Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 41 in total

  1. Chang ET, Lim BH
    Med J Malaysia, 1989 Jun;44(2):160-6.
    PMID: 2626126
    The abuse of phenylbutazone among rheumatoid arthritis patients has recently become a subject of interest. Unscrupulous manufacturers take advantage of the miraculous analgesic property of phenylbutazone and deliberately add this toxic drug in their preparations without declaring its presence on the label. In a recent survey, many such illicit preparations were seized from Chinese medical halls in Johor and sent to the Department of Chemistry, Johor Bahru for analysis. Here a Gas Chromatograph Mass Selective Detector (GC-MSD) method was developed for the determination of phenylbutazone in illicit traditional preparations.
  2. Sivanesaratnam V, Lim BH, Sivanesan S, Menon A
    J Trop Med Hyg, 1986 Aug;89(4):167-9.
    PMID: 3783810
    Tuberculosis of the genital tract was diagnosed in only 12 patients during the 17 year period from March 1968 to February 1985 at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, which serves as a major referral centre in Malaysia. The incidence was 0.31 per 1000 gynaecological admissions and the peak age incidence was in the age group 26 to 35 years. The surgical management was mainly conservative as infertility was the most frequent mode of presentation (50%). Evidence of previous pulmonary tuberculosis was present in only five cases. Adnexal adhesions were the commonest pelvic finding; the fallopian tubes and endometrium were affected with equal frequency. Positive cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were obtained in only five of the 12 patients. All patients received combination anti-tuberculosis drugs with satisfactory response.
  3. Rasineni GK, Loh PC, Lim BH
    Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj, 2017 Feb;1861(2):79-85.
    PMID: 27816753 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2016.10.027
    BACKGROUND: Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is the chloroplast enzyme that fixes CO2 in photosynthesis, but the enzyme also fixes O2, which leads to the wasteful photorespiratory pathway. If we better understand the structure-function relationship of the enzyme, we might be able to engineer improvements. When the crystal structure of Chlamydomonas Rubisco was solved, four new posttranslational modifications were observed which are not present in other species. The modifications were 4-hydroxylation of the conserved Pro-104 and 151 residues, and S-methylation of the variable Cys-256 and 369 residues, which are Phe-256 and Val-369 in land plants. Because the modifications were only observed in Chlamydomonas Rubisco, they might account for the differences in kinetic properties between the algal and plant enzymes.

    METHODS: Site-directed mutagenesis and chloroplast transformation have been used to test the essentiality of these modifications by replacing each of the residues with alanine (Ala). Biochemical analyses were done to determine the specificity factors and kinetic constants.

    RESULTS: Replacing the modified-residues in Chlamydomonas Rubisco affected the enzyme's catalytic activity. Substituting hydroxy-Pro-104 and methyl-Cys-256 with alanine influenced Rubisco catalysis.

    CONCLUSION: This is the first study on these posttranslationally-modified residues in Rubisco by genetic engineering. As these forms of modifications/regulation are not available in plants, the modified residues could be a means to modulate Rubisco activity.

    GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: With a better understanding of Rubisco structure-function, we can define targets for improving the enzyme.

  4. Lim BH, Raman S, Sivanesaratnam V, Ngan A
    Singapore Med J, 1989 Dec;30(6):539-41.
    PMID: 2635396
    Twenty eight patients with hyperthyroidism complicating their pregnancies were seen at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in a six-year period. All patients were treated with antithyroid drugs, carbimazole being the mainstay of treatment. The incidence of the disease was 0.9 per 1000 births and was similar with other series. No cases of fetal goitre were noted. The mean birth weight was 2952 g; there was no significant difference in the birth weight of term live births in patients treated with carbimazole alone or carbimazole combined with propranolol.
  5. Lim BH, Rahmah N, Afifi SAB, Ramli A, Mehdi R
    Med J Malaysia, 2001 Dec;56(4):491-6.
