Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 72 in total

  1. Ullah I, Khan I, Shafie S
    Sci Rep, 2017 04 25;7(1):1113.
    PMID: 28442747 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-01205-5
    Unsteady mixed convection flow of Casson fluid towards a nonlinearly stretching sheet with the slip and convective boundary conditions is analyzed in this work. The effects of Soret Dufour, viscous dissipation and heat generation/absorption are also investigated. After using some suitable transformations, the unsteady nonlinear problem is solved by using Keller-box method. Numerical solutions for wall shear stress and high temperature transfer rate are calculated and compared with previously published work, an excellent arrangement is followed. It is noticed that fluid velocity reduces for both local unsteadiness and Casson parameters. It is likewise noticed that the influence of a Dufour number of dimensionless temperature is more prominent as compared to species concentration. Furthermore, the temperature was found to be increased in the case of nonlinear thermal radiation.
  2. Aaiza G, Khan I, Shafie S
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2015 Dec;10(1):490.
    PMID: 26698873 DOI: 10.1186/s11671-015-1144-4
    Energy transfer in mixed convection unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of an incompressible nanofluid inside a channel filled with saturated porous medium is investigated. The channel with non-uniform walls temperature is taken in a vertical direction under the influence of a transverse magnetic field. Based on the physical boundary conditions, three different flow situations are discussed. The problem is modelled in terms of partial differential equations with physical boundary conditions. Four different shapes of nanoparticles of equal volume fraction are used in conventional base fluids, ethylene glycol (EG) (C 2 H 6 O 2 ) and water (H 2 O). Solutions for velocity and temperature are obtained discussed graphically in various plots. It is found that viscosity and thermal conductivity are the most prominent parameters responsible for different results of velocity and temperature. Due to higher viscosity and thermal conductivity, C 2 H 6 O 2 is regarded as better convectional base fluid compared to H 2 O.
  3. Samiulhaq, Ahmad S, Vieru D, Khan I, Shafie S
    PLoS One, 2014;9(5):e88766.
    PMID: 24785147 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088766
    Magnetic field influence on unsteady free convection flow of a second grade fluid near an infinite vertical flat plate with ramped wall temperature embedded in a porous medium is studied. It has been observed that magnitude of velocity as well as skin friction in case of ramped temperature is quite less than the isothermal temperature. Some special cases namely: (i) second grade fluid in the absence of magnetic field and porous medium and (ii) Newtonian fluid in the presence of magnetic field and porous medium, performing the same motion are obtained. Finally, the influence of various parameters is graphically shown.
  4. Ali F, Khan I, Shafie S
    PLoS One, 2014;9(2):e85099.
    PMID: 24551033 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085099
    Closed form solutions for unsteady free convection flows of a second grade fluid near an isothermal vertical plate oscillating in its plane using the Laplace transform technique are established. Expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained and displayed graphically for different values of Prandtl number Pr, thermal Grashof number Gr, viscoelastic parameter α, phase angle ωτ and time τ. Numerical values of skin friction τ 0 and Nusselt number Nu are shown in tables. Some well-known solutions in literature are reduced as the limiting cases of the present solutions.
  5. Ali F, Khan I, Samiulhaq, Shafie S
    PLoS One, 2013;8(6):e65223.
    PMID: 23840321 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065223
    The aim of this study is to present an exact analysis of combined effects of radiation and chemical reaction on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) free convection flow of an electrically conducting incompressible viscous fluid over an inclined plate embedded in a porous medium. The impulsively started plate with variable temperature and mass diffusion is considered. The dimensionless momentum equation coupled with the energy and mass diffusion equations are analytically solved using the Laplace transform method. Expressions for velocity, temperature and concentration fields are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and can be reduced, as special cases, to some known solutions from the literature. Expressions for skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also obtained. Finally, the effects of pertinent parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are graphically displayed whereas the variations in skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are shown through tables.
  6. Khan I, Ali F, Shafie S
    PLoS One, 2013;8(5):e61531.
