Displaying all 12 publications

  1. Jiang H, Qian X, Carroli G, Garner P
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2017 02 08;2:CD000081.
    PMID: 28176333 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000081.pub3
    BACKGROUND: Some clinicians believe that routine episiotomy, a surgical cut of the vagina and perineum, will prevent serious tears during childbirth. On the other hand, an episiotomy guarantees perineal trauma and sutures.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects on mother and baby of a policy of selective episiotomy ('only if needed') compared with a policy of routine episiotomy ('part of routine management') for vaginal births.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (14 September 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing selective versus routine use of episiotomy, irrespective of parity, setting or surgical type of episiotomy. We included trials where either unassisted or assisted vaginal births were intended. Quasi-RCTs, trials using a cross-over design or those published in abstract form only were not eligible for inclusion in this review.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently screened studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. A third author mediated where there was no clear consensus. We observed good practice for data analysis and interpretation where trialists were review authors. We used fixed-effect models unless heterogeneity precluded this, expressed results as risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), and assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE.

    MAIN RESULTS: This updated review includes 12 studies (6177 women), 11 in women in labour for whom a vaginal birth was intended, and one in women where an assisted birth was anticipated. Two were trials each with more than 1000 women (Argentina and the UK), and the rest were smaller (from Canada, Germany, Spain, Ireland, Malaysia, Pakistan, Columbia and Saudi Arabia). Eight trials included primiparous women only, and four trials were in both primiparous and multiparous women. For risk of bias, allocation was adequately concealed and reported in nine trials; sequence generation random and adequately reported in three trials; blinding of outcomes adequate and reported in one trial, blinding of participants and personnel reported in one trial.For women where an unassisted vaginal birth was anticipated, a policy of selective episiotomy may result in 30% fewer women experiencing severe perineal/vaginal trauma (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.94; 5375 women; eight RCTs; low-certainty evidence). We do not know if there is a difference for blood loss at delivery (an average of 27 mL less with selective episiotomy, 95% CI from 75 mL less to 20 mL more; two trials, 336 women, very low-certainty evidence). Both selective and routine episiotomy have little or no effect on infants with Apgar score less than seven at five minutes (four trials, no events; 3908 women, moderate-certainty evidence); and there may be little or no difference in perineal infection (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.82, three trials, 1467 participants, low-certainty evidence).For pain, we do not know if selective episiotomy compared with routine results in fewer women with moderate or severe perineal pain (measured on a visual analogue scale) at three days postpartum (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.05, one trial, 165 participants, very low-certainty evidence). There is probably little or no difference for long-term (six months or more) dyspareunia (RR1.14, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.53, three trials, 1107 participants, moderate-certainty evidence); and there may be little or no difference for long-term (six months or more) urinary incontinence (average RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.44, three trials, 1107 participants, low-certainty evidence). One trial reported genital prolapse at three years postpartum. There was no clear difference between the two groups (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.06 to 1.41; 365 women; one trial, low certainty evidence). Other outcomes relating to long-term effects were not reported (urinary fistula, rectal fistula, and faecal incontinence). Subgroup analyses by parity (primiparae versus multiparae) and by surgical method (midline versus mediolateral episiotomy) did not identify any modifying effects. Pain was not well assessed, and women's preferences were not reported.One trial examined selective episiotomy compared with routine episiotomy in women where an operative vaginal delivery was intended in 175 women, and did not show clear difference on severe perineal trauma between the restrictive and routine use of episiotomy, but the analysis was underpowered.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In women where no instrumental delivery is intended, selective episiotomy policies result in fewer women with severe perineal/vaginal trauma. Other findings, both in the short or long term, provide no clear evidence that selective episiotomy policies results in harm to mother or baby.The review thus demonstrates that believing that routine episiotomy reduces perineal/vaginal trauma is not justified by current evidence. Further research in women where instrumental delivery is intended may help clarify if routine episiotomy is useful in this particular group. These trials should use better, standardised outcome assessment methods.