    PMID: 12014770
    A total of 1,134 finger-pricked blood samples were collected from residents of Setiu, Terengganu. A drop of blood was used to make thick blood smear and about four drops were used for obtaining serum. The smears were stained and examined by the State Vector Control Unit in Kuala Terengganu, while the serum samples were tested for specific IgG4 antibodies to a novel recombinant antigen using Brugia-Elisa. Prevalence of filariasis in these areas were found to be 0.26% (3/1,134) using thick blood smear examination and 2.47% (28/1,134) using Brugia-Elisa, thus demonstrating the greater sensitivity of the latter test. In addtion, Brugia-Elisa showed a high level of specificity (97.8%, 1,106/1,131) when compared to thick blood smear examination.
  6. Jain P, Sing Ngie DC, Lim SF, Lim BH
    Int J Artif Organs, 2020 Oct 13.
    PMID: 33045876 DOI: 10.1177/0391398820964483
    Pedicular arthrodesis is the traditional procedure in terms of increase in the biomechanical stability with higher fixation rate. The current work aims to identify the effect of three spinal pedicle screws considering cortical and cancellous degeneracy condition. Lumbar section L2-L3 is utilized and various load and moment conditions were applied to depict the various biomechanical parameters for selection of suitable screw. Three dimensional model is considered in finite element analysis to identify the various responses of pedicle screw at bone screw juncture. Computed tomography (CT) images of a healthy male were considered to generate the finite element vertebral model. Generated intact model was further utilized to develop the other implanted models of degenerated cortical and cancellous bone models. The three fused instrumented models with different cortical and cancellous degeneracy conditions were analyzed in finite element analysis. The results were obtained as stress pattern at bone screw boundary and intervertebral disc stress. FE simulated results represents significant changes in the von Mises stress due to various load and moment conditions on degenerated bones during different body movement conditions. Results have shown that among all pedicle screws, the 6.0 mm diameter screw reflects very less stress values at the juncture. Multiple results on biomechanical aspects obtained during the FE study can be considered to design a new stabilization device and may be helpful to plan surgery of critical sections.
  7. Abdalkareem EA, Ong CY, Lim BH, Khoo BY
    Cytotechnology, 2018 Oct;70(5):1363-1374.
    PMID: 29802489 DOI: 10.1007/s10616-018-0228-2
    The interleukin-21 (IL-21) protein was found to be expressed at an elevated level in clinical samples of colorectal cancer patients without or with a parasitic infection that were collected from Sudan in our previous study. The IL-21 gene in HT29 and HCT116 cells was then correlated to cell proliferation and cell migration, as well as the cellular mechanisms associated with gene expressions in our present study. Our results demonstrated that silencing the IL-21 gene in HCT116 cells increased the cytotoxic level and fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF4) mRNA expression in the cancer cells. Moreover, specific gene silencing reduced the migration of cancer cells compared to non-silenced cancer cells. These events were not observed in IL-21-silenced HT29 cells. Neutralizing FGF4 in conditioned medium of IL-21-silenced HCT116 cells further increased the cytotoxic level and restored the migratory activity of HCT116 cells in the culture compared to silencing the IL-21 gene alone in the cancer cells. Our results indicate the importance of both silencing the IL-21 gene and co-expression of the FGF4 protein in HCT116 cells, which pave the way for the discovery of important factors to be used as biomarkers for the design of drugs or cost-effective supplements to effectively treat the patients having infectious disease and HCT116 cells of colorectal cancer simultaneously in the future.
  8. Rahmah N, Lim BH, Azian H, Ramelah TS, Rohana AR
    Trop Med Int Health, 2003 Feb;8(2):158-63.
    PMID: 12581442
    Brugian filariasis infects 13 million people in Asia. The routine prevalence survey method using night thick blood smear is not sensitive enough to reflect the actual infection prevalence. In 1997-2001, only three microfilaraemic cases (of 5601 individuals screened; 0.05%) were reported in Pasir Mas, a district in Kelantan (Malaysia), which shares a border with Thailand. We therefore investigated the infection prevalence in this district by employing a sensitive and specific serological assay (Brugia-Elisa). This test is based on detection of specific IgG4 antibody against a Brugia malayi recombinant antigen. A total of 5138 children, aged 7-12 years, from 16 primary schools, were tested. Eighteen pupils in eight schools, located in five subdistricts, tested positive, giving an overall prevalence rate of 0.35%. Infection in these children is significant as they represent more recent cases. These subdistricts should be included in the national filariasis elimination programme.
