Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 48 in total

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  1. Tang YQ, Lee SH, Sekaran SD
    JUMMEC, 2014;17(2):1-8.
    MyJurnal
    The plants of the genus Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae) are distributed in most tropical and subtropical regions of world. This plant has been long used as a traditional medicine to treat problems such as stomach, intestinal infections, kidney and urinary bladder disturbances, diabetes, and hepatitis B. There has been considerable interest in these plants in recent years. This review discusses the antiviral and anticancer aspects of Phyllanthus species. Scientific studies have demonstrated that extracts and purified isolated compounds (flavonoids, lignans, phenols, and terpenes) obtained from these plants possess antiviral effects against herpes simplex (HSV) and dengue virus infections (DENV). These observations are associated with the disruption of essential proteins needed during viral cycle, thus halting the viral replication. In addition, the Phyllanthus species have also been shown to exert inhibitory effects against selected cancers types. In these studies anti-proliferative, anti-metastatic, anti-angiogenic effects and induced apoptosis of human cancers cell lines were observed. These may be explained by the disruption of multiple survival pathways and differential protein expression. CONLCUSION:As a conclusion, tThe Phyllanthus plant possesses multiple medicinal properties, including antiviral and anticancer activities which may potentially be used as a medicinal source for many disease locally.
  2. Yip FW, Lee SH
    Singapore Med J, 1992 Dec;33(6):643-4.
    PMID: 1488683
    Renal angiomyolipoma is a benign tumour of the kidney which is often mistaken for a renal cell carcinoma resulting in an unnecessary nephrectomy. It can be diagnosed preoperatively and managed conservatively without surgery. Large symptomatic renal angiomyolipomas can often be treated by renal-sparing surgery. We report a case of a large renal angiomyolipoma diagnosed preoperatively and excised completely with preservation of the kidney.
  3. Yip FW, Lee SH
    Aust N Z J Surg, 1992 Aug;62(8):638-42.
    PMID: 1642584
    Since it was first described in 1978 the abdominal cocoon continues to be a rare cause of intestinal obstruction. So far this rare condition where the small intestine is encased in a fibrous membrane has been reported only in females. Diagnosis is usually made at laparotomy and the treatment of choice is lysis of adhesions. Proper recognition of this benign condition will result in the correct management of it and prevent unnecessary bowel resections. Five new cases including one male patient, together with a review of previous reports in the English literature, are presented.
  4. Lee SH, Yii NW, Hanifah YA
    J R Coll Surg Edinb, 1991 Oct;36(5):323-7.
    PMID: 1757914
    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has emerged as an important cause of nosocomial infections in recent years. During 1988 in the Department of Surgery of the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 148 patients were shown to be infected or colonized with these organisms. The patients at risk were those who stay in hospital for greater than 14 days, those over 50 years of age, patients who underwent neurosurgery, cardiothoracic surgery, or were admitted with major burns. Of the 148 patients, 78 (52.7%) were clinically infected, the remaining 70 being colonized. A total of 28 patients died (18.9%) but only five (3.4%) as a direct result of this infection. The estimated annual cost of controlling the organism was found to be approximately MR$250,000. (50,000 pounds). This nosocomial infection therefore represents a serious problem, especially in developing countries where health funding and health facilities are limited.
  5. Lee SH, Cheah DS, Poopalarachagan S, Sivanesaratnam V
    Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol, 1991 Nov;31(4):372-5.
    PMID: 1799358
    Major perineal injuries following obstetrical complications represent difficult problems of reconstruction. We describe 2 such patients with perineal injuries simulating infantile cloacas. Surgical repair using an abdominoperineal pullthrough procedure in 1 patient, and a Bricker loop type of repair in another resulted in successful restoration of function in both. The operative details and basis for the reconstruction are described.
  6. Koh KB, Lam HS, Lee SH
    Br J Urol, 1993 May;71(5):609-11.
    PMID: 8518872
    Four cases of emphysematous pyelonephritis are reported and the pathogenesis, surgical implications and preferred mode of management are discussed. We have not found percutaneous drainage to be useful, but feel there is an important place for surgical drainage alone because of the potential for renal recovery and the risks of emergency nephrectomy.
  7. Lee SH, Cheah DS, Krishnan MM
    Singapore Med J, 1990 Jun;31(3):217-20.
    PMID: 2392698
    Locally advanced or recurrent carcinoma of the breast poses difficult management problems. These fungating and discharging tumours severely impair the quality of life in these unfortunate patients. We report two cases successfully treated with omental transposition flaps and split skin grafts. The operation is described in detail and the results discussed. This technique was found to be safe, effective and rewarding.
  8. Rohela M, Johari S, Jamaiah I, Init I, Lee SH
    PMID: 17121288
    We are reporting a case of a 43-year-old Chinese male from Hong Kong, who came to see a doctor complaining of acute onset of severe upper abdominal pain. A diagnosis of acute cholecystitis was made and an emergency cholecystectomy was carried out. On opening the common bile duct, lancet-shaped worms were seen emerging from it. About 45 adult worms were collected and sent to the Department of Parasitology University of Malaya for identification. The worms were identified as Clonorchis sinensis. After the operation the patient was treated with praziquantel and he had an uneventful recovery.
  9. Lee SH, Choi H, Kim KW
    Environ Geochem Health, 2018 Oct;40(5):2119-2129.
    PMID: 29536286 DOI: 10.1007/s10653-018-0087-y
    To develop a novel granular adsorbent to remove arsenic and antimony from water, calcined Mg/Al-layered double-hydroxide (CLDH)-incorporated polyethersulfone (PES) granular adsorbents (PES-LDH) were prepared using a core-shell method having 25% PES in an N,N-dimethylformamide solution. The PES-LDH displayed a spherical hollow shape having a rough surface and the average particle size of 1-2 mm. On the PES-LDH surface, nanosized CLDH (100-150 nm) was successfully immobilized by consolidation between PES and CLDH. The adsorption of Sb(V) by PES-LDH was found to be more favorable than for As(V), with the maximum adsorption capacity of As(V) and Sb(V) being 7.44 and 22.8 mg/g, respectively. The regeneration results indicated that a 0.5 M NaOH and 5 M NaCl mixed solution achieved an 80% regeneration efficiency in As(V) adsorption and desorption. However, the regeneration efficiency of Sb(V) gradually decreased due to its strong binding affinity, even though the PES-LDH showed much higher Sb(V) adsorption efficiency than As(V). This study suggested that PES-LDH could be a promising granular adsorbent for the remediation of As(V) and Sb(V) contained in wastewater.
  10. Lee SH, Jaganath IB, Manikam R, Sekaran SD
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2013 Oct 20;13:271.
    PMID: 24138815 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-271
    BACKGROUND: Lung cancer constitutes one of the malignancies with the greatest incidence and mortality rates with 1.6 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths each year. Prognosis remains poor due to deleterious development of multidrug resistance resulting in less than 15% lung cancer patients reaching five years survival. We have previously shown that Phyllanthus induced apoptosis in conjunction with its antimetastastic action. In the current study, we aimed to determine the signaling pathways utilized by Phyllanthus to exert its antimetastatic activities.

