Antiresorptive agents have been used as primary or first-line therapy in managing patients with osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates in particular are used widely to reduce bone resorption, increase bone mineral density, improve bone quality and therefore reduce fracture risk. However, prolonged use of bisphosphonates may cause over-suppression of bone resorption, leading on to accumulation of micro-damage in bone. This in turn might lead on to atypical femoral fractures. A patient treated with alendronate sodium for 8 years, and presenting with bilateral atypical femoral diaphyseal fractures is reported. X-rays of both femurs showed typical horizontal fracture line involving the thick lateral cortex with short oblique fracture pattern over the medial cortex. This fracture pattern was further confirmed with intra-operative examination of the fracture ends. Histopathological examination of the endocortical fragment removed from the proximal fracture end showed absence of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Bone mineral density with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan showed osteopenia over the femoral neck. Blood investigations did not show significant abnormalities. Bone turnover marker levels were not reliable, as presence of fracture might have altered the marker levels. Both femoral fractures united well. The patient reported here had complete pictures on X-ray examination, intra-operative findings, histopathological examination, DXA, as well as blood test results. Complete data should be collected from patients treated with alendronate sodium presenting with atypical femoral fractures to show any link between the use of alendronate sodium with atypical fracture of femur.
A 12-year old girl presented with an unusual problem of recurrent discharging multiple skin sinuses on her right anterior and posterior chest wall for a year. There was ipsilateral lower lobe pneumonia and imaging showed multiple abscesses in her lower back muscles bilaterally. A purulent fluid was aspirated from her back muscles and the histology examination showed sulphur granules with gram positive branched filaments. She responded well to the treatment for actinomycosis with penicillin and doxycycline.
An outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia septicaemia occurred in our neonatal unit over a 9-week period in 2001, affecting 23 babies and two died. A second outbreak lasting 8 days occurred a year later, affecting five babies.
Sixty-five patients with "Snuffbox" arteriovenous fistulae for hemodialysis were reviewed. The procedure was performed under local anaesthesia as an outpatient procedure. It was done as a "standby" procedure for 41.5% of patients with Chronic Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis. 58.5% of patients had the procedure done for primary hemodialysis. Patency was assessed as presence of an engorged vein and presence of thrill. This was assessed routinely at 4 to 6 weeks after the procedure. Patency rate was noted to be 83%. The commonest complication was thrombosis of the arteriovenous anastomosis. Some patients required repeated procedure at a more proximal site. Further study to determine the blood flow rate provided by the anastomosis, and comparison with other anatomical sites is necessary.
From August till November 1998, the Paediatric and Anaesthetic Units of Hospital Kuala Terengganu managed three patients from Kuala Terengganu District who were ventilated for respiratory diphtheria. Their ages were 5, 4 and 7 years old and their immunisation for diphtheria were not complete. All three patients presented with respiratory distress and were ventilated for upper airway obstruction. Their treatment included intravenous penicillin and diphtheria antitoxin. One patient died of cardiogenic shock with secondary pneumonia. Pharyngeal and tonsillar swabs of all three patients grew toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae biotype mitis. There were 765 throat cultures taken from contacts. The confirmed positive cultures grew 2 toxigenic and 3 non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae biotype mitis and surprisingly, 10 non-toxigenic biotype gravis. A prevalence study is needed to document the endemicity of diphtheria in Kuala Terengganu and to determine the carrier rate of both biotypes. Steps have been taken to increase the immunisation coverage in children. The giving of regular booster doses of diphtheria toxoid to the adult population should be considered.
Sixty-one free flaps performed in 59 patients from April 1983 to April 1995 were analysed. Various factors that might have affected the outcome of the surgery were studied. These included the patient's age, history of smoking, pre-existing medical problems such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus, the type of free flaps, flap infection, use of postoperative anticoagulation, postoperative anaemia and re-exploration. The infection rate was 16.4% and this had a strong correlation with the free flap failure in our study population. Postoperative anaemia could adversely affect the tissue oxygenation of the free flap and delay the re-exploration due to the high anaesthetic risk. Dextran was routinely used for postoperative anticoagulation. There were also rescue attempts using heparin infusion when needed. The overall failure rate was 13.1%. Besides good anaesthetic support, a well-prepared protocol is necessary both for the preoperative planning of free flap surgery as well as salvaging a failure.