  9. Lim SF, Hamdan A, David Chua SN, Lim BH
    Food Sci Nutr, 2021 May;9(5):2722-2732.
    PMID: 34026085 DOI: 10.1002/fsn3.2234
    The lemongrass plant, which is widely cultivated in Asia, Australia, and Africa, has been reported to have many significant health benefits such as antimicrobial, insecticide, anticancer, fight fever, and disinfection. Therefore, it is an added benefit to have lemongrass compounds in cooking oil. This study was aimed to compare the conventional (CSE), and ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction (UASE) for citral compounds from lemongrass (Cymbopogon) leaves and to optimize the best extraction method using the response surface methodology (RSM) and ANOVA. RSM design of experiments using three types of cooking oils; palm oil, sunflower oil, and corn oil. The effect of three independent variables, which are temperature (48.2-81.8°C), extraction time (4.8-55.2 min), and solvent to leaves ratio (5.3-18.7), was investigated. The characterization of lemongrass-infused cooking oil was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis for confirmation of the citral compound extraction. This extraction process is optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for producing the lemongrass-infused cooking oil. After optimization, the UASE process gives 1.009 × 106 maximum citral area for palm oil and 1.767 × 106 maximum citral area for sunflower oil. CSE process only can give 2.025 × 105 and 2.179 × 105 citral area in the GC-MS spectrum for palm oil and sunflower oil respectively. For both the UASE and the CSE, the optimum operating conditions are 81.8°C of extraction temperature and 55.2 min of extraction time except for lemongrass-infused palm oil in the CSE process with 45 min extraction time. The optimum solvent to leaves ratio varies from 5.3:1 to 12.9:1. This study found that corn oil cannot be used as a solvent to extract lemongrass-infused cooking oil due to the insignificant changes and no citral peak. The lemongrass (Cymbopogon)-infused palm oil and sunflower oil extracted using the UASE have a higher maximum citral area than the CSE process.
  10. Zeehaida M, Zairi NZ, Tan ZN, Wong WK, Lim BH
    Trop Biomed, 2009 Dec;26(3):366-8.
    PMID: 20237453
    The screening for anti-amoebic antibody among a group of donors was to obtain negative control serum samples for an on-going antigen development assay in diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess. Out of 200 samples, 125 (62.5%) were negative, whereas 44 (21.5%) had IHA titer of less than 1:128 and 31 (16.0%) of the samples had significant IHA titers of 1:128 or more, in which 2 serum samples gave titers of 1:4096.
  11. Zakaria AZ, Washif JA, Lim BH, Nosaka K
    Biol Sport, 2023 Jul;40(3):691-697.
    PMID: 37398958 DOI: 10.5114/biolsport.2023.119290
    Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ELJ) is a herbal plant that has androgenic and antioxidant effects. We investigated the short-term effect of ELJ supplementation on muscle damage induced by eccentric exercise. Eighteen young (19-25 years), well-trained rugby 7s players were assigned to an ELJ or a placebo (PLA) group (n = 9/group). Each participant took four 100-mg capsules a day for seven days prior to performing a leg press eccentric exercise to failure in a double-blind fashion. Peak force, peak power and jump height in countermovement jump (CMJ), drop jump reactive strength index (RSI), muscle soreness assessed by a 100-mm visual analogue scale, plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity, and salivary hormones were measured at 24 h before and 0.5, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after the exercise. Changes in the variables over time were compared between the groups by two-factor mixed-design ANOVA. The number of eccentric contractions performed was similar (P = 0.984) between the ELJ (21 ± 5) and PLA groups (21 ± 5). Salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations did not change (P > 0.05) after the supplementation for both groups. CMJ peak power (-9.4 ± 5.6%) and height (-10.6 ± 4.9%), and RSI (-15.2 ± 16.2%) decreased at 24 h after exercise (P < 0.05), and muscle soreness (peak: 89 ±10 mm) and plasma CK activity (peak: 739 ± 420 IU/L) increased after exercise (P < 0.05) without significant differences between groups. These results showed that 7-day ELJ supplementation prior to the leg press eccentric exercise had no significant effects on hormones, performance and muscle damage markers for the athletes.
