50=1.86±0.05 μM), 10 (IC50=2.80±0.29 μM), 9 (IC50=3.10±0.28 μM), 14 (IC50=4.30±0.08 μM), 2 (IC50=18.40±0.09 μM), 19 (IC50=19.90±1.05 μM), 4 (IC50=20.90±0.62 μM), 7 (IC50=21.50±0.77 μM), and 3 (IC50=22.30±0.02 μM) showed superior β-glucuronidase inhibitory activity than the standard (d-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone, IC50=48.40±1.25 μM). In addition, molecular docking studies were performed to investigate the binding interactions of bisindole derivatives with the enzyme. This study has identified a new class of potent β-glucouronidase inhibitors.
Four new chromone alkaloids, chrotacumines G-J (1-4), have been isolated from the barks of Dysoxylum acutangulum. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated on the basis of NMR and CD data. Chrotacumines G and J (1 and 4) showed osteoclast differentiation inhibitory activity in a dose dependent manner.
A series of novel hybrid heterocycles comprising arylidene thiazolidine-2,4-dione and 1-cyclopropyl-2-(2-fluorophenyl)ethanone were synthesized. These compounds were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in High Throughput Screen. Most of the hybrid arylidene thiazolidine-2,4-diones displayed moderate to good activity with MIC of less than 50 μM. Compound 1m exhibited maximum potency being 5.87 fold more active at EC50 and 6.26 fold more active at EC90 than the standard drug pyrimethamine.
In this study aliphatic polyacids were synthesized using palm acid oil (PAO) and sunflower oil (SFO) via addition reaction technique. The synthesized materials were characterized using Fourier-transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Mixing formic acid and hydrogen peroxide with PAO or SFO at the ratio 3:10:1 produced the lowest iodine value of 10.57 and 9.24 respectively, indicating the increase in epoxidization of both oils. Adding adipic acid to the epoxidized oils at a ratio of 1:10 increases the acid values of SFO and PAO to 11.22 and 6.73 respectively. The existence of multi-acid groups present in synthesized polyacid was confirmed by MALD-ToF-MS. This feature indicates a possible value to the biomaterials development.
The rhizomes of Alpinia pahangensis Ridley yielded a new bis-labdanic diterpene for which the name pahangensin A (1) was proposed along with a new labdane diterpene, pahangensin B (2). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including, 1D and 2D NMR techniques and LCMS-IT-TOF analysis. Pahangensin A (1) was found to be an antibacterial agent against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis with MIC values less than 100 μg/mL, respectively. Pahangensin B (2) exhibited antibacterial activity (MIC <100 μg/mL) against B. cereus.
Compounds 1-25 showed varying degree of antileishmanial activities with IC50 values ranging between 1.95 and 88.56 μM. Compounds 2, 10, and 11 (IC50=3.29±0.07 μM, 1.95±0.04 μM, and 2.49±0.03 μM, respectively) were found to be more active than standard pentamidine (IC50=5.09±0.04 μM). Compounds 7 (IC50=7.64±0.1 μM), 8 (IC50=13.17±0.46 μM), 18 (IC50=13.15±0.02 μM), and 24 (IC50=15.65±0.41 μM) exhibited good activities. Compounds 1, 3, 4, 5, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 19 were found to be moderately active. Compounds 13, 14, 16, 17, 20-25 showed weak activities with IC50 values ranging between 57 and 88 μM.
A series of novel hybrid spiro heterocycles comprising pyrrolizine, spiroxindole and piperidine moieties was synthesized chemo-, regio- and stereoselectively in good yields from 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of a series of 1-acryloyl-3,5-bisarylmethylidenepiperidin-4-ones with azomethine ylides generated in situ from 5-choloroisatin and l-proline in methanol. These cycloadducts displayed significant cholinesterase inhibitory activity. Among the compounds screened, 8g and 8e, showed maximum inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinestrase (BChE) with IC50 values of 3.33 and 3.13μM, respectively.
A series of twelve dispiropyrrolidines were synthesized using [3+2]-cycloaddition reactions. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis H(37)Rv and INH resistant M. tuberculosis strains using agar dilution method, four of them showed good activity with MIC of less than 1 μM. Compound 4'-[5-(4-fluorophenyl)pyridin-3-yl]-1'-methyldispiro[indan-2,2' pyrrolidine-3',2″-indan]-1,3,1″-trione (4b) was found to be the most active with MIC of 0.1215 and 5.121 μM, respectively.
Variation at the 3' position of fluorescein via Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling with aryl and heteroaryl moieties gave a family of anthofluoresceins whose spectroscopic properties were studied. The 1-methylindole derivative gave the highest quantum yield and was observed to behave as a molecular rotor, displaying marked variations in fluorescent intensities with viscosity and offering possible application in cellular sensing and fluorescent polarisation assays.