  2. Jiang H, Mani MP, Jaganathan SK
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2019;14:8149-8159.
    PMID: 31632024 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S214646
    Introduction: Recently several new approaches were emerging in bone tissue engineering to develop a substitute for remodelling the damaged tissue. In order to resemble the native extracellular matrix (ECM) of the human tissue, the bone scaffolds must possess necessary requirements like large surface area, interconnected pores and sufficient mechanical strength.

    Materials and methods: A novel bone scaffold has been developed using polyurethane (PE) added with wintergreen (WG) and titanium dioxide (TiO2). The developed nanocomposites were characterized through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), contact angle measurement, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tensile testing. Furthermore, anticoagulant assays, cell viability analysis and calcium deposition were used to investigate the biological properties of the prepared hybrid nanocomposites.

    Results: FESEM depicted the reduced fibre diameter for the electrospun PE/WG and PE/WG/TiO2 than the pristine PE. The addition of WG and TiO2 resulted in the alteration in peak intensity of PE as revealed in the FTIR. Wettability measurements showed the PE/WG showed decreased wettability and the PE/WG/TiO2 exhibited improved wettability than the pristine PE. TGA measurements showed the improved thermal behaviour for the PE with the addition of WG and TiO2. Surface analysis indicated that the composite has a smoother surface rather than the pristine PE. Further, the incorporation of WG and TiO2 improved the anticoagulant nature of the pristine PE. In vitro cytotoxicity assay has been performed using fibroblast cells which revealed that the electrospun composites showed good cell attachment and proliferation after 5 days. Moreover, the bone apatite formation study revealed the enhanced deposition of calcium content in the fabricated composites than the pristine PE.

    Conclusion: Fabricated nanocomposites rendered improved physico-chemical properties, biocompatibility and calcium deposition which are conducive for bone tissue engineering.

  3. Jiang H, Xiang X, Hao W, Room R, Zhang X, Wang X
    PMID: 29761160 DOI: 10.1186/s41256-018-0070-2
    Background: The paper reviews alcohol consumption patterns and alcohol-related social and health issues among 15-29-year old young people in Asian countries, and discusses strategies for preventing and controlling alcohol use and related harms.

    Methods: We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science for reports, reviews and journal articles published in English between 1st Jan 1990 and 31st August 2016.

    Results: Forty-one reports, reviews and journal papers were identified and included in the final review. The current drinking levels and prevalence among young people are markedly different between eight included Asian countries, ranging from 4.2% in Malaysia to 49.3% in China. In a majority of the selected Asian countries, over 15% of total deaths among young men and 6% among young women aged 15-29 years are attributable to alcohol use. Alcohol use among young people is associated with a number of harms, including stress, family violence, injuries, suicide, and sexual and other risky behaviours. Alcohol policies, such as controlling sales, social supply and marketing, setting up/raising a legal drinking age, adding health warning labels on alcohol containers, and developing a surveillance system to monitor drinking pattern and risky drinking behaviour, could be potential means to reduce harmful use of alcohol and related harm among young people in Asia.

    Conclusions: The review reveals that drinking patterns and behaviours vary across eight selected Asian countries due to culture, policies and regional variations. The research evidence holds substantial policy implications for harm reduction on alcohol drinking among young people in Asian countries -- especially for China, which has almost no alcohol control policies at present.