A 27-year old male sustained a 60 per cent TBSA burn with inhalation injury following a road traffic accident. He developed respiratory distress on day 3 postburn, and was intubated and ventilated. He was noted to have greenish aspirate from his trachea on day 17 of ventilation. He succumbed from sepsis and died on day 21 post injury. At post-mortem, a large tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TOF) was found at the level of the cuff of the nasotracheal tube.
Being well-informed and knowledgeable about their illnesses would be a great advantage to children with epilepsy (CWE). Subsequently, an effective education programme which could secure interest and simultaneously improve their awareness, knowledge and attitudes (AKA) is essential in enhancing well-being and health outcomes.
A new and robust parameter estimation technique, named Gaussian-Taylor interpolation, is proposed to predict the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of scanning electron microscope images. The results of SNR and variance estimation values are tested and compared with piecewise cubic Hermite interpolation, quadratic spline interpolation, autoregressive moving average and moving average. Overall, the proposed estimations for noise-free peak and SNR are most consistent and accurate to within a certain acceptable degree compared with the others.
Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the depth of knowledge about osteoporosis (OP) among the public in Malaysia. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to attendees of selected health-related public forums in the Klang Valley and Seremban between the months of May to October 2005. Results: 483 questionnaires were returned from 600 given out (80.5%). There were 139 (28.8%) male, 338 (70%) female respondents and 6 (1.2%) not stated. 87.1% respondents had heard of OP. Significantly more women than men had heard of OP (p = 0.015). Mean age was 50.15 ± 14.6 years, 56.7% in the range of 45-64 years. There was no significant difference in the ages of those who had heard of OP and those who had not. 180/338 (53.3%) were postmenopausal females. Those with >10 years of schooling were more likely to have heard of OP (p RM 1000/month (US$270) were more likely to have heard of OP (p =0.022). 22.6% had a positive family history of OP. 63.1% exercised regularly at an average of 4.26 ± 2.78 hours/week. 4.8% were smokers with a median of 10 cigarettes/day. 24.4% drank alcohol with a median of 1 drink/week. However, 70.9% of respondents said that OP led to falls. 89.6% were concerned about osteoporosis. 90.7% agreed that osteoporosis would make daily activities more difficult. The majority obtained their information about osteoporosis from the printed word; newspapers 55.7%, magazines 46.4%, posters/brochures 30.2%, followed by public talks 30%, relatives 29.6%, television 22.8%, medical clinic 22.6% and internet 11.4%. The majority would ask for more information on osteoporosis from their general practitioner 30.6%, followed by other medical specialists such as orthopaedic surgeons 28.4%, hospital specialists 23.8%, rheumatologists 22.4%, followed by friends 15.9%, relatives 14.3% and pharmacists 11.4%. In this self-selected population, knowledge of OP was better among women, the better educated and those earning a higher level of income. Almost 90% of respondents were concerned about getting OP. Their knowledge of OP was obtained from the printed word, which is an important consideration when considering health promotion activities. General practitioners and orthopaedic surgeons need to have a good knowledge of OP.
Group A rotavirus (RV-A) genotypes isolated in Malaysia was studied to estimate the effectiveness of a universal RV-A vaccination in Malaysia. A simple mathematical model was used, with input from a two-year, two-center, prospective study on hospitalization of RV-A gastroenteritis (RVGE) in young children, published data on RV-A hospitalizations and genotypes, mortality on childhood GE and published genotype-specific efficacy data on two RV-A vaccines. Assuming a 95% vaccine coverage, the overall projected effectiveness was 75.7 to 88.1% for Rotateq and 78.7 to 90.6% for Rotarix® against RVGE-related hospitalizations. The projected annual reduction in RVGE-related deaths was 27 to 32 deaths (from 34 deaths) for Rotateq and 28 to 32 deaths annually for Rotarix. A universal RV-A vaccine is efficacious in reducing RVGE-related hospitalizations and mortality in Malaysia.
Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of neonatal deaths in Asia but data remain scarce. We aimed to investigate the causative organisms and antibiotic resistance in neonatal care units in China, Malaysia, Hong Kong and Thailand.