    METHODS: Cancer 10-pathway reporter array was performed to screen the pathways affected by Phyllanthus in lung carcinoma cell line (A549) to exert its antimetastatic effects. Results from this array were then confirmed with western blotting, cell cycle analysis, zymography technique, and cell based ELISA assay for human total iNOS. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was subsequently carried out to study the differential protein expressions in A549 after treatment with Phyllanthus.

    RESULTS: Phyllanthus was observed to cause antimetastatic activities by inhibiting ERK1/2 pathway via suppression of Raf protein. Inhibition of this pathway resulted in the suppression of MMP2, MMP7, and MMP9 expression to stop A549 metastasis. Phyllanthus also inhibits hypoxia pathway via inhibition of HIF-1α that led to reduced VEGF and iNOS expressions. Proteomic analysis revealed a number of proteins downregulated by Phyllanthus that were involved in metastatic processes, including invasion and mobility proteins (cytoskeletal proteins), transcriptional proteins (proliferating cell nuclear antigen; zinc finger protein), antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2) and various glycolytic enzymes. Among the four Phyllanthus species tested, P. urinaria showed the greatest antimetastatic activity.

    CONCLUSIONS: Phyllanthus inhibits A549 metastasis by suppressing ERK1/2 and hypoxia pathways that led to suppression of various critical proteins for A549 invasion and migration.