  4. Xu J, Jiang H, Li J, Cheng KK, Dong J, Chen Z
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(4):e0119654.
    PMID: 25849323 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119654
    Wilson's disease (WD), also known as hepatoleticular degeneration (HLD), is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder of copper metabolism, which causes copper to accumulate in body tissues. In this study, rats fed with copper-laden diet are used to render the clinical manifestations of WD, and their copper toxicity-induced organ lesions are studied. To investigate metabolic behaviors of 'decoppering' process, penicillamine (PA) was used for treating copper-laden rats as this chelating agent could eliminate excess copper through the urine. To date, there has been limited metabolomics study on WD, while metabolic impacts of copper accumulation and PA administration have yet to be established.
  5. Lee G, McMahon CG, McCabe M, Jiang H, Lee SW, Lim P, et al.
    Sex Med, 2016 Aug 12.
    PMID: 27528556 DOI: 10.1016/j.esxm.2016.07.002
    Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most prevalent yet under-reported sexual disorders. Differing sociocultural norms across the Asia-Pacific region provide unique challenges in PE management.
  6. Zhang J, Chu R, Chen Y, Jiang H, Zhang Y, Huang NM, et al.
    Nanotechnology, 2018 Jan 19.
    PMID: 29350621 DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aaa94c
    Binder-free nickle cobaltite on carbon nanofiber (NiCo2O4@CNF) anode for lithium ion batteries was prepared via a two-step procedure of electrospinning and electrodeposition. The CNF was obtained by annealing the electrospun poly-acrylonitrile (PAN) in the nitrogen (N2). The NiCo2O4 nanostructures were then grown on the CNF by electrodeposition, followed by annealing in the air. Experimental results showed vertically aligned NiCo2O4 nanosheets were uniformly grown on the surface of CNF, forming an interconnected network. The NiCo2O4@CNF possessed considerable lithium storage capacity and cycling stability. It exhibited a high reversible capacity of 778 mAhg-1 after 300 cycles at a current density of 0.25 C (1 C = 890 mAg-1) with an average capacity loss rate of 0.05% per cycle. The NiCo2O4@CNF had considerable rate capacities, delivering a capacity of 350 mAhg-1 at a current density of 2.0 C. The outstanding electrochemical performance could be mainly attributed to these following reasons. (1) The nanoscale structure of NiCo2O4 could not only shorten the diffusion path of lithium ions and electrons but also increase the specific surface area, providing more active sites for electrochemical reactions. (2) The CNF with considerable mechanical strength and electrical conductivity could function as anchor the NiCo2O4 nanostructure and ensure an efficient electron transfer. (3) The porous structure resulted in high specific surface area and effective buffer the volume changes during the repeated charge-discharge processes. Compared with the conventional hydrothermal method, the electrodeposition could significantly simplify the preparation of NiCo2O4, with shorter preparation period and lower energy consumption. This work provided an alternative strategy to obtain high performance anode for the lithium ion batteries.
  7. Zhu J, Li Y, Jiang H, Liu C, Lu W, Dai W, et al.
    Ecotoxicology, 2018 May;27(4):411-419.
    PMID: 29404868 DOI: 10.1007/s10646-018-1904-x
    The novel mesoionic insecticide triflumezopyrim was highly effective in controlling both imidacloprid-susceptible and resistant planthopper populations in Malaysia. However, the toxicity of triflumezopyrim to planthopper populations and their natural enemies has been under-investigated in China. In this study, the median lethal concentrations (LC50) of triflumezopyrim were determined in eight field populations of Nilaparvata lugens and one population of Sogatella furcifera from China under laboratory conditions. Triflumezopyrim showed higher toxicity to planthopper populations than the commonly-used insecticide, imidacloprid. Furthermore, the lethal effect of triflumezopyrim on eight beneficial arthropods of planthoppers was investigated in the laboratory and compared with three commonly-used insecticides, thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and abamectin. Triflumezopyrim was harmless to Anagrus nilaparvatae, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis and Paederus fuscipes, while thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and abamectin were moderately harmful or harmful to the insect parasitoid and predators. Triflumezopyrim and thiamethoxam were harmless to the predatory spiders Pirata subpiraticus, Ummeliata insecticeps, Hylyphantes graminicola and Pardosa pseudoannulata, and slightly harmful to Theridion octomaculatum. Chlorpyrifos caused slight to high toxicity to four spider species except U. insecticeps. Abamectin was moderately to highly toxic to all five spider species. Our results indicate that triflumezopyrim has high efficacy for rice planthoppers populations and is compatibile with their natural enemies in China.
  8. Zhang J, Chu R, Chen Y, Jiang H, Zeng Y, Zhang Y, et al.
    Nanotechnology, 2018 Dec 20.
    PMID: 30572323 DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aafa25
    Carbon-coated nickel cobaltate on nickel foam (C@NCO@NF) with stable pseudocapacitive lithium storage capacity was prepared via a two-step strategy. NiCo hydroxide were initially grown on Ni foam via electrodeposition. Subsequent glucose soaking and annealing converted the intermediate into C@NCO@NF. Carbon coating could significantly improve cycling stability and rate performance of the binder-free anode. The C@NCO@NF electrode could stably deliver a reversible capacity of 513 mAh∙g-1 after 500 cycles at a current density of 500 mA∙g-1. It could even stably cycle at a high current density of 5000 mA∙g-1 for 3000 times, with a reversible capacity of 115 mAh∙g-1. Kinetic analysis revealed that surface-controlled pseudo-capacitance play a dominate role in the lithium ion storage. Improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the synergetic effect of pseudo-capacitance and carbon coating.
  9. Lin Y, Hu J, Li S, Hamzah SS, Jiang H, Zhou A, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Jun 27;24(13).
    PMID: 31252525 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24132374
    Fresh-cut fruits and vegetables are the main sources of foodborne illness outbreaks with implicated pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes. This study aimed at investigating the influence of two key parameters (concentration of curcumin and illumination time) on the effects of curcumin-based photodynamic sterilization on the preservation of fresh-cut Hami melons. The results indicated that illumination with 50 μmol/L curcumin for 60 min using a blue LED lamp reduced the total aerobic microorganism count by ~1.8 log CFU/g in fresh-cut Hami melons. Besides this, the effects of photodynamic sterilization on the soluble solids content, color, water content, firmness, and sensory indices of the fresh-cut Hami melons were also evaluated. Compared to the control group, photodynamic sterilization can effectively delay the browning rate and maintain the luminosity, firmness, water content, and soluble solids content of fresh-cut Hami melon. The sensory quality was indeed preserved well after 9 days of storage in a fridge. These results showed that photodynamic sterilization is an effective and promising technology to prolong the shelf life of fresh-cut Hami melons.
  10. Wu F, Jiang H, Beattie GAC, Holford P, Chen J, Wallis CM, et al.
    Pest Manag. Sci., 2018 Nov;74(11):2569-2577.
    PMID: 29688605 DOI: 10.1002/ps.5044
    BACKGROUND: Diaphorina citri (Asian citrus psyllid; ACP) transmits 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB). ACP has been reported in 11 provinces/regions in China, yet its population diversity remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated ACP population diversity in China using representative whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences. Additional mitogenome sequences outside China were also acquired and evaluated.

