The inhibitory effect of onion extract on cassava leaf polyphenol oxidase was investigated. The polyphenol oxidase from cassava leaves was strongly inhibited by various anti-browning agents such as L-ascorbic acid and L-cysteine. The percentage of inhibition increased with the increased of anti-browning agents concentrations. The addition of heated onion extract exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect on cassava leaf polyphenol oxidase than the fresh onion extract. The highest percentage of inhibition was exhibited with heated onion extract in the presence of glucose and glycine, which was 87.18%. The onion extract inhibited the cassava leaf polyphenol oxidase non-competitively.
A phylogenetic tree and median-joining network based on cytochrome b sequence data revealed clades consistent with morphological differences and geographical distribution of Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Southeast Asia. AMOVA analysis for variation was significant among populations (P<0.05) and was in agreement with morphological differences. Pairwise differences were significant between Java and Brunei/Borneo, Brunei/Borneo and west Malaysia, and Java and west Malaysia samples (P < 0.05). Closest relationships were found between samples from Brunei/Borneo and Java, and between west Malaysia and Laos-Sumatra. Nine haplotypes were unique to geographical regions. The Java species had high haplotype (1.000 ± 0.126) but low nucleotide (0.017) diversities, suggesting a population bottleneck followed by expansion. However, SSD and Hri (P=0.5) did not support demographic expansion. Instead, purifying selection where mutations occur and accumulate at silent sites is a more acceptable explanation.
70 patients presented with acute asthma exacerbation requiring nebulised bronchodilator treatment at the emergency department of a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were interviewed over a two-week period in July 2001. The results showed that 45 (64%) patients had not been educated on the nature of asthma; 30 (43%) had not been advised on preventive measures or avoidance of triggers; 54 (77%) were not advised about the medications used and their side effects; 42 (60%) patients did not know the difference between reliever and preventive medications; 37 (53%) were unable to recognize features of worsening asthma and 68 (97%) were not told about the danger of non-prescribed self-medication or traditional medications. Only six (9%) patients were using peak flow meters and were taught self-management plans. The multiple regression results suggest that patients who were followed up at teaching hospital based clinics were better educated on asthma. In conclusion, asthmatic patients are still not educated well about their disease. Health care providers need to put more emphasis on asthma education so that the number of emergency room visits can be reduced.
Study site: Emergency department, University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Seventy patients presented with acute asthma at the emergency department of the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur were recruited over a two-week period in July 2001. Fifty-one (73%) patients belonged to the poorly controlled group. Fifty-seven (81%) patients were using inhaled salbutamol but 21 (30%) were still using oral short acting salbutamol. Only 32 (46%) patients used inhaled corticosteroids. In the poorly controlled group, 22 (43.1%) patients were not on regular inhaled corticosteroids, 35 (68.6%) were not receiving "add-on" medication and 18 (35%) did not have regular follow up. The emergency department should implement a protocol for asthma management and follow up to achieve better long term patient care.
Palm and palm-kernel oils and their olein and stearin fractions were suitable as the main carbon sources for growth and production of clavulanic acid by Streptomyces clavuligerus. However, oleic and lauric acids were not utilized for growth. A spontaneous mutant, which was selected for higher cephamycin C production, also produced more clavulanic acid with these oils in the medium.
Gangliosides and glycophorin are receptors for wheat germ agglutinin. The competitive binding of these molecules to wheat germ agglutinin is studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy with spin labels attached to the oligosaccharide chains of gangliosides. Evidence shows that glycophorin is more accessible to wheat germ agglutinin binding than gangliosides. The interactions of gangliosides and glycophorin in liposomes is disrupted on low level binding of WGA.
Children with musculoskeletal symptoms are commonly seen by general practitioners (GPs). Those that present with atraumatic limp pose a particular diagnostic challenge. Although uncommon, Perthes disease (PD) is an important cause of atraumatic limp in children and may result in debilitating consequences if missed. We put forward a case of delayed diagnosis of PD in a child, thus highlighting the need for a greater index of suspicion among GPs in approaching any child with a limp.
This paper introduces a new set of orthogonal moment functions based on the discrete Tchebichef polynomials. The Tchebichef moments can be effectively used as pattern features in the analysis of two-dimensional images. The implementation of the moments proposed in this paper does not involve any numerical approximation, since the basis set is orthogonal in the discrete domain of the image coordinate space. This property makes Tchebichef moments superior to the conventional orthogonal moments such as Legendre moments and Zernike moments, in terms of preserving the analytical properties needed to ensure information redundancy in a moment set. The paper also details the various computational aspects of Tchebichef moments and demonstrates their feature representation capability using the method of image reconstruction.