The rhizomes of Zingiber spectabile yielded a new dimeric flavonol glycoside for which the name kaempferol-3-O-(4″-O-acetyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside-(I-6,II-8)-kaempferol-3-O-(4″-O-acetyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside; spectaflavoside A (1) was proposed, along with kaempferol and its four acetylrhamnosides (2-6), demethoxycurcumin (7) and curcumin (8). The structure of spectaflavoside A was elucidated by spectroscopic methods including, 1D and 2D NMR techniques. This is the first report on the occurrence of a dimeric flavonol glycoside in the Zingiberaceae and the second in nature. Spectaflavoside A was found to be a potent iron chelating agent.
Hexacyclic derivatives share vital pharmacological properties, considered useful in Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was synthesis and its evaluation for acetyl cholinesterase inhibitory activity of novel hexacyclic analogues. Compound 4f, showed potent inhibitory activity against acetyl cholinesterase enzyme with IC(50) 0.72 μmol/L.
Pyrrolothiazolyloxindole analogues share vital pharmacological properties, considered useful in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was synthesis and evaluate pyralothiazolyloxindole analogues if possess acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity. The easily accessible one-pot synthesis of these compounds resulted to be significantly less difficult and expensive than that of donepezil. Several compounds possess anti-cholinesterase activity in the order of micro and sub-micromolar. Particularly, compound was the most potent inhibitors of the series against acetyl cholinesterase enzyme with IC(50) 0.11μmol/L.
Bioassay-guided extraction of the stem bark of Knema laurina showed the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of DCM and hexane fractions. Further repeated column chromatography of hexane and DCM fractions resulted in the isolation and purification of five alkenyl phenol and salicylic acid derivatives. New compounds, (+)-2-hydroxy-6-(10'-hydroxypentadec-8'(E)-enyl)benzoic acid (1) and 3-pentadec-10'(Z)-enylphenol (2), along with known 3-heptadec-10'(Z)-enylphenol (3), 2-hydroxy-6-(pentadec-10'(Z)-enyl)benzoic acid (4), and 2-hydroxy-6-(10'(Z)-heptadecenyl)benzoic acid (5) were isolated from the stem bark of this plant. Compounds (1-5) were tested for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by the 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical derivatizations. Compound 5 showed strong acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity with IC(50) of 0.573 ± 0.0260 μM. Docking studies of compound 5 indicated that the phenolic compound with an elongated side chain could possibly penetrate deep into the active site of the enzyme and arrange itself through π-π interaction, H-bonding, and hydrophobic contacts with some critical residues along the complex geometry of the active gorge.
Series of pyrolidine analogues were synthesized and examined as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. Among the compounds, compounds 4k and 6k were the most potent inhibitors of the series. Compound 4k, showed potent inhibitory activity against acetyl cholinesterase enzyme with IC(50) 0.10 μmol/L. Pyrolidine analogues might be potential acetyl cholinesterase agents for AD.
A series of 16 oxadiazole and triazolothiadiazole derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated as mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors. Five derivatives were found to display high inhibition on the tyrosinase activity ranging from 0.87 to 1.49 microM. Compound 5 exhibited highest tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC(50) value of 0.87+/-0.16 microM. The in silico protein-ligand docking using AUTODOCK 4.1 was successfully performed on compound 5 with significant binding energy value of -5.58 kcal/mol. The docking results also showed that the tyrosinase inhibition might be due to the metal chelating effect by the presence of thione functionality in compounds 1-5. Further studies revealed that the presence of hydrophobic group such as cycloamine derivatives played a major role in the inhibition. Piperazine moiety in compound 5 appeared to be involved in an extensive hydrophobic contact and a 2.9A hydrogen bonding with residue Glu 182 in the active site.
Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) cyclohexenyl chalcone derivatives, 4-hydroxypanduratin A and panduratin A, showed good competitive inhibitory activities towards dengue 2 virus NS3 protease with the Ki values of 21 and 25 microM, respectively, whilst those of pinostrobin and cardamonin were observed to be non-competitive. NMR and GCMS spectroscopic data formed the basis of assignment of structures of the six compounds isolated.
A series of indole alkaloids of the ibogan-type was assessed for their cytotoxic effects as well as their potential in reversing MDR in vincristine-resistant KB cells. Of a total of 25 compounds tested, 3(S)-cyanocoronaridine, 3(S)-cyanoisovoacangine, 3(S)-cyanovoacangine, and 10,11-demethoxychippiine were found to show appreciable cytotoxicity toward KB cells, while coronaridine, heyneanine, 19-epi-heyneanine, dippinine B, and dippinine C, were found to reverse MDR in vincristine-resistant KB cells.