Displaying all 11 publications

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  1. Yoga Latha, L., Darah, I., Sasidharan, S., Jain, K.
    Malays J Nutr, 2009;15(2):223-231.
    MyJurnal
    Chemical preservatives have been used in the food industry for many years. However, with increased health concerns, consumers prefer additive-free products or food preservatives based on natural products. This study evaluated antimicrobial activities of extracts from Emilia sonchifolia L. (Common name: lilac tassel flower), Tridax procumbens L. (Common name: tridax daisy) and Vernonia cinerea L. (Common name: Sahadevi), belonging to the Asteracea family, to explore their potential for use against general food spoilage and human pathogens so that new food preservatives may be developed. Three methanol extracts of these plants were tested in vitro against 20 bacterial species, 3 yeast species, and 12 filamentous fungi by the agar diffusion and broth dilution methods. The V. cinerea extract was found to be most effective against all of the tested organisms and the methanol fraction showed the most significant (p < 0.05) antimicrobial
    activity among all the soluble fractions tested. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of extracts determined by the broth dilution method ranged from 1.56 to 100.00mg/mL. The MIC of methanol fraction was the lowest in comparison to the other four extracts. The study findings indicate that bioactive natural products from these plants may be isolated for further testing as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals in food preservation as well as natural plant-based medicine.
  2. Sasidharan S, Darah I, Jain K
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 2011 Sep;15(9):1020-6.
    PMID: 22013724
    The Gracilaria (G.) sp are widely used in the traditional medicine in Malaysia. The methanol extract of Gracilaria changii B.M. Xia & I.A. Abbott (Gracilariaciae) was evaluated for antiyeast activity against Candida albicans (Berkhout).
  3. Yoga Latha L, Darah I, Sasidharan S, Jain K
    Malays J Nutr, 2009 Sep;15(2):223-31.
    PMID: 22691820
    Chemical preservatives have been used in the food industry for many years. However, with increased health concerns, consumers prefer additive-free products or food preservatives based on natural products. This study evaluated antimicrobial activities of extracts from Emilia sonchifolia L. (Common name: lilac tassel flower), Tridax procumbens L. (Common name: tridax daisy) and Vernonia cinerea L. (Common name: Sahadevi), belonging to the Asteracea family, to explore their potential for use against general food spoilage and human pathogens so that new food preservatives may be developed. Three methanol extracts of these plants were tested in vitro against 20 bacterial species, 3 yeast species, and 12 filamentous fungi by the agar diffusion and broth dilution methods. The V. cinerea extract was found to be most effective against all of the tested organisms and the methanol fraction showed the most significant (p < 0.05) antimicrobial activity among all the soluble fractions tested. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of extracts determined by the broth dilution method ranged from 1.56 to 100.00mg/mL. The MIC of methanol fraction was the lowest in comparison to the other four extracts. The study findings indicate that bioactive natural products from these plants may be isolated for further testing as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals in food preservation as well as natural plant-based medicine.
  4. Darah I, Sumathi G, Jain K, Lim SH
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2011 Dec;165(7-8):1682-90.
    PMID: 21947762 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-011-9387-8
    Agitation speed was found to influence the tannase production and fungal growth of Aspergillus niger FETL FT3. The optimal agitation speed was at 200 rpm which produced 1.41 U/ml tannase and 3.75 g/l of fungal growth. Lower or higher agitation speeds than 200 rpm produced lower enzyme production and fungal growth. Based on the SEM and TEM micrograph observation, there was a significant correlation between agitation speed and the morphology of the fungal mycelia. The results revealed an increase of the enzyme production with the change of the fungal growth morphology from filamentous to pelleted growth forms. However, the exposure to higher shear stress with an increasing agitation speed of the shaker also resulted in lower biomass yields as well as enzyme production.
  5. Darah I, Sumathi G, Jain K, Hong LS
    Biotechnol Res Int, 2011;2011:897931.
