Acute dacroadenitis is a rare condition. This case illustrates the acute onset, typical pain and tenderness in the upper outer eye of an enlarged lacrimal gland with purulent discharge. Good response to antibiotics is usual.
Description of the male Pterygodermatites nycticebi (Mönnig, 1920) unknown until the present study, and a study of the cephalic and cuticular structures of the female. This rictularid has a morphological evolution comparable to that of other males of the Rictulariidae parasitic in viverrid carnivores and in primates.
Description of Trichospirura willmottae n. sp. parasite of the salivary ducts of Tupaia glis and T. sp. (single virgin female) parasite of the intestine of Myotis mystacinus in Malaysia. The two species are very closely related to the type species, a parasite of the pancreatic ducts of brasilian Primates, and can be differentiated mainly by the mensurations of the posterior extremities of the bodies. While the genus Rhabdochoma, parasite of the intestine of fresh-water fishes, underwent a very similar, but more or less pronounced, morphological evolution, it became adapted to many different hosts: Sea-fishes, Saurians, Mammals and to many locations. This evolutionary line includes six genera; Trichospirura, the only parasite in Mammals, is one of the more evolved. Some remarks are made on the host-distribution of Trichospirura, on the relationships between Rabdochonidae and Cystidicolidae and on the osmo-excretory apparatus of Trichospirura. The hypertrophy of this apparatus, which could be the consequence of the passage during the course of evolution from aquatic to terrestrial life, is comparable to that of the Pneumospirurinae.
Morphological study of two Spirura parasites of the oesophageal and the gastric wall of Tupaia and Nycticebus in Malaysia. -- Spirura malayensis n. sp. is found both in Tupaia in the District of Selangor (West Malaysia) and in Nycticebus coucang in Borneo. Its very primitive characteristics relate it to S. diplocyphos Chabaud, Brygoo and Petter, 1965, parasite of lemurs from Madagascar. Its larval development was obtained experimentally in Blatella germanica. -- Spirura aurangabadensis (Ali and Lovekar, 1966) described from a microchiroptera in India is found in west Malaysia in a Nycticebus coucang, and in a Tupaia glis. -- The distribution of the different species and the comparative study of the larval and adult cephalic structures show that the genus Spirura arose and became diversified in the old world in very primitive hosts according to two main evolutive lines.
A case of double infection with Brugia pahangi and Dirofilaria immitis in a clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, is presented. A brief review of filarial infections in both man and wild animals, and their medical importance is discussed.
The hornets are a group of venomous stinging insects that at times cause human death. A fatal case of a child stung by the lesser banded hornet Vespa affinis indosinesis is reported. Though often covered by the mass media, this constitutes the first scientifically reported case.
Description of four new species of Heligmosome Nematodes parasites of the gut of Trichys lipura: --Heligmonella limbooliati n. sp. has a synlophe of Heligmonella-type and a bursa related to Cordicauda. --Cordicauda trichysi n. sp. is characterized by the relatively small dorsal lobe of the bursa, numerous cuticular ridges and the origin of the 8th rib at the distal third of the dorsal rib. --C. malayensis is closely related to C. trichysi (the female of the two species are morphologically identical but the two species can be separated by the larger dorsal lobe of the bursa and the longer spicula of C. malayensis). --C. magnabursa n. sp. is separated from the other species of the genus by the peculiar morphology of the bursa and the female's tail, dorsally bent. The fauna of Trichys is compared to that of Atherurss africanus, which is parasitized by 8 coparasites species: One Heligmonella and seven Paraheligmonina. From a phyletic as well as an ecological point of view (relative abundance and species location in the gut) the two fauna seem to have evolved in a parallel way, one in Africa, one in Asia, from a single Heligmonella type Nematode, after the host's partition.
One hundred and fifty one house rats, Rattus rattus diardii from five different localities, Jinjang, Dato Keramat, Kuala Lumpur, Sungai Besi and Selayang Baru, were examined for parasites. Nineteen species of parasites were recovered. Hymenolepis diminuta and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis are the predominant species. The dominancy of the parasite species in the rats differed in each locality: Hymenolepis diminuta in Dato Keramat and Kuala Lumpur; Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in Sungai Besi; Gongylomena neoplasticum in Jinjang and Selayang Baru. The influences of human habitats on the parasite fauna of house rats are discussed.
Tarsubulura perarmata (Ratzel, 1868) is described from a primate Tarsius bancanus and from Tupaidae: Tupaia glis and T. minor in Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur). Its biological cycle is done by the experimental infestation of crickets belonging to the genera Valanga and Oxya. The infective larvae are obtained after three weeks of development of 28 degrees C in the intermediate host. They differ from third stage larvae obtained from Subulurinae by the development of cuticular pharyngeal lobes. The early apparition of this ontogenetic character confirms the isolation of the genus Tarsubulura as compared to the general evolution of the Subuluridae.