Achieving treatment targets has been difficult in treating diabetic patients. This cross-sectional study describes the lipid profiles of patients with diabetes mellitus at a public primary health care centre in Sarawak, Malaysia. The targets for lipid control were based on the International Diabetes Federation recommendation (2002). 1031 patients (98% Type 2 Diabetes) were studied. Fasting lipid profiles were available in 990 (96%) patients. The mean total cholesterol was 5.3 +/- 1.0 mmol/L, Triglycerides 1.90 +/- 1.26 mmol/L, HDL-C 1.28 +/- 0.33 mmol/L and LDL-C 3.2 +/- 0.9 mmol/L. Overall, 22% of patients achieved the treatment target for LDL-C level < 2.6mmol/L. 67% of patients had HDL-C > 1.1 mmol/L and 42% of patients had a target TG level below 1.5 mmol/L. Of the 40% of patients who received lipid-lowering drug, 17% achieved LDL-C target, 50% had LDL-C 2.6-4.4 mmol/ L and 33% have LDL-C > 4.0 mmol/L. For the remaining 60% not receiving any lipid lowering therapy, 68% had LDL-C between 2.6-4.0 mmol/L and 7% had LDL-C level > 4 mmol/L. Dyslipidemia is still under-treated despite the availability of effective pharmacological agents and the greatly increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in diabetic patients.
Aminoacylase I (EC. 22.214.171.124) was immobilized by covalent crosslinking to alginate molecules with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl)-carbodiimide HCl followed by calcium alginate bead formation for the production of L-phenylalanine from the racemic mixtures of N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine. Different concentrations of the coupling reagent were tested and the coupling process was optimized. The immobilized and the partially purified aminoacylase were characterized in terms of the activity, operational stability, thermal stability, pH and temperature optima and kinetic constants, Km and Vmax. The activity of the enzyme covalently immobilized in calcium alginate beads was enhanced by about 75% compared to that of free enzyme. The beads showed stable activity under operational conditions, they lost about 40% of their activity after four reaction cycles. The immobilized aminoacylase was more stable over a broader pH range. Thus this simple method provides irreversible immobilization of aminoacylase to give a biocatalyst with good operational stability and enhanced activity.
Aminoacylase I (EC 126.96.36.199) encapsulated in calcium alginate beads stabilized with poly-L-lysine was used for the production of L-phenylalanine by the hydrolysis of a racemic mixture of N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine. The immobilized aminoacylase was studied with respect to operational stability, thermal stability, effects of pH and temperature and kinetic constants. The leakage of enzyme from the stabilized beads was eliminated. The immobilized enzyme retained high biological activity. The Km and Vmax values for the stabilized beads were 11.11 mmol dm-3 and 0.076 mumol min-1 respectively. The optimum pH and temperature for the hydrolysis were 6.5 and 55 degrees C respectively. Scanning electron micrographs revealed crosslinked structures on the surface of the beads. The operational performances of the beads in a batch reaction and a packed-bed bioreactor for continuous reaction were investigated. With batch reaction, only about 5% of enzyme activity was lost within ten reaction cycles and there was no significant loss of activity over 600 h of continuous operation after equilibrium was reached, and a conversion yield of about 80% was obtained.
Aminoacylase I (E.C.188.8.131.52) was immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate beads coated with polyethyleneimine for the production of L-phenylalanine by the hydrolysis of a racemic mixture of N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine. The operational stability in terms of batch operation and continuous reaction in packed-bed bioreactor were studied. Kinetic constants, Km and Vmax values of free and immobilized enzymes were studied. Polyethyleneimine treatment was found to enhance the operational stability of the enzyme though its activity was substantially reduced. When polyethyleneimine-coated calcium alginate beads were packed into packed bed bioreactor, it was stable for at least 25 days under continuous operation without appreciable loss of activity.
Recent studies of drug promotion and labeling in Third World countries since 1972 have observed important changes in the policies of multinational corporations. Earlier studies found that multinational and national drug companies often grossly exaggerated the indications for the drugs and minimized or ignored the hazards. In the latest study, initiated in 1987, considerable improvement in promotional practices of the multinational corporations has been found, but little or no improvement on the part of the national companies. As a result, physicians are still provided with grossly exaggerated claims and the hazards of prescription drugs are covered up or glossed over. A very serious problem--the marketing of fraudulent drug products--has been identified in a number of Third World countries. Drug products are shaped and colored to resemble the original multinational company product, but contain only a small percentage of the active ingredient stated on the label, or perhaps none at all. In Indonesia fraudulent drug products may represent 20-30% of all drug products in the market. Similar fraudulent products have been reported in Brazil, Thailand, Bangladesh and Malaysia.
