Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 103 in total

  1. Lee PY, Khoo EM
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2004;16(1):45-9.
    PMID: 18839867 DOI: 10.1177/101053950401600108
    70 patients presented with acute asthma exacerbation requiring nebulised bronchodilator treatment at the emergency department of a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were interviewed over a two-week period in July 2001. The results showed that 45 (64%) patients had not been educated on the nature of asthma; 30 (43%) had not been advised on preventive measures or avoidance of triggers; 54 (77%) were not advised about the medications used and their side effects; 42 (60%) patients did not know the difference between reliever and preventive medications; 37 (53%) were unable to recognize features of worsening asthma and 68 (97%) were not told about the danger of non-prescribed self-medication or traditional medications. Only six (9%) patients were using peak flow meters and were taught self-management plans. The multiple regression results suggest that patients who were followed up at teaching hospital based clinics were better educated on asthma. In conclusion, asthmatic patients are still not educated well about their disease. Health care providers need to put more emphasis on asthma education so that the number of emergency room visits can be reduced.
    Study site: Emergency department, University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  2. Lee PY, Khoo EM
    Med J Malaysia, 2003 Oct;58(4):482-9.
    PMID: 15190622
    Seventy patients presented with acute asthma at the emergency department of the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur were recruited over a two-week period in July 2001. Fifty-one (73%) patients belonged to the poorly controlled group. Fifty-seven (81%) patients were using inhaled salbutamol but 21 (30%) were still using oral short acting salbutamol. Only 32 (46%) patients used inhaled corticosteroids. In the poorly controlled group, 22 (43.1%) patients were not on regular inhaled corticosteroids, 35 (68.6%) were not receiving "add-on" medication and 18 (35%) did not have regular follow up. The emergency department should implement a protocol for asthma management and follow up to achieve better long term patient care.
  3. Ng CJ, Lee PY
    Malays Fam Physician, 2021 Mar 25;16(1):2-7.
    PMID: 33948136 DOI: 10.51866/cm0001
    Making healthcare decisions collaboratively between patients and doctors can be challenging in primary care, as clinical encounters are often short. Conflicts between patients and doctors during the decision-making process may affect both patient and doctor satisfaction and result in medico-legal consequences. With the increasing recognition of the importance of patient empowerment, shared decision making (SDM) can serve as a practical consultation model for primary care doctors (PCDs) to guide patients in making informed healthcare choices. Although more research is needed to find effective ways to implement SDM in the real world, the 6-step approach presented in this paper can guide PCDs to practise SDM in their daily practice. Implementation of SDM can be further enhanced by incorporating SDM training into undergraduate and postgraduate curricula and using evidence-based tools such as patient decision aids.
  4. Boo WH, Lee PY
    Malays Fam Physician, 2019;14(3):68-70.
    PMID: 32175044
    Children with musculoskeletal symptoms are commonly seen by general practitioners (GPs). Those that present with atraumatic limp pose a particular diagnostic challenge. Although uncommon, Perthes disease (PD) is an important cause of atraumatic limp in children and may result in debilitating consequences if missed. We put forward a case of delayed diagnosis of PD in a child, thus highlighting the need for a greater index of suspicion among GPs in approaching any child with a limp.
  5. Chew BH, Lee PY, Ismail IZ
    Malays Fam Physician, 2014;9(2):26-33.
    PMID: 25893068
    BACKGROUND: Personal mission in life can determine the motivation, happiness, career advancement and fulfilment in life of the medical students (MSs) along with improvement in professional/clinical performance of the family physicians. This study explored the personal beliefs, values and goals in the lives of MSs and general practitioners (GPs).
    METHODS: Fourth-year MSs at the Universiti Putra Malaysia and GPs who participated in a 2-hour session on 'Ethics in Family Medicine' in 2012 were invited. All the participants submitted the post-session written reflections about their personal missions in life. The written reflections were analysed using thematic analysis.
    RESULTS: A total of 87 MSs and 31 GPs submitted their written reflections. The authors identified 17 categories from the reflections contained by four themes-good vs. smart doctor, professional improvement vs. self-improvement, self-fulfilment and expressed motivation. The most common categories were "to be a good doctor" (97/330) and "professional improvement" (65/330). Many MSs had expressed motivation and wanted to be a smart doctor as compared to the GPs, whereas a larger number of GPs wished to have a fulfilled life and be a good doctor through professional improvement.
    CONCLUSION: The difference between the two student groups might indicate different levels of maturity and life experiences. Medical teachers should engage students more effectively in orientating them towards the essential values needed in medical practice.
    KEYWORDS: Concept formation; education; goals; medical; medical students general; practitioners; professional; values of life
  6. Lee PY, Lee YK, Ng CJ
    BMC Public Health, 2012;12:313.