    PMID: 23667442 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061531
    The present work is concerned with exact solutions of Stokes second problem for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flow of a Burgers' fluid. The fluid over a flat plate is assumed to be electrically conducting in the presence of a uniform magnetic field applied in outward transverse direction to the flow. The equations governing the flow are modeled and then solved using the Laplace transform technique. The expressions of velocity field and tangential stress are developed when the relaxation time satisfies the condition γ =  λ²/4 or γ> λ²/4. The obtained closed form solutions are presented in the form of simple or multiple integrals in terms of Bessel functions and terms with only Bessel functions. The numerical integration is performed and the graphical results are displayed for the involved flow parameters. It is found that the velocity decreases whereas the shear stress increases when the Hartmann number is increased. The solutions corresponding to the Stokes' first problem for hydrodynamic Burgers' fluids are obtained as limiting cases of the present solutions. Similar solutions for Stokes' second problem of hydrodynamic Burgers' fluids and those for Newtonian and Oldroyd-B fluids can also be obtained as limiting cases of these solutions.
  7. Ullah I, Bhattacharyya K, Shafie S, Khan I
    PLoS One, 2016;11(10):e0165348.
    PMID: 27776174 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165348
    Numerical results are presented for the effect of first order chemical reaction and thermal radiation on mixed convection flow of Casson fluid in the presence of magnetic field. The flow is generated due to unsteady nonlinearly stretching sheet placed inside a porous medium. Convective conditions on wall temperature and wall concentration are also employed in the investigation. The governing partial differential equations are converted to ordinary differential equations using suitable transformations and then solved numerically via Keller-box method. It is noticed that fluid velocity rises with increase in radiation parameter in the case of assisting flow and is opposite in the case of opposing fluid while radiation parameter has no effect on fluid velocity in the forced convection. It is also seen that fluid velocity and concentration enhances in the case of generative chemical reaction whereas both profiles reduces in the case of destructive chemical reaction. Further, increase in local unsteadiness parameter reduces fluid velocity, temperature and concentration. Over all the effects of physical parameters on fluid velocity, temperature and concentration distribution as well as on the wall shear stress, heat and mass transfer rates are discussed in detail.
  8. Khan I, Shah NA, Dennis LC
    Sci Rep, 2017 03 15;7:40147.
    PMID: 28294186 DOI: 10.1038/srep40147
    This scientific report investigates the heat transfer analysis in mixed convection flow of Maxwell fluid over an oscillating vertical plate with constant wall temperature. The problem is modelled in terms of coupled partial differential equations with initial and boundary conditions. Some suitable non-dimensional variables are introduced in order to transform the governing problem into dimensionless form. The resulting problem is solved via Laplace transform method and exact solutions for velocity, shear stress and temperature are obtained. These solutions are greatly influenced with the variation of embedded parameters which include the Prandtl number and Grashof number for various times. In the absence of free convection, the corresponding solutions representing the mechanical part of velocity reduced to the well known solutions in the literature. The total velocity is presented as a sum of both cosine and sine velocities. The unsteady velocity in each case is arranged in the form of transient and post transient parts. It is found that the post transient parts are independent of time. The solutions corresponding to Newtonian fluids are recovered as a special case and comparison between Newtonian fluid and Maxwell fluid is shown graphically.
  9. Mohd Affandi A, Khan I, Ngah Saaya N
    Dermatol Res Pract, 2018;2018:4371471.
    PMID: 29849578 DOI: 10.1155/2018/4371471
    Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting 2-3% of the general population.
    Aim: To evaluate the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of patients with psoriasis who seek treatment in outpatient dermatology clinics throughout hospitals in Malaysia.
    Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the Malaysian Psoriasis Registry (MPR). All patients (aged 18 and above) who were notified to the registry from July 2017 to December 2017 were included in this study.