    PMID: 21826273 DOI: 10.4061/2011/897931
    Aspergillus niger FETL FT3, a local extracellular tannase producer strain that was isolated from one of dumping sites of tannin-rich barks of Rhizophora apiculata in Perak, Malaysia. This fungus was cultivated in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask under submerged fermentation system. Various physical parameters were studied in order to maximize the tannase production. Maximal yield of tannase production, that is, 2.81 U per mL was obtained on the fourth day of cultivation when the submerged fermentation was carried out using liquid Czapek-Dox medium containing (percent; weight per volume) 0.25% NaNO(3), 0.1% KH(2)PO(4), 0.05% MgSO(4) ·7H(2)O, 0.05% KCl, and 1.0% tannic acid. The physical parameters used initial medium pH of 6.0, incubation temperature of 30°C, agitation speed of 200 rpm and inoculums size of 6 × 10(6) spores/ ml. This research has showed that physical parameters were influenced the tannase production by the fungus with 156.4 percent increment.
  6. Latha LY, Darah I, Jain K, Sasidharan S
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 2011 May;15(5):543-9.
    PMID: 21744750
    Vernonia (V.) cinerea Less (Asteraceae) have many therapeutic uses in the practice of traditional medicine. The methanol extract of V cinerea, was screened for antiyeast activity against pathogenic yeast Candida albicans.
  7. Darah I, Sumathi G, Jain K, Lim SH
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 2011 Sep;34(7):795-801.
    PMID: 21347668 DOI: 10.1007/s00449-011-0529-8
    The ability of immobilized cell cultures of Aspergillus niger FETL FT3 to produce extracellular tannase was investigated. The production of enzyme was increased by entrapping the fungus in scouring mesh cubes compared to free cells. Using optimized parameters of six scouring mesh cubes and inoculum size of 1 × 10(6) spores/mL, the tannase production of 3.98 U/mL was obtained from the immobilized cells compared to free cells (2.81 U/mL). It was about 41.64% increment. The immobilized cultures exhibited significant tannase production stability of two repeated runs.
  8. Latha LY, Darah I, Jain K, Sasidharan S
    Pharm Biol, 2010 Jan;48(1):101-4.
    PMID: 20645763 DOI: 10.3109/13880200903046203
    The methanol extract of Vernonia cinerea Less (Asteraceae), which exhibited antimicrobial activity, was tested for toxicity. In an acute toxicity study using mice, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of the extract was greater than 2000 mg/kg, and we found no pathological changes in macroscopic examination by necropsy of mice treated with extract. As well as the oral acute toxicity study, the brine shrimp lethality test was also done. Brine shrimp test LC(50) values were 3.87 mg/mL (6 h) and 2.72 mg/mL (24 h), exhibiting no significant toxicity result. In conclusion, the methanol extract of V. cinerea did not produce toxic effects in mice and brine shrimp.
  9. Darah I, Nur-Diyana A, Nurul-Husna S, Jain K, Lim SH
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2013 Dec;171(7):1900-10.
    PMID: 24013862 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-013-0496-4
    Keratinous wastes have increasingly become a problem and accumulate in the environment mainly in the form of feathers, generated mainly from a large number of poultry industries. As keratins are very difficult to degrade by general proteases, they pose a major environmental problem. Therefore, microorganisms which would effectively degrade keratins are needed for recycling such wastes. A geophilic dermatophyte, Microsporum fulvum IBRL SD3 which was isolated from a soil sample collected from a chicken feather dumping site using a baiting technique, was capable to produce keratinase significantly. The crude keratinase was able to degrade whole chicken feathers effectively. The end product of the degradation was protein that contained essential amino acids and may have potential application in animal feed production. Thus, M. fulvum could be a novel organism to produce keratinase for chicken feathers degradation.
  10. Latha LY, Darah I, Jain K, Sasidharan S
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2012 Feb;2(2):149-51.
    PMID: 23569886 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60210-4
    To investigate the antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of different parts of Ixora species.
  11. Kesharwani P, Gothwal A, Iyer AK, Jain K, Chourasia MK, Gupta U
    Drug Discov Today, 2017 Jul 08.
    PMID: 28697371 DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2017.06.009
    Highly controllable dendritic structural design means dendrimers are a leading carrier in drug delivery applications. Dendrimer- and other nanocarrier-based hybrid systems are an emerging platform in the field of drug delivery. This review is a compilation of increasing reports of dendrimer interactions, such as dendrimer-liposome, dendrimer-carbon-nanotube, among others, known as hybrid carriers. This should prompt entirely new research with promising results for these hybrid carriers. It is assumed that such emerging hybrid nanosystems - from combining two already-established drug delivery platforms - could lead the way for the development of newer delivery systems with multiple applicability for latent theranostic applications in the future.
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