    PMID: 22545648 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-313
    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing at an alarming rate in developing countries. However, glycaemia control remains suboptimal and insulin use is low. One important barrier is the lack of an efficient and effective insulin initiation delivery approach. This study aimed to document the strategies used and proposed by healthcare professionals to improve insulin initiation in the Malaysian dual-sector (public-private) health system.
    METHODS: In depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted in Klang Valley and Seremban, Malaysia in 2010-11. Healthcare professionals consisting of general practitioners (n = 11), medical officers (n = 8), diabetes educators (n = 3), government policy makers (n = 4), family medicine specialists (n = 10) and endocrinologists (n = 2) were interviewed. We used a topic guide to facilitate the interviews, which were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic approach.
    RESULTS: Three main themes emerged from the interviews. Firstly, there was a lack of collaboration between the private and public sectors in diabetes care. The general practitioners in the private sector proposed an integrated system for them to refer patients to the public health services for insulin initiation programmes. There could be shared care between the two sectors and this would reduce the disproportionately heavy workload at the public sector. Secondly, besides the support from the government health authority, the healthcare professionals wanted greater involvement of non-government organisations, media and pharmaceutical industry in facilitating insulin initiation in both the public and private sectors. The support included: training of healthcare professionals; developing and disseminating patient education materials; service provision by diabetes education teams; organising programmes for patients' peer group sessions; increasing awareness and demystifying insulin via public campaigns; and subsidising glucose monitoring equipment. Finally, the healthcare professionals proposed the establishment of multidisciplinary teams as a strategy to increase the rate of insulin initiation. Having team members from different ethnic backgrounds would help to overcome language and cultural differences when communicating with patients.
    CONCLUSION: The challenges faced by a dual-sector health system in delivering insulin initiation may be addressed by greater collaborations between the private and public sectors and governmental and non-government organisations, and among different healthcare professionals.
    Study site: Healthcare professionals from three states (Wilayah Federal Territory, Negeri Sembilan and Selangor) and from both urban and semi-rural locations (including Klinik Kesihatan), Malaysia
  7. Lee YK, Lee PY, Ng CJ
    BMC Fam Pract, 2012;13:28.
    PMID: 22469132 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-13-28
    BACKGROUND: Nationwide surveys have shown that the prevalence of diabetes rates in Malaysia have almost doubled in the past ten years; yet diabetes control remains poor and insulin therapy is underutilized. This study aimed to explore healthcare professionals' views on barriers to starting insulin therapy in people with type 2 diabetes.
    METHODS: Healthcare professionals consisting of general practitioners (n = 11), family medicine specialists (n = 10), medical officers (n = 8), government policy makers (n = 4), diabetes educators (n = 3) and endocrinologists (n = 2) were interviewed. A semi-structured topic guide was used to guide the interviews by trained facilitators. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic analysis approach.
    RESULTS: Insulin initiation was found to be affected by patient, healthcare professional and system factors. Patients' barriers include culture-specific barriers such as the religious purity of insulin, preferred use of complementary medication and perceived lethality of insulin therapy. Healthcare professionals' barriers include negative attitudes towards insulin therapy and the 'legacy effect' of old insulin guidelines; whilst system barriers highlight the lack of resources, language and communication challenges.
    CONCLUSIONS: Tackling the issue of insulin initiation should not only happen during clinical consultations. It requires health education to emphasise the progressive nature of diabetes and the eventuality of insulin therapy at early stage of the illness. Healthcare professionals should be trained how to initiate insulin and communicate effectively with patients from various cultural and religious backgrounds.
    Study site: healthcare professionals who provided diabetes care in the three healthcare settings in Malaysia: the government health clinics (Klinik Kesihatan); government university-based primary care clinic and hospital; and private general practice (GP) clinics and hospitals
  8. Wong JS, Tan F, Lee PY
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2007;19(3):16-21.
    PMID: 18330400 DOI: 10.1177/101053950701900304
    Achieving treatment targets has been difficult in treating diabetic patients. This cross-sectional study describes the lipid profiles of patients with diabetes mellitus at a public primary health care centre in Sarawak, Malaysia. The targets for lipid control were based on the International Diabetes Federation recommendation (2002). 1031 patients (98% Type 2 Diabetes) were studied. Fasting lipid profiles were available in 990 (96%) patients. The mean total cholesterol was 5.3 +/- 1.0 mmol/L, Triglycerides 1.90 +/- 1.26 mmol/L, HDL-C 1.28 +/- 0.33 mmol/L and LDL-C 3.2 +/- 0.9 mmol/L. Overall, 22% of patients achieved the treatment target for LDL-C level < 2.6mmol/L. 67% of patients had HDL-C > 1.1 mmol/L and 42% of patients had a target TG level below 1.5 mmol/L. Of the 40% of patients who received lipid-lowering drug, 17% achieved LDL-C target, 50% had LDL-C 2.6-4.4 mmol/ L and 33% have LDL-C > 4.0 mmol/L. For the remaining 60% not receiving any lipid lowering therapy, 68% had LDL-C between 2.6-4.0 mmol/L and 7% had LDL-C level > 4 mmol/L. Dyslipidemia is still under-treated despite the availability of effective pharmacological agents and the greatly increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in diabetic patients.