  12. Yan T, Teo EW, Lim BH, Lin B
    Front Psychol, 2022;13:1084961.
    PMID: 36605263 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.1084961
    The study aimed to determine how a teacher's competency at the university level related to professional commitment and job satisfaction. This systematic review intends to determine physical education teachers' competency and job satisfaction. One of the main objectives of physical education programs is to increase various activities of the student, especially physical activities and participation in it. Students who participate in physical activities feel a variety of emotions, and these may enhance their mental and physical well-being. The study concerns the teachers' satisfaction in effectively influencing and teaching the students. Job satisfaction refers to teachers' feelings and positive attitudes toward their work. The five components of job satisfaction are pay, promotion, supervision, co-workers, and work itself. Job satisfaction is broken down into these five components. Work as a teacher is one of the most important components of a teacher's or teacher's success at work and one of the key criteria for the school's achievement. Electronic libraries were explored, including Google Scholar, PubMed, Embase, Bing Academic, and Cochrane. Appropriate keywords were used for searching the literature. By applying certain inclusion and exclusion criteria, the final studies were selected for evaluation. The study's findings showed that physical education instructors had high levels of teaching competence and moderate levels of job satisfaction. The findings demonstrated that job satisfaction and competency rise when degree levels rise, and relatedness, skill, and autonomy self-motivation ensue. Students' motivation for physical education was greatly influenced by the teachers' support, motivation, and mastery climate. The self-determination theory positively enhances physical education from the teacher's perspective on PE, increasing instruction effectiveness.
  13. Teh ZH, Lim BH, See Too WC, Few LL
    Trop Biomed, 2023 Dec 01;40(4):430-438.
    PMID: 38308830 DOI: 10.47665/tb.40.4.008
    Entamoeba histolytica is the parasite responsible for amoebiasis, which can result in amoebic colitis or amoebic liver abscess. Metronidazole has been the conventional treatment for intestinal amoebiasis, but concerns regarding resistance have emerged due to the identification of resistance pathways in E. histolytica. This study investigates a novel anti-amoebic approach targeting the CDP-choline pathway. Inhibition studies were conducted using potential choline kinase (CK) inhibitors to inhibit the EhCK enzyme, and RNA interference was employed to knock down the EhCK gene. Km and Vmax of purified EhCK and hCKa2 proteins were determined by pyruvate kinase-lactate dehydrogenase (PK-LDH) coupled assay. The IC50 values for EhCK and hCKa2 were determined with several commercial CK inhibitors. Selected inhibitors were incubated with E. histolytica trophozoites for 48 hours to determine the EC50 for each inhibitor. Silencing of gene encoding EhCK was carried out using duplex siRNA and the gene expression level was measured by real-time qPCR. Based on the IC50 values, three of the inhibitors, namely CK37, flavopiridol and H-89 were more potent against EhCK than hCKa2. Trophozoites growth inhibition showed that only HDTAB, H-89 and control drug metronidazole could penetrate and induce cell death after 48-hour incubation. siRNA concentration of 10 µg/mL was used for the transfection of positive control GAPDH, EhCK, and non-targeting GFP siRNAs. RNAi experiment concluded with positive control GAPDH downregulated by 99% while the level of EhCK mRNA was downregulated by 47%. In this study, potential inhibitors of EhCK and siRNA have been identified, paving the way for further refinement and testing to enhance their potency against EhCK while sparing hCK. The utilization of these specific inhibitors and siRNA targeting EhCK represents a novel approach to impede the growth of E. histolytica by disrupting its phospholipid synthesis pathway.
  14. Chang CH, See Too WC, Lim BH, Few LL
    Acta Parasitol, 2024 Jan 03.
    PMID: 38172465 DOI: 10.1007/s11686-023-00763-1
    PURPOSE: Entamoeba histolytica is one of the death-causing parasites in the world. Study on its lipid composition revealed that it is predominated by phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Further study revealed that its phosphorylated metabolites might be produced by the Kennedy pathway. Here, we would like to report on the characterizations of enzymes from this pathway that would provide information for the design of novel inhibitors against these enzymes in future.

    METHODOLOGY: E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS genomic DNA was isolated and two putative choline/ethanolamine kinase genes (EhCK1 and EhCK2) were cloned and expressed from Escherichia coli BL21 strain. Enzymatic characterizations were further carried out on the purified enzymes.