The objectives of the Asian Osteoporosis Study (AOS) were to determine risk factors for hip fracture in men and women in four Asian countries, that is, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines. A total of 451 men and 725 women (aged 50 years and over) with hip fractures were compared with an equal number of community controls. A standardized questionnaire was administered by interview. The following relative risks (RRs) were found in women and men by multiple logistic regression: dietary calcium intake < 498 mg/day, 2.0 for women (95% CI, 1.5-2.8) and 1.5 for men (95% CI, 1.0-2.2); no load bearing activity in the immediate past, 2.0 for women (95% CI, 1.4-2.7) and 3.4 for men (95% CI, 2.3-5.1); no vigorous sport activities in young adulthood, 7.2 for women (95% CI, 4.0-13.0) and 2.4 for men (95% CI, 1.6-3.6); cigarette smoking, 1.5 for men (95% CI, 1.0-2.1); alcohol consumption 7 days a week, 2.9 for women (95% CI, 1.0-8.6) and 1.9 for men (95% CI, 1.1-3.2); fell twice or more in the last 12 months, 3.0 for women (95% CI, 1.8-4.8) and 3.4 for men (95% CI, 1.8-6.6); a history of fractures after 50 years of age, 1.8 for women (95% CI, 1.1-2.9) and 3.0 for men (95% CI, 1.6-5.6); a history of stroke, 3.8 for women (95% CI, 2.0-7.1) and 3.6 for men (95% CI, 1.8-7.1); use of sedatives, 2.5 for women (95% CI, 1.0-6.3) and 3.0 for men (95% CI, 1.0-9.7); and use of thyroid drugs, 7.1 for women (95% CI, 2.0-25.9) and 11.8 for men (95% CI, 1.3-106.0). Women who were 1.56 m or taller had an RR of 2.0 (95% CI, 1.3-3.0) for hip fracture and men who were 1.69 m or taller had an RR of 1.9 (95% CI, 1.2-3.1) for hip fracture. Based on these findings, primary preventive programs for hip fracture could be planned in Asia.
The Asian Osteoporosis Study (AOS) is the first multicenter study to document and compare the incidence of hip fracture in four Asian countries. Hosital discharge data for the year 1997 were obtained for the Hong Kong SAR, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand (Chiang Mai). The number of patients who were 50 years of age and older and who were discharged with a diagnosis of hip fracture (ICD9 820) was enumerated. The age-specific incidence rates were deduced and were directly adjusted to the US white population in 1989. The age-adjusted rates for men and women (per 100,000) are as follows: Hong Kong, 180 and 459; Singapore, 164 and 442; Malaysia, 88 and 218; Thailand, 114 and 289; compared with US White rates of 187 in men and 535 in women, published in 1989. We conclude that there is moderate variation in the incidence of hip fracture among Asian countries. The rates were highest in urbanized countries. With rapid economic development in Asia, hip fracture will prove to be a major public health challenge.
This pilot study evaluated the effect sizes associated with prerecorded hypnotic interventions provided during the perisurgical period for reducing risk factors associated with chronic postsurgical pain, including acute postsurgical pain, anxiety, depression, and pain catastrophizing. A total of 25 participants (N = -25) were randomly assigned to receive a hypnotic intervention (n = 8), minimal-effect treatment (n = 8), or treatment as usual (n = 9) during their hospital stay for total knee replacement (TKR). Participants were followed for 6 months after hospital discharge. Results indicate that prerecorded hypnotic intervention exerted medium effects for reducing acute postsurgical pain and large effects for reducing perisurgical anxiety and pain catastrophizing. The findings indicate that a fully powered clinical trial to evaluate the beneficial effects of prerecorded hypnosis to manage pain and psychological distress in patients undergoing TKR is warranted.
Objectives: This Clinical Guidance is aimed to help practitioners assess, diagnose and manage their patients with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO), using the best available evidence.
Methods: A literature search using PubMed (MEDLINE) and The Cochrane Library identified all relevant articles on GIO and its assessment, diagnosis and treatment, from 2011, to update from the 2012 edition. The studies were assessed and the level of evidence assigned. For each statement, studies with the highest level of evidence were used to frame the recommendation.