  9. Lee PY, Low TY, Jamal R
    Adv Clin Chem, 2018 12 27;88:67-89.
    PMID: 30612607 DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2018.10.004
    The life span of cancer patients can be prolonged with appropriate therapies if detected early. Mass screening for early detection of cancer, however, requires sensitive and specific biomarkers obtainable from body fluids such as blood or urine. To date, most biomarker discovery programs focus on the proteome rather than the endogenous peptidome. It has been long-established that tumor cells and stromal cells produce tumor resident proteases (TRPs) to remodel the surrounding tumor microenvironment in support of tumor progression. In fact, proteolytic products of TRPs have been shown to correlate with malignant behavior. Being of low molecular weight, these unique peptides can pass through the endothelial barrier of the vasculature into the bloodstream. As such, the cancer peptidome has increasingly become a focus for biomarker discovery. In this review, we discuss on the various aspects of the peptidome in cancer biomarker research.
  10. Lee PY, Saraygord-Afshari N, Low TY
    J Chromatogr A, 2020 Mar 29;1615:460763.
    PMID: 31836310 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2019.460763
    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) is a technique that has been widely applied in a variety of proteomics studies. It is capable of resolving complex protein mixtures into individual protein spots based on their isoelectric point and molecular weight, enabling large-scale analysis of protein expression patterns for deciphering their changes in different biological conditions. 2-DE is a powerful tool that empowers researchers to perform differential qualitative and quantitative proteome analysis and is particularly advantageous for characterizing protein isoforms and post-translationally modified proteins. Despite its popularity as the workhorse for proteomics in the past few decades, it has been gradually displaced by the more sophisticated and high-performance mass spectrometry-based methods. However, there are several variations of the 2-DE technique that have emerged as promising approaches that shine new light on specific niches that 2-DE could still contribute. In this review, we first provide an overview of the applications of 2-DE, its merits and pitfalls in the current proteomic research arena, followed by a discussion on several alternative approaches for potential future applications.
  11. Lee PY, Abang Taha AB, Lin K, Ghazali SR, Syed Ahmad Al-Mashoor SH
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2007;6(1).
    Aims: To evaluate the utilization of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients who attended three randomly selected primary care clinics over 4 months from January to April 2004. Results: A total of 198 patients were recruited. One hundred and eighty-one (91.4%) patients agreed to participate by answering the anonymous questionnaire. Results: Ninety (51.4%) patients used CAM of which 43 (47.8%) patients used more than one type of CAM. Utilization rates of CAM were found to be associated with employment status but not with other socio-demographic factors. The common types of alternative medicine used were massage (n = 63; 36.2%) and herbal medicine (n = 44; 25.1%). Forty-two (46%) of the CAM users, used CAM for the problems that led to their current clinic visit. Thirty-four (37.8%) were using alternative and modern medicine at the same time. The reasons for CAM usage given by about half of the patients were that CAM was more effective and better for emotional or mental health problems. Conclusions: Usage of CAM was common in patients who visited primary care clinics. It is important to recognize this fact as combined use of CAM can create potentially dangerous interactions with pharmacotherapies Key words: complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), primary care
  12. Hadi AM, Lee PY, Adibah HI
    Malays Fam Physician, 2020;15(2):43-45.
    PMID: 32843944
    Despite the advancements made in the knowledge and treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) since it was first discovered, people living with HIV (PLWH) continue to be stigmatized. This paper presents the case of an HIV-infected patient who delayed the necessary treatment due to stigma and ultimately presented with AIDS. Through social support, however, he was able to overcome his internalized stigma; he was finally willing to start on antiretroviral treatment (ART). This case report addresses the effect of stigma on and the role of social support in the management of an individual with HIV.
  13. Chang CT, Lee PY, Cheah WL
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Apr;19(2):27-34.
    PMID: 22973135 MyJurnal
    Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) was the second leading cause of death in Malaysia in 2006. CHD has known risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity.
    Methods: This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among 260 participants aged 20 to 65 years in a rural community in Sarawak.
    Results: The prevalences of overweight and obesity in this study were 39.6% and 11.9%, respectively. Approximately 13% of participants had hypertension, and 1.5% had a random blood sugar greater than 11.1 mmol/L. Chi-square tests showed significant associations between obesity and gender (P = 0.007), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and race (P = 0.05), high total cholesterol and age (P = 0.007), age and hypertension (P = 0.011), smoking and gender (P < 0.001), and smoking and income (P = 0.050). Age-adjusted logistic regression showed that women were 0.246 times more likely to be obese, that older participants (> 45 years) were 0.395 times more likely to have high cholesterol and that those with a higher monthly household income (> RM830) were 2.471 times more likely to smoke.
