Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 33 in total

  1. Chang ET, Lim BH
    Med J Malaysia, 1989 Jun;44(2):160-6.
    PMID: 2626126
    The abuse of phenylbutazone among rheumatoid arthritis patients has recently become a subject of interest. Unscrupulous manufacturers take advantage of the miraculous analgesic property of phenylbutazone and deliberately add this toxic drug in their preparations without declaring its presence on the label. In a recent survey, many such illicit preparations were seized from Chinese medical halls in Johor and sent to the Department of Chemistry, Johor Bahru for analysis. Here a Gas Chromatograph Mass Selective Detector (GC-MSD) method was developed for the determination of phenylbutazone in illicit traditional preparations.
  2. Sivanesaratnam V, Lim BH, Sivanesan S, Menon A
    J Trop Med Hyg, 1986 Aug;89(4):167-9.
    PMID: 3783810
    Tuberculosis of the genital tract was diagnosed in only 12 patients during the 17 year period from March 1968 to February 1985 at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, which serves as a major referral centre in Malaysia. The incidence was 0.31 per 1000 gynaecological admissions and the peak age incidence was in the age group 26 to 35 years. The surgical management was mainly conservative as infertility was the most frequent mode of presentation (50%). Evidence of previous pulmonary tuberculosis was present in only five cases. Adnexal adhesions were the commonest pelvic finding; the fallopian tubes and endometrium were affected with equal frequency. Positive cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were obtained in only five of the 12 patients. All patients received combination anti-tuberculosis drugs with satisfactory response.
  3. Lim BH, Raman S, Sivanesaratnam V, Ngan A
    Singapore medical journal, 1989 Dec;30(6):539-41.
    PMID: 2635396
    Twenty eight patients with hyperthyroidism complicating their pregnancies were seen at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in a six-year period. All patients were treated with antithyroid drugs, carbimazole being the mainstay of treatment. The incidence of the disease was 0.9 per 1000 births and was similar with other series. No cases of fetal goitre were noted. The mean birth weight was 2952 g; there was no significant difference in the birth weight of term live births in patients treated with carbimazole alone or carbimazole combined with propranolol.
  4. Rasineni GK, Loh PC, Lim BH
    Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj, 2017 Feb;1861(2):79-85.
    PMID: 27816753 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2016.10.027
    BACKGROUND: Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is the chloroplast enzyme that fixes CO2 in photosynthesis, but the enzyme also fixes O2, which leads to the wasteful photorespiratory pathway. If we better understand the structure-function relationship of the enzyme, we might be able to engineer improvements. When the crystal structure of Chlamydomonas Rubisco was solved, four new posttranslational modifications were observed which are not present in other species. The modifications were 4-hydroxylation of the conserved Pro-104 and 151 residues, and S-methylation of the variable Cys-256 and 369 residues, which are Phe-256 and Val-369 in land plants. Because the modifications were only observed in Chlamydomonas Rubisco, they might account for the differences in kinetic properties between the algal and plant enzymes.

    METHODS: Site-directed mutagenesis and chloroplast transformation have been used to test the essentiality of these modifications by replacing each of the residues with alanine (Ala). Biochemical analyses were done to determine the specificity factors and kinetic constants.

    RESULTS: Replacing the modified-residues in Chlamydomonas Rubisco affected the enzyme's catalytic activity. Substituting hydroxy-Pro-104 and methyl-Cys-256 with alanine influenced Rubisco catalysis.

    CONCLUSION: This is the first study on these posttranslationally-modified residues in Rubisco by genetic engineering. As these forms of modifications/regulation are not available in plants, the modified residues could be a means to modulate Rubisco activity.

    GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: With a better understanding of Rubisco structure-function, we can define targets for improving the enzyme.

  5. Rahmah N, Lim BH, Azian H, Ramelah TS, Rohana AR
    PMID: 12581442
    Brugian filariasis infects 13 million people in Asia. The routine prevalence survey method using night thick blood smear is not sensitive enough to reflect the actual infection prevalence. In 1997-2001, only three microfilaraemic cases (of 5601 individuals screened; 0.05%) were reported in Pasir Mas, a district in Kelantan (Malaysia), which shares a border with Thailand. We therefore investigated the infection prevalence in this district by employing a sensitive and specific serological assay (Brugia-Elisa). This test is based on detection of specific IgG4 antibody against a Brugia malayi recombinant antigen. A total of 5138 children, aged 7-12 years, from 16 primary schools, were tested. Eighteen pupils in eight schools, located in five subdistricts, tested positive, giving an overall prevalence rate of 0.35%. Infection in these children is significant as they represent more recent cases. These subdistricts should be included in the national filariasis elimination programme.