The susceptibility of Culex sitiens to Japanese Encephalitis (JE) virus was examined in the laboratory. Cx. sitiens became infected with JE virus on day 8 and subsequently it is able to transmit the virus when it takes a blood meal. Both parts of the experiment were carried out using artificial membrane feeding technique.
There were a spate of recent complaints of insect bites and the entomological specimens received from various sources were identified to be those of cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) and rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis), the tropical bed-bug (Cimex hemipterus) and the dog louse (Heterodoxus spiniger). Only the fleas and the bed-bug are known to attack humans.
Forensic entomological specimens received by the Unit of Medical Entomology, IMR., from hospitals and the police in Malaysia in the last 3 decades (1972 - 2002) are reviewed. A total of 448 specimens were received. From these, 538 identifications were made with the following results: Eighteen species of cyclorrphaga flies were identified consisting of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) 215 cases (47.99%), Ch. rufifacies (Masquart) 132 (29.46%), Ch. villeneuvi Patton 10 (2.23%), Ch. nigripes Aubertin 7 (1.56%), Ch. bezziana Villeneuve 4 (0.89%), Ch. pinguis (Walker) 1 (0.22%), Chrysomya sp. 47 (10.49%), Sarcophaga sp. 28 (6.25%), Lucilia sp. 21 (4.69%), Hermetia sp. 15 (3.35%), He. illucens (Linnaeus) 1 (0.22%), Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) 3 (0.67%), Hemipyrellia sp. 2 (0.45%), Ophyra spinigera 1 (0.22%), Ophyra sp. 6 (1.34%), Calliphora sp. 24 (5.36%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) 1 (0.22%) and Eristalis sp. 1 (0.22%). Other non - fly insect specimens are Pthirus pubis (Linnaeus) (Pubic louse) 2 (0.45%) and Coleoptera (Beetles) 1 (0.22%). Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies were the commonest species found in cadavers from different ecological habitats. Sy. nudiseta is an uncommon species, thus far found only on cadavers from indoors. Sy. nudiseta is reported for the second time in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 329 cases (73.44%) had a single fly infestation, 109 cases (24.33%) had double fly infestation and 10 cases (2.23%) had triple fly infestation. Five cases (1.12%) had eggs and 3 cases (0.67%) had larval stages that were not identifiable. No arthropods were retrieved from cadavers in 8 cases (1.79%). In conclusion, although large number of fly species were found on human cadavers, the predominant species are still those of Chrysomya.
A total of 1,157 sera from jaundiced patients with clinical and biochemical evidence of liver disease received from government hospital in Kelantan and Terengganu, during the period from 1994 to 1997, were investigated to determine the cause. Hepatitis A virus was found to be the main cause in 26.1% (24/92) of symptomatic clinical hepatitis cases in 1994, 47.8% (63/132) in 1995, 66.4% (613/923) in 1996 and 20% (2/10) in 1997. Sera received in 1996 were also tested for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis D and hepatitis E. 1.4% (13/923) anti-bodies were found to be positive for HBc IgM indicating recent HBV infection, 5.4% (50/923) for total HCV Ab, 0.9% (8/923) for total HDV Ab and 0.4% (4/923) for anti-HEV IgM. This study shows that HAV is still a major problem in Kelantan and Terengganu, and there is a need to identify effective strategies for prevention and control in these two states.
Surveillance studies on cercarial dermatitis were carried out in paddy growing areas in Peninsular Malaysia. It was observed that dermatitis in paddy planters occurred in paddy fields which were cultivated using animals such as bafflos or fields where domestic animals were allowed to graze during the off planting season as these animals harbored the parasite. The causative agent of cercarial dermatitis was Schistosoma spindale. A total of 215 small mammals trapped from Alor Setar and 126 trapped from Labu were examined for the schistosome. In Alor Setar Bandicota indica, Rattus argentiventer and Rattus rattus diardii were the only wild mammals found to be infected with the parasite, while in the Labu areas only Rattus tiomanicus jalorensis was positive for the schistosome. The occurrence of S. spindale in R. argentiventer and R.r. diardii in Alor Setar and in R.t. jalorensis in Labu constitute new host and geographic distribution records of the schistosome.
The occurrence of adult Gnathostoma malaysiae in Rattus surifer and R. tiomanicus in Malaysia has been reported but there are no known reports on the host tissue reactions. This paper reports on the gross pathology caused by G. malaysiae in a red spiny forest rat, R. surifer and the tissue reactions caused. A tumor-like growth was located on the mid-stomach wall in a female rat captured in Gunung Bachock, Kelantan, Malaysia. This growth consisted of four tunnel-like structures containing sanguinopurulent fluid and leukocytes and this structure led into a central canal. The tissue surrounding the tumor was greatly inflamed and there was localized gastritis. The tunnel-like structure was surrounded by dense fibrotic tissue. The stomach wall was devoid of superficial epithelium and smooth muscle but mucinous glands were present. The midregion of the fibrotic scar contained eggs of G. malaysiae which had evoked a strong tissue reaction and were surrounded by pus. Blood vessels were empty, dilated and had undergone vasculitis and thrombosis.