    Results: Among 15,794 patients, Malays were the most common (50.4%), followed by Chinese (21.4%), Indian (17.6%), and others (10.6%). The mean age onset of psoriasis for our study population was 35.14 ± 16.16 years. Male to female ratio was 1.3 : 1. 23.1% of patients had positive family history of psoriasis. The most common clinical presentation was chronic plaque psoriasis (85.1%), followed by guttate psoriasis (2.9%), erythrodermic psoriasis (1.7%), and pustular psoriasis (1.0%). Majority of our patients (76.6%) had a mild disease with BSA < 10%. 57.1% of patients had nail involvement, while arthropathy was seen in 13.7% of patients. Common triggers of the disease include stress (48.3%), sunlight (24.9%), and infection (9.1%). Comorbidities observed include obesity (24.3%), hypertension (25.6%), hyperlipidemia (18%), diabetes mellitus (17.2%), ischaemic heart disease (5.4%), and cerebrovascular disease (1.6%). The mean DLQI (Dermatology Life Quality Index) was 8.5 ± 6.6. One-third (33.1%) of the patients had a DLQI score of more than 10, while 14.2% of patients reported no effect at all.
    Conclusion: Our study on the epidemiological data of adult patients with psoriasis in Malaysia showed a similar clinical profile and outcome when compared to international published studies on the epidemiology of psoriasis.
  10. Lund LA, Omar Z, Khan I
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2019 Dec;182:105044.
    PMID: 31491654 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105044
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The last two and half decades are witnessed a great surge in the use convective fluids for enhancement of heat transfer of minerals ethylene glycol, oil and water due to their numerous applications in the industrial segments including chemical production, microelectronics, power generation, transportation, and air-conditioning. For this purpose, different procedures were applied to upgrade the thermal conductivity of common fluid but could not. Further, Choi and Eastman in 1995 introduced nanofluid which has good thermal properties as compared to common fluids. After that, it can be seen that researchers, mathematicians, and scientists tried to understand the principles of nanofluids and how to implicate them in many different practical applications. In this work, the Buongiorno model has been considered for nanofluid. One of the prime objectives is to consider all possible multiple solutions of the model because these solutions cannot be seen experimentally.

    METHODS: The governing equations of fluid flow have been transformed in the form of ordinary differential equations. These equations have been solved by two methods namely, shooting method and three-stage Lobatto IIIa formula.

    RESULTS: The effects of different parameters on temperature, velocity, concentration profiles, skin friction coefficient, Sherwood number, and reduced Nusselt number were obtained and presented graphically. It was noticed that four solutions existed at definite ranges of the parameters for high suction over both surfaces for the first time. The results of the stability analysis revealed that only the first solution is more stable and possess physical reliability compared to the remaining solutions.

    CONCLUSION: The graphs also indicated that the fluid velocity decreases as the thermophoresis parameter increases but the opposite behavior observed for both temperature and concentration profiles in the first solution. Furthermore, it was detected that the concentration profile declined at the higher values of the Brownian motion parameter.

  11. Lund LA, Omar Z, Khan I
    Heliyon, 2019 Mar;5(3):e01345.
    PMID: 30949601 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01345
    This study investigates the numerical solutions of MHD boundary layer and heat transfer of the Williamson fluid flow on the exponentially vertical shrinking sheet, having variable thickness and thermal conductivity under effects of the velocity and thermal slip parameters. It is also assumed that shrinking/stretching velocity, as well as the wall temperature, has the exponential function form. In this study, the continuity, momentum and energy equations with buoyancy parameter and Hartmann number are incorporated especially in the Williamson fluid flow case. Similarity transformation variables have been employed to formulate the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) from partial differential equations (PDEs). The resultant ODEs are solved by shooting method with Runge Kutta of fourth order method in Maple software. The effects of the different applied non-dimensional physical parameters on the boundary layer and heat transfer flow problems are presented in graphs. The effects of Williamson parameter, Prandtl number, and slip parameters on velocity and temperature profiles have been thoroughly demonstrated and discussed. The numerical results show that the buoyancy force and the slip parameters contribute to the occurrence of the dual solutions on the boundary layer and heat transfer flow problems. Furthermore, the stability analysis suggests that the first solution is stable and physically possible.
  12. Lund LA, Omar Z, Khan I
    Heliyon, 2019 Sep;5(9):e02432.