  6. Lim BH, Rahmah N, Afifi SAB, Ramli A, Mehdi R
    Med J Malaysia, 2001 Dec;56(4):491-6.
    PMID: 12014770
    A total of 1,134 finger-pricked blood samples were collected from residents of Setiu, Terengganu. A drop of blood was used to make thick blood smear and about four drops were used for obtaining serum. The smears were stained and examined by the State Vector Control Unit in Kuala Terengganu, while the serum samples were tested for specific IgG4 antibodies to a novel recombinant antigen using Brugia-Elisa. Prevalence of filariasis in these areas were found to be 0.26% (3/1,134) using thick blood smear examination and 2.47% (28/1,134) using Brugia-Elisa, thus demonstrating the greater sensitivity of the latter test. In addtion, Brugia-Elisa showed a high level of specificity (97.8%, 1,106/1,131) when compared to thick blood smear examination.
  7. Zeehaida M, Zairi NZ, Tan ZN, Wong WK, Lim BH
    Trop Biomed, 2009 Dec;26(3):366-8.
    PMID: 20237453
    The screening for anti-amoebic antibody among a group of donors was to obtain negative control serum samples for an on-going antigen development assay in diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess. Out of 200 samples, 125 (62.5%) were negative, whereas 44 (21.5%) had IHA titer of less than 1:128 and 31 (16.0%) of the samples had significant IHA titers of 1:128 or more, in which 2 serum samples gave titers of 1:4096.
  8. Abdalkareem EA, Ong CY, Lim BH, Khoo BY
    Cytotechnology, 2018 Oct;70(5):1363-1374.
    PMID: 29802489 DOI: 10.1007/s10616-018-0228-2
    The interleukin-21 (IL-21) protein was found to be expressed at an elevated level in clinical samples of colorectal cancer patients without or with a parasitic infection that were collected from Sudan in our previous study. The IL-21 gene in HT29 and HCT116 cells was then correlated to cell proliferation and cell migration, as well as the cellular mechanisms associated with gene expressions in our present study. Our results demonstrated that silencing the IL-21 gene in HCT116 cells increased the cytotoxic level and fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF4) mRNA expression in the cancer cells. Moreover, specific gene silencing reduced the migration of cancer cells compared to non-silenced cancer cells. These events were not observed in IL-21-silenced HT29 cells. Neutralizing FGF4 in conditioned medium of IL-21-silenced HCT116 cells further increased the cytotoxic level and restored the migratory activity of HCT116 cells in the culture compared to silencing the IL-21 gene alone in the cancer cells. Our results indicate the importance of both silencing the IL-21 gene and co-expression of the FGF4 protein in HCT116 cells, which pave the way for the discovery of important factors to be used as biomarkers for the design of drugs or cost-effective supplements to effectively treat the patients having infectious disease and HCT116 cells of colorectal cancer simultaneously in the future.
  9. Jain P, Sing Ngie DC, Lim SF, Lim BH
    Int J Artif Organs, 2020 Oct 13.
    PMID: 33045876 DOI: 10.1177/0391398820964483
    Pedicular arthrodesis is the traditional procedure in terms of increase in the biomechanical stability with higher fixation rate. The current work aims to identify the effect of three spinal pedicle screws considering cortical and cancellous degeneracy condition. Lumbar section L2-L3 is utilized and various load and moment conditions were applied to depict the various biomechanical parameters for selection of suitable screw. Three dimensional model is considered in finite element analysis to identify the various responses of pedicle screw at bone screw juncture. Computed tomography (CT) images of a healthy male were considered to generate the finite element vertebral model. Generated intact model was further utilized to develop the other implanted models of degenerated cortical and cancellous bone models. The three fused instrumented models with different cortical and cancellous degeneracy conditions were analyzed in finite element analysis. The results were obtained as stress pattern at bone screw boundary and intervertebral disc stress. FE simulated results represents significant changes in the von Mises stress due to various load and moment conditions on degenerated bones during different body movement conditions. Results have shown that among all pedicle screws, the 6.0 mm diameter screw reflects very less stress values at the juncture. Multiple results on biomechanical aspects obtained during the FE study can be considered to design a new stabilization device and may be helpful to plan surgery of critical sections.