    Conclusion: These findings indicate that we should be concerned about the high rates of overweight in this rural community to prevent obesity.
    Study site: 8 villages, Serian district, Sarawak, Malaysia
    Keywords: adult; cardiovascular diseases; epidemiology; obesity; prevalence; risk factors.
  14. Boo WH, Rajan P, Ching SM, Lee PY
    Malays Fam Physician, 2015;10(2):45-8.
    PMID: 27099660 MyJurnal
    Juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JRRP) is a rare condition. The varied presentation of this condition predisposes to misdiagnosis and potential life-threatening airway obstruction. In this paper, we have reported a case of JRRP presenting as severe respiratory distress and consequently mistreated as asthmatic attack culminating in a near fatal acute airway obstruction.
  15. Lee YK, Low WY, Lee PY, Ng CJ
    Int J Nurs Pract, 2015 May;21 Suppl 2:125-31.
    PMID: 24804909 DOI: 10.1111/ijn.12355
    Patient decision-making role preference (DMRP) is a patient's preferred degree of control when making medical decisions. This descriptive qualitative study aimed to explore Malaysian patients' views on their DMRP. Between January 2011 and March 2012, 22 individual face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with patients with type 2 diabetes who were deciding about insulin initiation. The interviews were audio-recorded and analysed using a thematic approach. The age range of participants was 28-67 years old with 11 men. Ten patients preferred to make the decision themselves, six patients indicated that the clinician should make the decision and only one patient expressed a preference for a collaborative role. The following factors influenced DMRP: trust in clinicians, responsibility for diabetes care, level of knowledge and awareness, involvement of family and personal characteristics. In conclusion, the concept of shared decision-making is still alien, and a more participative communication style might help to facilitate patients' expression of DMRP.
    Study site: Public university hospital-based primary care clinic, Public health-care clinics (Klinik Kesihatan), Private specialist clinic, Malaysia
  16. Lee PY, Lee YK, Khoo EM, Ng CJ
    Prim Care Diabetes, 2014 Apr;8(1):49-55.
    PMID: 24315732 DOI: 10.1016/j.pcd.2013.11.003
    Aims: To explore how health care professionals (HCPs) assess patients when initiating insulintherapy in type 2 diabetes.
    Methods: Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with 41 healthcare professionals in Malaysia in 2010–2011. A semi-structured topic guide was used for theinterview. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the Nvivo9 softwarebased on a thematic approach.
    Results: HCPs were less likely to initiate insulin therapy in patients who were older, withirregular dietary patterns and poor financial status. They also assessed patients’ knowl-edge, views and misconceptions of insulin. However, there was a variation in how doctors assessed patients’ comorbidities before starting insulin therapy. Medical officers were more likely to initiate insulin therapy in patients with comorbidities and complications, whereas family medicine specialists were more cautious. In addition, most HCPs considered patients’ psychosocial status, including self-care ability, social support and quality of life.
    Conclusions: HCPs’ assessment of patients’ need to start insulin therapy depends on their perception rather than objective evaluation of patients’ background, knowledge, perception and abilities. The background and the type of practice of HCPs influence their assessment.
  17. Cheah WL, Lee PY, Lim PY, Fatin Nabila AA, Luk KJ, Nur Iwana AT
    Malays Fam Physician, 2012;7(2-3):21-30.
    PMID: 25606252 MyJurnal
    Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects a patient's quality of life. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the socio-demographic and disease profile factors associated with poor quality of life among patients with diabetes. The study was conducted at a primary health care clinic in Kuching between August to November 2010. Short Form - 36 (SF - 36) questionnaire was used to assess the quality of life of diabetic patients aged ≥ 18. A total of 142 respondents participated in the survey. After adjusting for age, those with no education scored lower at vitality (p=0.043) and emotional health (p=0.033) compared with those who have tertiary education. Those working in the private sector scored better for physical functioning (p=0.042) compared with pensioners and the unemployed. Patients with uncontrolled diabetes scored lower in the role-emotional domain (p=0.003). Participants who were on <3 (p=0.014) and ≥3 (p=0.024) oral medications had better score for role-physical than those on insulin. Those on insulin had worse score for bodily pain than those on oral medication only (vs <3 oral drugs, p=0.026; vs ≥3 oral drugs, p=0.001). Various socio-demographic factors, uncontrolled diabetes and insulin usage were found to have negative impact on a diabetic patient's quality of life. Programmes addressing the physical and emotional needs of diabetic patients at the primary health care setting are essential to help improve their quality of life.
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