    PMID: 31687548 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02432
    In this paper, we explore dual solutions of MHD flow, heat and mass transfer of micropolar nanofluid over a linear vertical shrinking surface with buoyancy effects, which was not considered in the previous works. The governing fluid flow equations of this problem are transformed into nonlinear boundary value problems (BVPs) of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by applying similarity variables. The resultant BVPs are converted into initial value problems (IVPs) by using shooting method which then resolved by employing Runge Kutta of order four. The impacts of the governing parameters, such as suction parameter, material parameter, Richardson number, magnetic parameter, Prandtl number, thermophoresis and Brownian motion parameters on velocity, angular velocity, temperature, and concentration are illustrated graphically. The results indicate that the existence of a range of dual solutions and no-solutions. When Richardson number (


    is increased, the reduction of the velocity of micropolar nanofluid has occurred in the second solution. The stability analysis on dual solutions, however, reveals that only the first solution is stable.
  13. Gul T, Islam S, Shah RA, Khan I, Shafie S
    PLoS One, 2014;9(6):e97552.
    PMID: 24949988 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097552
    In this work, we have carried out the influence of temperature dependent viscosity on thin film flow of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) third grade fluid past a vertical belt. The governing coupled non-linear differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions are solved analytically by using Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM). In order to make comparison, the governing problem has also been solved by using Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM). The physical characteristics of the problem have been well discussed in graphs for several parameter of interest.
  14. Hussanan A, Zuki Salleh M, Tahar RM, Khan I
    PLoS One, 2014;9(10):e108763.
    PMID: 25302782 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108763
    In this paper, the heat transfer effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid past an infinite oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating is investigated. The governing equations are transformed to a systems of linear partial differential equations using appropriate non-dimensional variables. The resulting equations are solved analytically by using the Laplace transform method and the expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some well-known solutions for Newtonian fluids. Numerical results for velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt number are shown in various graphs and discussed for embedded flow parameters. It is found that velocity decreases as Casson parameters increases and thermal boundary layer thickness increases with increasing Newtonian heating parameter.
  15. Khan A, Khan I, Ali F, Ulhaq S, Shafie S
    PLoS One, 2014;9(3):e90280.
    PMID: 24621775 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090280
    This study investigates the effects of an arbitrary wall shear stress on unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of a Newtonian fluid with conjugate effects of heat and mass transfer. The fluid is considered in a porous medium over a vertical plate with ramped temperature. The influence of thermal radiation in the energy equations is also considered. The coupled partial differential equations governing the flow are solved by using the Laplace transform technique. Exact solutions for velocity and temperature in case of both ramped and constant wall temperature as well as for concentration are obtained. It is found that velocity solutions are more general and can produce a huge number of exact solutions correlative to various fluid motions. Graphical results are provided for various embedded flow parameters and discussed in details.
  16. Gul A, Khan I, Shafie S, Khalid A, Khan A
    PLoS One, 2015;10(11):e0141213.
    PMID: 26550837 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141213
    This study investigated heat transfer in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection flow of ferrofluid along a vertical channel. The channel with non-uniform wall temperatures was taken in a vertical direction with transverse magnetic field. Water with nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) was selected as a conventional base fluid. In addition, non-magnetic (Al2O3) aluminium oxide nanoparticles were also used. Comparison between magnetic and magnetite nanoparticles were also conducted. Fluid motion was originated due to buoyancy force together with applied pressure gradient. The problem was modelled in terms of partial differential equations with physical boundary conditions. Analytical solutions were obtained for velocity and temperature. Graphical results were plotted and discussed. It was found that temperature and velocity of ferrofluids depend strongly on viscosity and thermal conductivity together with magnetic field. The results of the present study when compared concurred with published work.
  17. Jamila N, Khan N, Khan I, Khan AA, Khan SN
    Nat Prod Res, 2016 Jun;30(12):1388-97.