Results: Consider treatment early in all patients on glucocorticoids (GC) as fracture risk increases within 3-6 months of starting GC. The decision to start treatment for GIO depends on the presence of prior fracture, category of risk (as calculated using Fracture Risk Assessment Tool), daily dose and duration of GC treatment, age, and menopausal status. General measures include adequate calcium and vitamin D intake and reducing the dose of GC to the minimum required to achieve disease control. In patients on GC with osteoporotic fractures or confirmed osteoporosis on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, bisphosphonates are the first-line treatment. Treatment should be continued as long as patients remain on GC. Algorithms for the management of GIO in both pre- and post-menopausal women and men have been updated.
Conclusions: In post-menopausal women and men above 50 years, bisphosphonates remain the mainstay of treatment in GIO. In pre-menopausal women and men below 50 years, bisphosphonates are recommended for those with a prevalent fracture or at very high risk only.
Aim: This Clinical Guidance is aimed to help practitioners assess, diagnose and manage their patients with osteoporosis (OP), using the best available evidence.
Methods: A literature search using PubMed (MEDLINE) and The Cochrane Library identified all relevant articles on OP and its assessment, diagnosis and treatment, from 2011, to update from the 2012 edition. The studies were assessed and the level of evidence assigned. For each statement, studies with the highest level of evidence were used to frame the recommendation.
Results: This article summarizes the diagnostic and treatment pathways for postmenopausal and male OP, while addressing the risk-benefit ratio for OP treatment. Recognising the limitation of only depending on bone mineral density in assessing fracture risk, a move to assess 10 year fracture risk using tools such as FRAX, is recommended as a guide to decision-making on when to start treatment. A re-evaluation was done of the position of calcium supplementation and on the importance of vitamin D. There has been concern about the potential adverse effects of the long-term usage of bisphosphonates, which have been discussed fully. Algorithms for the management of postmenopausal and male OP have been updated.
Conclusions: Adequate intake of calcium (1000 mg from both diet and supplements) and vitamin D (800 IU) daily remain important adjuncts in the treatment of OP. However, in confirmed OP, pharmacological therapy with anti-resorptives is the mainstay of treatment in both men and postmenopausal women. Patients need to be regularly assessed while on medication and treatment adjusted as appropriate.
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a technology that is widely used to diagnose osteoporosis, assess fracture risk, and monitor changes in bone mineral density (BMD). The clinical utility of DXA is highly dependent on the quality of the scan acquisition, analysis, and interpretation. Clinicians are best equipped to manage patients when BMD measurements are correct and interpretation follows well-established standards. Poor-quality acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of DXA data may mislead referring clinicians, resulting in unnecessary diagnostic evaluations, failure to evaluate when needed, inappropriate treatment, or failure to provide medical treatment, with potentially ineffective, harmful, or costly consequences. Misallocation of limited healthcare resources and poor treatment decisions can be minimized, and patient care optimized, through meticulous attention to DXA instrument calibration, data acquisition and analysis, interpretation, and reporting. This document from the International Society for Clinical Densitometry describes quality standards for BMD testing at DXA facilities worldwide to provide guidance for DXA supervisors, technologists, interpreters, and clinicians. High-quality DXA testing is necessary for correct diagnostic classification and optimal fracture risk assessment, and is essential for BMD monitoring.
AIM: This Clinical Guidance is aimed to help practitioners assess, diagnose and manage their patients with osteoporosis (OP), using the best available evidence.
METHODS: A literature search using PubMed (MEDLINE) and The Cochrane Library identified all relevant articles on OP and its assessment, diagnosis and treatment, from 2005, to update from the previous edition published in 2006. The studies were assessed and the level of evidence assigned; for each statement, studies with the highest level of evidence were used to frame the recommendation.
RESULTS: This article summarizes the diagnostic and treatment pathways for OP, highlighting the new data that have changed the way we assess and treat OP. Instead of starting treatment based on bone mineral density alone, there has been a move to assessing 10-year fracture risk before treatment, using tools such as the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX). There has been a re-evaluation on calcium supplementation and more emphasis on the importance of vitamin D. There has been concern about the potential adverse effects of the long-term usage of bisphosphonates, which we have discussed fully. New drugs that have been licensed since 2006 in Malaysia have been included.
CONCLUSIONS: Adequate intake of calcium (1000 mg from both diet and supplements) and vitamin D (800 IU) daily remain important in the treatment of OP. However, in confirmed OP, pharmacological therapy with anti-resorptives is the mainstay of treatment. Patients need to be regularly assessed while on medication and treatment adjusted as required.