  11. Ooi SK, Lim TY, Lee SH, Nathan S
    Virulence, 2012 Oct 1;3(6):485-96.
    PMID: 23076282 DOI: 10.4161/viru.21808
    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is hypersusceptible to Burkholderia pseudomallei infection. However, the virulence mechanisms underlying rapid lethality of C. elegans upon B. pseudomallei infection remain poorly defined. To probe the host-pathogen interaction, we constructed GFP-tagged B. pseudomallei and followed bacterial accumulation within the C. elegans intestinal lumen. Contrary to slow-killing by most bacterial pathogens, B. pseudomallei caused fairly limited intestinal lumen colonization throughout the period of observation. Using grinder-defective mutant worms that allow the entry of intact bacteria also did not result in full intestinal lumen colonization. In addition, we observed a significant decline in C. elegans defecation and pharyngeal pumping rates upon B. pseudomallei infection. The decline in defecation rates ruled out the contribution of defecation to the limited B. pseudomallei colonization. We also demonstrated that the limited intestinal lumen colonization was not attributed to slowed host feeding as bacterial loads did not change significantly when feeding was stimulated by exogenous serotonin. Both these observations confirm that B. pseudomallei is a poor colonizer of the C. elegans intestine. To explore the possibility of toxin-mediated killing, we examined the transcription of the C. elegans ABC transporter gene, pgp-5, upon B. pseudomallei infection of the ppgp-5::gfp reporter strain. Expression of pgp-5 was highly induced, notably in the pharynx and intestine, compared with Escherichia coli-fed worms, suggesting that the host actively thwarted the pathogenic assaults during infection. Collectively, our findings propose that B. pseudomallei specifically and continuously secretes toxins to overcome C. elegans immune responses.
  12. Wong RR, Kong C, Lee SH, Nathan S
    Sci Rep, 2016 06 07;6:27475.
    PMID: 27273550 DOI: 10.1038/srep27475
    Toxins are believed to play a crucial role in Burkholderia pseudomallei pathogenicity, however to date, only a few have been identified. The discovery of additional toxic molecules is limited by the lack of a sensitive indicator of B. pseudomallei toxicity. Previously, from a whole genome transcriptome analysis of B. pseudomallei-infected Caenorhabditis elegans, we noted significant overexpression of a number of worm genes encoding detoxification enzymes, indicating the host's attempt to clear bacterial toxic molecules. One of these genes, ugt-29, a family member of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, was the most robustly induced phase II detoxification gene. In this study, we show that strong induction of ugt-29 is restricted to infections by the most virulent species among the pathogens tested. We also noted that ugt-29 is activated upon disruption of host protein synthesis. Hence, we propose that UGT-29 could be a promising biosensor to detect B. pseudomallei toxins that compromise host protein synthesis. The identification of bactobolin, a polyketide-peptide hybrid molecule, as a toxic molecule of B. pseudomallei further verifies the utilization of this surveillance system to search for bacterial toxins. Hence, a ugt-29 based reporter should be useful in screening for other molecules that inhibit host protein synthesis.
  13. Lee SH, Jaganath IB, Wang SM, Sekaran SD
    PLoS ONE, 2011;6(6):e20994.
    PMID: 21698198 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020994
    Current chemotherapeutic drugs kill cancer cells mainly by inducing apoptosis. However, they become ineffective once cancer cell has the ability to metastasize, hence the poor prognosis and high mortality rate. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimetastatic potential of Phyllanthus (P. niruri, P. urinaria, P. watsonii, and P. amarus) on lung and breast carcinoma cells.
  14. Shekhar KC, Nazarina AR, Lee SH, Pathmanathan R
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1995 Jun;50(2):182-6.
    PMID: 7565193
    Clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis are snail-transmitted trematode infections. The disease is endemic in many parts of Asia. Local case reports have been predominantly in Chinese with a history of travel to endemic countries. Thus far, 20 cases of liver fluke infestation have been reported in this country. This report presents another two cases of clonorchiasis and a case of opisthorchiasis. We also briefly review pertinent aspects of the disease.
  15. Wong KT, Koh KB, Lee SH, Chee CP
    Singapore Med J, 1996 Aug;37(4):441-2.
    PMID: 8993152
    Primary germinomas of the central nervous system carry a good prognosis because of their radiosensitivity. Recurrences are rare and extraneural metastases are even more unusual. One of the possible routes of extraneural spread is via ventriculo-peritoneal shunts which may be required to reduce intracranial pressure. One such case of germinoma metastasizing via a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt is reported. Patients with intracranial germinomas and ventriculo-peritoneal shunts should have close surveillance of their abdomens and may require systemic chemotherapy.
  16. Lee YS, Lee OS, Lee SH, Hui TS
    Arthroscopy, 2018 02;34(2):592-602.
    PMID: 28974333 DOI: 10.1016/j.arthro.2017.07.023
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of the timing of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction on clinical and stability outcomes by analyzing high-quality studies that assessed timing as a primary objective.