    PMID: 26158779 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2015.1060594
    The dichloromethane bark extract of Garcinia hombroniana yielded one new cycloartane triterpene; (22Z,24E)-3β-hydroxycycloart-14,22,24-trien-26-oic acid (1) together with five known compounds: garcihombronane G (2), garcihombronane J (3), 3β acetoxy-9α-hydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-14,24-dien-26-oic acid (4), (22Z, 24E)-3β, 9α-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-14,22,24-trien-26-oic acid (5) and 3β, 23α-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-8,14,24-trien-26-oic acid (6). Their structures were established by the spectral techniques of NMR and ESI-MS. These compounds together with some previously isolated compounds; garcihombronane B (7), garcihombronane D (8) 2,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone (9), volkensiflavone (10), 4''-O-methyll-volkensiflavone (11), volkensiflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (12), volkensiflavone-7-O-rhamnopyranoside (13), Morelloflavone (14), 3''-O-methyl-morelloflavone (15) and morelloflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (16) were evaluated for cholinesterase enzymes inhibitory activities using acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. In these activities, compounds 1-9 showed good dual inhibition on both the enzymes while compounds 10-16 did not reasonably contribute to both the cholinesterases inhibitory effects.
  18. Ullah H, Islam S, Khan I, Shafie S, Fiza M
    PLoS One, 2015;10(4):e0120127.
    PMID: 25874457 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120127
    In this paper we applied a new analytic approximate technique Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) for treatment of coupled differential-difference equations (DDEs). To see the efficiency and reliability of the method, we consider Relativistic Toda coupled nonlinear differential-difference equation. It provides us a convenient way to control the convergence of approximate solutions when it is compared with other methods of solution found in the literature. The obtained solutions show that OHAM is effective, simpler, easier and explicit.
  19. Tan WT, Tan GS, Nather Khan IS
    Environ Pollut, 1988;52(3):221-35.
    PMID: 15092608
    Chemical forms of copper and lead in river water of the Linggi River Basin have been fractionated into ASV labile, moderately labile, slowly labile, and inert metal species, based on a previously proposed scheme. Free (hydrated) metal ions were identified by a potentiometric method using an ion selective electrode. Speciation results showed that the soluble copper and lead species occurred mainly in the moderately labile and slowly labile fractions. The speciation results are primarily interpreted in terms of organic interaction due to agricultural based and light industries, and urban discharges. The measured metal complexing capacity (MCC) of the samples reveals consistency of the results with the nature of the discharge. MCC correlates reasonably well with the value from the permanganate test on the river water. In general, the speciation pattern was found to be consistent with the findings of other workers.
  20. Ahmad N, Khan AH, Khan I, Khan A, Atif M
    Int J Hypertens, 2018;2018:8524063.
    PMID: 29721335 DOI: 10.1155/2018/8524063
    Aim: To evaluate doctors' knowledge, attitude, and practices and predictors of adherence to Malaysian hypertension guidelines (CPG 2008).
    Methods: Twenty-six doctors involved in hypertension management at Penang General Hospital were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Doctors' knowledge and attitudes towards guidelines were evaluated through a self-administered questionnaire. Their practices were evaluated by noting their prescriptions written to 520 established hypertensive outpatients (20 prescriptions/doctor). SPSS 17 was used for data analysis.
    Results: Nineteen doctors (73.07%) had adequate knowledge of guidelines. Specialists and consultants had significantly better knowledge about guidelines' recommendations. Doctors were positive towards guidelines with mean attitude score of 23.15 ± 1.34 points on a 30-point scale. The median number of guidelines compliant prescriptions was 13 (range 5-20). Statistically significant correlation (rs = 0.635, P < 0.001) was observed between doctors' knowledge and practice scores. A total of 349 (67.1%) prescriptions written were guidelines compliant. In multivariate analysis hypertension clinic (OR = 0.398, P = 0.008), left ventricular hypertrophy (OR = 0.091, P = 0.001) and heart failure (OR = 1.923, P = 0.039) were significantly associated with guidelines adherence.
    Conclusion: Doctors' knowledge of guidelines is reflected in their practice. The gap between guidelines recommendations and practice was seen in the pharmacotherapy of uncomplicated hypertension and hypertension with left ventricular hypertrophy, renal disease, and diabetes mellitus.
    Study site: Cardiology, nephrology, diabetic, and hypertension clinics of Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
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