  10. Tan ZN, Wong WK, Noordin R, Zeehaida M, Olivos GA, Lim BH
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Jun;30(2):250-6.
    PMID: 23959490 MyJurnal
    Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebic diarrhoea, colitis and liver abscess (ALA). Diagnosis of ALA is difficult, as most patients do not have simultaneous intestinal amoebic infection. At Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), diagnosis of ALA relies on a combination of clinical findings, ultrasound examination of the liver and serodiagnosis using a commercial kit. In this study, two in-house indirect ELISAs were developed and evaluated. One of the in-house assays utilises E. histolytica crude soluble antigen (CSA) to detect serum IgG specific to the parasite whereas the other uses E. histolytica ether extract antigen (EEA). Preparation of CSA requires a sonicator to lyse the amoeba whereas EEA was prepared by chemically solubilizing the trophozoites. Based on the cut-off value of mean optical density + 3SD, CSA-ELISA showed 100% (24/24) sensitivity and 93.33% (210/225) specificity; while EEA-ELISA showed 91.67% (22/24) sensitivity and 95.11% (214/225) specificity. In conclusion, both the in-house indirect ELISAs were found to be efficacious for diagnosis of ALA; and the EEA is easier to prepare than the commonly used CSA.
  11. Teo EW, Khoo S, Wong R, Wee EH, Lim BH, Rengasamy SS
    Journal of human kinetics, 2015 Mar 29;45:241-51.
    PMID: 25964827 DOI: 10.1515/hukin-2015-0025
    Motivation has long been associated with sports engagement. However, to date no research has been performed to understand the domain of motivation among ten-pin bowlers. The purpose of this study was to investigate different types of motivation (i.e., intrinsic vs. extrinsic) based on self-determination theory from the perspective of gender and the bowler type (competitive vs. casual). A total of 240 bowlers (104 male, 136 female; 152 competitive, 88 casual) with a mean age of 16.61 ± 0.78 years were recruited in Kuala Lumpur. The Sport Motivation Scale, a 28-item self-report questionnaire measuring seven subscales (i.e., intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, extrinsic motivation to identify regulation, extrinsic motivation for introjection regulation, extrinsic motivation to external regulation, and amotivation) was administered. Results showed significant differences (t=10.43, df=239, p=0.01) between total scores of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among ten-pin bowlers. There were significant gender differences with respect to intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, and extrinsic motivation to identify regulation. However, no significant bowler type differences were found for either the intrinsic (t=-1.15, df=238, p=0.25) or extrinsic (t=-0.51, df=238, p=0.61) motivation dimensions. In conclusion, our study demonstrated substantial intrinsic motivation for gender effects, but no bowler type effects among adolescent ten-pin bowlers.
  12. Othman N, Mohamed Z, Yahya MM, Leow VM, Lim BH, Noordin R
    Exp Parasitol, 2013 Aug;134(4):504-10.
    PMID: 23680184 DOI: 10.1016/j.exppara.2013.05.001
    Entamoeba histolytica is a causative agent of amoebic liver abscess (ALA) and is endemic in many underdeveloped countries. We investigated antigenic E. histolytica proteins in liver abscess aspirates using proteomics approach. Pus samples were first tested by real-time PCR to confirm the presence of E. histolytica DNA and the corresponding serum samples tested for E. histolytica-specific IgG by a commercial ELISA. Proteins were extracted from three and one pool(s) of pus samples from ALA and PLA (pyogenic liver abscess) patients respectively, followed by analysis using isoelectric focussing, SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Unpurified pooled serum samples from infected hamsters and pooled human amoebic-specific IgG were used as primary antibodies. The antigenic protein band was excised from the gel, digested and analysed by MALDI-TOF/TOF and LC-MS/MS. The results using both primary antibodies showed an antigenic protein band of ∼14kDa. Based on the mass spectrum analysis, putative tyrosine kinase is the most probable identification of the antigenic band.