    RESULTS: EhCK1 and EhCK2 were identified from E. histolytica genome. The deduced amino acid sequences were more identical to its homologues in human (35-48%) than other organisms. The proteins were clustered as ethanolamine kinase in the constructed phylogeny tree. Sequence analysis showed that they possessed all the conserved motifs in choline kinase family: ATP-binding loop, Brenner's phosphotransferase motif, and choline kinase motif. Here, the open reading frames were cloned, expressed, and purified to apparent homogeneity. EhCK1 showed activity with choline but not ethanolamine. The biochemical characterization showed that it had a Vmax of 1.9 ± 0.1 µmol/min/mg. Its Km for choline and ATP was 203 ± 26 µM and 3.1 ± 0.4 mM, respectively. In contrast, EhCK2 enzymatic activity was only detected when Mn2+ was used as the co-factor instead of Mg2+ like other choline/ethanolamine kinases. Highly sensitive and specific antibody against EhCK1 was developed and used to confirm the endogenous EhCK1 expression using immunoblotting.

    CONCLUSIONS: With the understanding of EhC/EK importance in phospholipid metabolism and their unique characteristic, EhC/EK could be a potential target for future anti-amoebiasis study.

  15. Othman N, Mohamed Z, Yahya MM, Leow VM, Lim BH, Noordin R
    Exp Parasitol, 2013 Aug;134(4):504-10.
    PMID: 23680184 DOI: 10.1016/j.exppara.2013.05.001
    Entamoeba histolytica is a causative agent of amoebic liver abscess (ALA) and is endemic in many underdeveloped countries. We investigated antigenic E. histolytica proteins in liver abscess aspirates using proteomics approach. Pus samples were first tested by real-time PCR to confirm the presence of E. histolytica DNA and the corresponding serum samples tested for E. histolytica-specific IgG by a commercial ELISA. Proteins were extracted from three and one pool(s) of pus samples from ALA and PLA (pyogenic liver abscess) patients respectively, followed by analysis using isoelectric focussing, SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Unpurified pooled serum samples from infected hamsters and pooled human amoebic-specific IgG were used as primary antibodies. The antigenic protein band was excised from the gel, digested and analysed by MALDI-TOF/TOF and LC-MS/MS. The results using both primary antibodies showed an antigenic protein band of ∼14kDa. Based on the mass spectrum analysis, putative tyrosine kinase is the most probable identification of the antigenic band.
  16. Wong WK, Tan ZN, Othman N, Lim BH, Mohamed Z, Olivos Garcia A, et al.
    Clin. Vaccine Immunol., 2011 Nov;18(11):1913-7.
    PMID: 21918120 DOI: 10.1128/CVI.05356-11
    Serodiagnosis of amoebiasis remains the preferred method for diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess (ALA). However, the commercially available kits are problematic in areas of endemicity due to the persistently high background antibody titers. Human serum samples (n = 38) from patients with ALA who live in areas of endemicity were collected from Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia during the period of 2008 to 2010. Western blots using excretory-secretory antigen (ESA) collected from axenically grown Entamoeba histolytica were probed with the above serum samples. Seven antigenic proteins of ESA with various reactivities were identified, i.e., 152 kDa, 131 kDa, 123 kDa, 110 kDa, 100 kDa, 82 kDa, and 76 kDa. However, only the 152-kDa and 110-kDa proteins showed sensitivities above 80% in the Western blot analysis. All the antigenic proteins showed undetectable cross-reactivity when probed with healthy human serum samples (n = 30) and serum samples from other infections (n = 33). From the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-two-stage time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analysis, the proteins were identified as heavy subunits of E. histolytica lectin and E. histolytica pyruvate phosphate dikinase, respectively. Use of the E. histolytica lectin for diagnosis of ALA has been well reported by researchers and is being used in commercialized kits. However, this is the first report on the potential use of pyruvate phosphate dikinase for diagnosis of ALA; thus, this molecule merits further evaluation on its diagnostic value using a larger panel of serum samples.
  17. Wong WK, Tan ZN, Lim BH, Mohamed Z, Olivos-Garcia A, Noordin R
    Parasitol Res, 2011 Feb;108(2):425-30.