Introduction: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the frequent causes of hospitalization in children under the age of five, particularly in a rural setting. This study was conducted to determine the epidemiology of acute gastroenteritis in indigenous children admitted to a rural district hospital in Sarawak. Methods: A retrospective review of indigenous paediatrics cases of acute gastroenteritis
admitted to the ward of Serian District Hospital, a rural district hospital in Sarawak, between the years
2006-2007. The data was collected from the patients’ case notes, obtained with permission from the
hospital management. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: During the study period, 234 indigenous children with acute gastroenteritis were admitted with the highest prevalence in 2006 (53.4%). The findings showed higher prevalence was found in children aged 3 years and below (76.5%) and male (56.4%) The minimum duration of hospital stay is 1 day, and the maximum stay is 5 days. The clinical findings showed that the majority of the cases presented with vomiting, diarrhea, dry mouth and tongue, sunken eye, with the majority (76%) reported having mild dehydration. The most common treatment used is oral rehydration solutions (85.4%), followed by intravenous bolus or drip (82.3%), paracetamol (79%) and antibiotic (36.2%). Peak incidence of admissions was between November to January. About 38.5% of the AGE cases admitted were found to be underweight (weight for- age below -2SD). Conclusion: The findings indicated children aged 3 years and below are the most vulnerable to AGE and malnutrition could be one of the predisposing factors. The peak incidence during the raining season at the end of the year indicated a possible relationship between AGE and seasonal type of virus infection. Prevention in the form of proper hygiene at the household level probably will prove to be useful.
Pedicle screw system has increasingly been used for correction of thoracic scoliosis. It offers several biomechanical advantages over hook system as it controls all three-column of the spine with enhanced stability. Of many techniques of pedicle screw placement in the thoracic spine, the funnel technique has been used in Sarawak General Hospital since 2002. This prospective study aims to assess the accuracy of the placement of thoracic pedicle screws using the funnel technique in the corrective surgery of idiopathic scoliosis. A total of 88 thoracic pedicle screws were inserted into the T4 to T12 vertebrae of 11 patients. Post-operative CT-scan was performed to evaluate the position of the pedicle screw. Seventy six (86.4%) screws were noted to be totally within the pedicle. There was no screw with medial violation of the pedicle, 8 (9.1%) screws breeching the lateral wall of the pedicle and 4 (4.5%) screws with anterior and lateral penetration of the vertebral body. No clinical sequel with the mal-positioned screws was noted. In conclusion, the funnel technique enabled simple, accurate and reliable insertion of pedicle screw even in the scoliotic thoracic spine without the need of any imaging guidance. It is however imperative for the surgeon to have a thorough knowledge of the thoracic spine anatomy, and to be familiar with the technique to insert these screws diligently.
Background Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been demonstrated to improve the survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. However, medication adherence is vital for patients on chronic treatment. Objective The objective of the current study was to evaluate response to treatment, adherence by patients to tyrosine kinase inhibitors and factors associated with adherence and response. Setting A haematology clinic in a regional referral hospital in Malaysia. Method Patients aged ≥ 13 years who had been on imatinib or nilotinib for ≥ 12 months were included in this cross-sectional study. An optimal response was defined as the achievement of major molecular response at 12 months of treatment. Patient medication adherence was determined using the average medication possession ratio based on the dispensing records. The patients were considered adherent if the medication possession ratio was > 90%. Multiple logistic regression was performed to evaluate the factors associated with adherence. The association of adherence with molecular response was analysed by univariate logistic regression. Main outcome measure The primary outcome measures were the proportion of patients who achieved optimal response and the medication possession ratio. Results A total of 151 patients were screened, and 71 patients were included. Twenty-eight patients (39%) achieved major molecular response at 12 months of treatment. The median time to achieve this was 15.5 months (an interquartile range of 15). The mean medication possession ratio for imatinib and nilotinib was 0.94 (± 0.14) and 0.96 (± 0.10), respectively, but this difference was without statistical significance (t = - 0.517, p = 0.610). Nausea and vomiting (odds ratio [OR] of 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.07-0.83, p = 0.023) and disease phase at diagnosis (OR of 0.20, 95% CI 0.04-1.06, p = 0.059) were associated with patient adherence. An association was not found between patient adherence and molecular response (OR of 1.03, 95% CI 0.35-3.09, p = 0.956). Conclusion The patients in this study demonstrated a relatively deep molecular response and optimal adherence. Nevertheless, one fourth of them were noncompliant with imatinib. Therefore, active interventions are warranted to prevent treatment-associated adverse events and improve adherence.
There is limited data on childhood obesity and its impact on children from diverse cultural backgrounds. This study is aimed at determining the association between obesity, self-esteem and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among Malaysian urban primary school children of different ethnicity.
The present study is the first to report the genetic relatedness of indigenous populations of Sabah, Malaysia, using a set of Indel markers (HS4.32, TPA25, APO, PV92, B65 and HS3.23). The primary aim was to assess the genetic relationships among these populations and with populations from other parts of the world by examining the distribution of these markers.