  13. Foo PC, Chan YY, See Too WC, Tan ZN, Wong WK, Lalitha P, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2012 Sep;61(Pt 9):1219-1225.
    PMID: 22556327 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.044552-0
    Entamoeba histolytica is the only Entamoeba species that causes amoebiasis in humans. Approximately 50 million people are infected, with 100, 000 deaths annually in endemic countries. Molecular diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica is important to differentiate it from the morphologically identical Entamoeba dispar to avoid unnecessary medication. Conventional molecular diagnostic tests require trained personnel, cold-chain transportation and/or are storage-dependent, which make them user-unfriendly. The aim of this study was to develop a thermostabilized, one-step, nested, tetraplex PCR assay for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba species in cold-chain-free and ready-to-use form. The PCR test was designed based on the Entamoeba small subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, which detects the presence of any Entamoeba species, and simultaneously can be used to differentiate Entamoeba histolytica from Entamoeba dispar. In addition, a pair of primers was designed to serve as an internal amplification control to help identify inhibitors in the samples. All PCR reagents together with the designed primers were thermostabilized by lyophilization and were stable at 24 °C for at least 6 months. The limit of detection of the tetraplex PCR was found to be 39 pg DNA or 1000 cells for Entamoeba histolytica and 78 pg DNA or 1000 cells for Entamoeba dispar, and the specificity was 100 %. In conclusion, this cold-chain-free, thermostabilized, one-step, nested, multiplex PCR assay was found to be efficacious in differentiating Entamoeba histolytica from other non-pathogenic Entamoeba species.
  14. Wong WK, Foo PC, Roze MN, Pim CD, Subramaniam P, Lim BH
    Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol, 2016;2016:1326085.
    PMID: 27366156 DOI: 10.1155/2016/1326085
    Background. Orang Asli (aborigine) children are susceptible to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections due to their lifestyle and substandard sanitation system. Objectives. This study aimed to examine the helminthic and nutritional status of Orang Asli school children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, a remote primary school at Kuala Kangsar District in the state of Perak, Malaysia. In addition, the sensitivities of four STH stool examination techniques were also compared. Methods. Demography and anthropometry data were collected by one-to-one interview session. Collected stools were examined with four microscopy techniques, namely, direct wet mount, formalin ether concentration (FEC), Kato-Katz (KK), and Parasep™. Results. Anthropometry analysis showed that 78% (26/33) of children in SK Pos Legap were malnourished and 33% (11/33) of them were stunted. Stool examinations revealed almost all children (97%) were infected by either one of the three commonest STHs. FEC was the most sensitive method in detection of the three helminth species. Conclusion. This study revealed that STH infections and nutritional status still remain a health concern among the Orang Asli children. These communal problems could be effectively controlled by regular monitoring of STH infection loads, administration of effective antihelminthic drug regimen, and also implementation of effective school nutritional programs.
  15. Foo PC, Chan YY, Mohamed M, Wong WK, Nurul Najian AB, Lim BH
    Anal. Chim. Acta, 2017 May 08;966:71-80.
    PMID: 28372729 DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2017.02.019
    This study highlighted the development of a four target nitrocellulose-based nucleic acid lateral flow immunoassay biosensor in a dry-reagent strip format for interpretation of double-labelled double-stranded amplicons from thermostabilised triplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay. The DNA biosensor contained two test lines which captured biotin and texas red labelled amplicons; a LAMP internal amplification control line that captured digoxigenin labelled amplicon; and a chromatography control line that validated the functionality of the conjugated gold nanoparticles and membrane. The red lines on detection pad were generated when the gold nanoparticles conjugated antibody bound to the fluorescein labelled amplicons, and the capture agents bound to their specific hapten on the other 5' end of the double-stranded amplicon. The applicability of this DNA biosensor was demonstrated using amoebiasis-causing Entamoeba histolytica simultaneously with the non-pathogenic but morphologically identical Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. The biosensor detection limit was 10 E. histolytica trophozoites, and revealed 100% specificity when it was evaluated against 3 medically important Entamoeba species and 75 other pathogenic microorganisms. Heat stability test showed that the biosensor was stable for at least 181 days at ambient temperature. This ready-to-use and cold-chain-free biosensor facilitated the post-LAMP analysis based on visualisation of lines on strip instead of observation of amplicon patterns in agarose gel.