    RESULTS: The sizes of the 27 ACP mitogenome sequences ranged from 14 986 to 15 030 bp. Along with three previously published mitogenome sequences, the 30 sequences formed three major mitochondrial groups (MGs): MG1, present in southwestern China and occurring at elevations above 1000 m; MG2, present in southeastern China and Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam) and occurring at elevations below 180 m; and MG3, present in the USA and Pakistan. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in five genes (cox2, atp8, nad3, nad1 and rrnL) contributed mostly in the ACP diversity. Among these genes, rrnL had the most variation.

    CONCLUSION: Mitogenome sequences analyses revealed two major phylogenetic groups of ACP present in China as well as a possible unique group present currently in Pakistan and the USA. The information could have significant implications for current ACP control and HLB management. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Shang X, Peng Z, Ye Y, Asan, Zhang X, Chen Y, et al.
    EBioMedicine, 2017 Sep;23:150-159.
    PMID: 28865746 DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.08.015
    Hemoglobinopathies are among the most common autosomal-recessive disorders worldwide. A comprehensive next-generation sequencing (NGS) test would greatly facilitate screening and diagnosis of these disorders. An NGS panel targeting the coding regions of hemoglobin genes and four modifier genes was designed. We validated the assay by using 2522 subjects affected with hemoglobinopathies and applied it to carrier testing in a cohort of 10,111 couples who were also screened through traditional methods. In the clinical genotyping analysis of 1182 β-thalassemia subjects, we identified a group of additional variants that can be used for accurate diagnosis. In the molecular screening analysis of the 10,111 couples, we detected 4180 individuals in total who carried 4840 mutant alleles, and identified 186 couples at risk of having affected offspring. 12.1% of the pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants identified by our NGS assay, which were undetectable by traditional methods. Compared with the traditional methods, our assay identified an additional at-risk 35 couples. We describe a comprehensive NGS-based test that offers advantages over the traditional screening/molecular testing methods. To our knowledge, this is among the first large-scale population study to systematically evaluate the application of an NGS technique in carrier screening and molecular diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies.
  12. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
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