    PMID: 20922423 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-010-2083-8
    Entamoeba histolytica is the etiologic agent for amoebiasis. The excretory-secretory (ES) products of the trophozoites contain virulence factors and antigens useful for diagnostic applications. Contaminants from serum supplements and dead trophozoites impede analysis of ES. Therefore, a protein-free medium that can sustain maximum viability of E. histolytica trophozoites for the longest time duration will enable collection of contaminant-free and higher yield of ES products. In the present study, we compared the efficacy of four types of media in maintaining ≥ 95% trophozoite viability namely Roswell Memorial Park Institute (RPMI-1640), Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), phosphate-buffered saline for amoeba (PBS-A), and Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). Concurrently, the effect of adding L: -cysteine and ascorbic acid (C&A) to each medium on the parasite viability was also compared. DMEM and RPMI 1640 showed higher viabilities as compared to PBS-A and HBSS. Only RPMI 1640 showed no statistical difference with the control medium for the first 4 h, however the ≥ 95% viability was only maintained for the first 2 h. The other protein-free media showed differences from the serum- and vitamin-free TYI-S-33 control media even after 1 h of incubation. When supplemented with C&A, all media were found to sustain higher trophozoite viabilities than those without the supplements. HBSS-C&A, DMEM-C&A, and RPMI 1640-C&A demonstrated no difference (P>0.05) in parasite viabilities when compared with the control medium throughout the 8-h incubation period. DMEM-C&A showed an eightfold increment in time duration of sustaining ≥ 95% parasite viability, i.e. 8 h, as compared to DMEM alone. Both RPMI 1640-C&A and HBSS-C&A revealed fourfold and threefold increments (i.e., 8 and 6 h, respectively), whereas PBS-A-C&A showed only one fold improvement (i.e., 2 h) as compared to the respective media without C&A. Thus, C&A-supplemented DMEM or RPMI are recommended for collection of ES products.
  18. Lim BH, Noordin R, Nor ZM, Rahman RA, Abdullah KA, Sinnadurai S
    Exp Parasitol, 2004 Sep-Oct;108(1-2):1-6.
    PMID: 15491542
    BmR1 recombinant antigen has previously been shown to demonstrate high sensitivity and specificity in the serological diagnosis of brugian filariasis in humans. In this study, the pattern of recognition of antibody to BmR1 during Brugia malayi infection was investigated by employing Meriones unguiculatus as the experimental model. Thirty two gerbils were infected subcutaneously with 120 L(3); and two control groups each comprising 25 animals were employed. ELISA using BmR1 was used to detect filaria-specific IgG antibodies elicited by the gerbils; using sera collected from the day 1 until day 150 post-inoculation (p.i.). The results showed that BmR1 detected B. malayi infection in gerbils harboring adult worms irrespective of the presence of circulating microfilaria, and was exemplified by positive ELISA results in nine a microfilaraemic animals that harbored live adult worms. The initial time of the antibody recognition was at day 8 p.i. and the antibody titre showed some correlation with adult worm burden.
  19. Rahmah N, Lim BH, Khairul Anuar A, Shenoy RK, Kumaraswami V, Lokman Hakim S, et al.
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2001 8 9;95(3):280-4.
    PMID: 11490997
    An IgG4 ELISA based on a novel recombinant antigen was evaluated for detection of Brugia malayi infection, using 2487 sera from various institutions: 2031 samples from Universiti Sains Malaysia, 276 blinded sera from 2 other institutions in Malaysia, 140 blinded sera from India and 40 blinded sera from Thailand. These sera were from various groups of individuals, i.e., microfilaraemics, chronic patients, endemic normals, non-endemic normals and individuals with other parasitic and bacterial infections. Based on a cut-off optical density reading of 0.300, the IgG4 ELISA demonstrated specificity rates of 95.6-100%, sensitivity rates of 96-100%, positive predictive values of 75-100% and negative predictive values of 98.9-100%. These evaluation studies demonstrated the high specificity and sensitivity of this test for the detection of active B. malayi infection. Thus, the IgG4 ELISA would be very useful as a tool in diagnosis and in elimination programmes for brugian filariasis.
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