    METHODS: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane database were systematically searched. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) English articles, (2) noncomparative study or relevant study reporting clinical and/or stability results, and (3) timing of the ACL reconstruction as a primary objective. Study type, level of evidence, randomization method, exclusion criteria, number of cases, age, sex, timing of ACL reconstruction, follow-up, clinical outcomes, stability outcomes, and other relevant findings were recorded. Statistical analysis of the Lysholm scores and KT-1000 arthrometer measurements after early and delayed ACL reconstruction was performed using R version 3.3.1.

    RESULTS: Seven articles were included in the final analysis. There were 6 randomized controlled trials and 1 Level II study. Pooled analysis was performed using only Level I studies. All studies assessed the timing of ACL reconstruction as a primary objective. The definition of early ranged broadly from 9 days to 5 months and delayed ranged from 10 weeks to >24 months, and there was an overlap of the time intervals between some studies. The standard timing of the delayed reconstruction was around 10 weeks from injury in the pooled analysis. After pooling of data, clinical result was not statistically different between groups (I2: 47%, moderate level of heterogeneity). No statistically significant difference was observed in the KT-1000 arthrometer measurements between groups (I2: 76.2%, high level of heterogeneity) either.

    CONCLUSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis performed using currently available high-quality literature provides relatively strong evidence that early ACL reconstruction results in good clinical and stability outcomes. Early ACL reconstruction results in comparable clinical and stability outcomes compared with delayed ACL reconstruction.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, a systematic review and meta-analysis of Level I and II studies.

  17. Lee SH, Lee OS, Teo SH, Lee YS
    Gait Posture, 2017 09;57:57-68.
    PMID: 28577508 DOI: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.05.023
    We conducted a meta-analysis to analyze how high tibial osteotomy (HTO) changes gait and focused on the following questions: (1) How does HTO change basic gait variables? (2) How does HTO change the gait variables in the knee joint? Twelve articles were included in the final analysis. A total of 383 knees was evaluated. There were 237 open wedge (OW) and 143 closed wedge (CW) HTOs. There were 4 level II studies and 8 level III studies. All studies included gait analysis and compared pre- and postoperative values. One study compared CWHTO and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), and another study compared CWHTO and OWHTO. Five studies compared gait variables with those of healthy controls. One study compared operated limb gait variables with those in the non-operated limb. Gait speed, stride length, knee adduction moment, and lateral thrust were major variables assessed in 2 or more studies. Walking speed increased and stride length was increased or similar after HTO compared to the preoperative value in basic gait variables. Knee adduction moment and lateral thrust were decreased after HTO compared to the preoperative knee joint gait variables. Change in co-contraction of the medial side muscle after surgery differed depending on the degree of frontal plane alignment. The relationship between change in knee adduction moment and change in mechanical axis angle was controversial. Based on our systematic review and meta-analysis, walking speed and stride length increased after HTO. Knee adduction moment and lateral thrust decreased after HTO compared to the preoperative values of gait variables in the knee joint.
  18. Lee YS, Lee SH, Lee ES, Fong TS
    BMC Musculoskelet Disord, 2019 Mar 20;20(1):118.
    PMID: 30894158 DOI: 10.1186/s12891-019-2505-4
    BACKGROUND: We report a case of hardware failure after distal femoral osteotomy (DFO) with a broken screw pulled out from the locking hole and positioned within the knee joint.

    CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old man presented to our orthopedic outpatient department with 3-months history of an unusual painful swelling at the operated area following DFO. The leakage of joint fluid from the penetrated suprapatellar pouch was assumed to be the reason for this complication.

    CONCLUSIONS: The overall aim of this case report is to provide a lesson to budding surgeons who might experience a similar situation that cannot be easily explained, like the unexpected complication in the present case.

  19. Lee SH, H'ng PS, Peng TL, Lum WC
    Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2013 Nov 1;16(21):1415-8.
    PMID: 24511759
    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of formaldehyde catcher as termites repellent. Single-layered UF-bonded particleboard was post-treated with formaldehyde catcher and heat respectively. Besides that, some boards were also produced with the formaldehyde catcher was added into the resin during the blending process, called add-in method. Particleboard post-treated with formaldehyde catcher reported the most severe attack. Heat-treated particleboard showed slightly better durability than the control blocks while the add-in catcher showed the best durability among three methods. A valid test was obtained as the termites survived the first week of the test. However, all the termites were found dead at the end of the test.
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