  16. Kazi A, Chuah C, Majeed ABA, Leow CH, Lim BH, Leow CY
    Pathog Glob Health, 2018 05;112(3):123-131.
    PMID: 29528265 DOI: 10.1080/20477724.2018.1446773
    Immunoinformatics plays a pivotal role in vaccine design, immunodiagnostic development, and antibody production. In the past, antibody design and vaccine development depended exclusively on immunological experiments which are relatively expensive and time-consuming. However, recent advances in the field of immunological bioinformatics have provided feasible tools which can be used to lessen the time and cost required for vaccine and antibody development. This approach allows the selection of immunogenic regions from the pathogen genomes. The ideal regions could be developed as potential vaccine candidates to trigger protective immune responses in the hosts. At present, epitope-based vaccines are attractive concepts which have been successfully trailed to develop vaccines which target rapidly mutating pathogens. In this article, we provide an overview of the current progress of immunoinformatics and their applications in the vaccine design, immune system modeling and therapeutics.
  17. Ujang J, Sani AAA, Lim BH, Noordin R, Othman N
    Proteomics, 2018 12;18(23):e1700397.
    PMID: 30284757 DOI: 10.1002/pmic.201700397
    Entamoeba histolytica membrane proteins are important players toward the pathogenesis of amoebiasis, but the roles of most of the proteins are not fully understood. Since efficient protein extraction method is crucial for a successful MS analysis, three extractions methods are evaluated for the use in studying the membrane proteome of E. histolytica: Two commercial kits (ProteoExtract from Calbiochem and ProteoPrep from Sigma), and a conventional laboratory method. The results show that ProteoExtract and the conventional method gave higher protein yields compared to ProteoPrep. LC-ESI-MS/MS identifies 456, 482, and 551 membrane fraction proteins extracted using ProteoExtract, ProteoPrep, and a conventional method, respectively. In silico analysis predicts 108 (21%), 235 (45%), and 177 (34%) membrane proteins from the extracts of ProteoExtract, ProteoPrep, and the conventional method, respectively. Furthermore, analysis of the cytosolic and membrane fractions shows the highest selectivity of the membrane proteins using the ProteoPrep extraction kit. Overall, this study reports 828 E. histolytica membrane fraction proteins that include 249 predicted membrane proteins. The data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD010171.
  18. Lim BH, Majlan EH, Daud WRW, Rosli MI, Husaini T
    Heliyon, 2018 Oct;4(10):e00845.
    PMID: 30338304 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00845
    The flow distribution of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell within a manifold plays an important role on its performance. This study presents a numerical analysis of the flow distribution behavior within different manifold configurations. A two-dimensional model with 75 cells was employed to study the flow behavior. The variation in the stoichiometry and number of cells was also studied. Three different flow configurations were considered with different numbers of flow inlets and outlets. The flow characteristics, such as the pressure and velocity variations in the manifold and cells, were measured to determine the effects of the different flow configurations. The results indicated that the double inlet/outlet configuration had the best flow distribution when using 75 cells. Moreover, increasing the stoichiometry resulted in a better flow distribution to the cells in a stack.
  19. Lim BH, Noordin R, Nor ZM, Rahman RA, Abdullah KA, Sinnadurai S
    Exp Parasitol, 2004 Sep-Oct;108(1-2):1-6.
    PMID: 15491542
    BmR1 recombinant antigen has previously been shown to demonstrate high sensitivity and specificity in the serological diagnosis of brugian filariasis in humans. In this study, the pattern of recognition of antibody to BmR1 during Brugia malayi infection was investigated by employing Meriones unguiculatus as the experimental model. Thirty two gerbils were infected subcutaneously with 120 L(3); and two control groups each comprising 25 animals were employed. ELISA using BmR1 was used to detect filaria-specific IgG antibodies elicited by the gerbils; using sera collected from the day 1 until day 150 post-inoculation (p.i.). The results showed that BmR1 detected B. malayi infection in gerbils harboring adult worms irrespective of the presence of circulating microfilaria, and was exemplified by positive ELISA results in nine a microfilaraemic animals that harbored live adult worms. The initial time of the antibody recognition was at day 8 p.i. and the antibody titre showed some correlation with adult worm burden.
  20. Wong WK, Tan ZN, Othman N, Lim BH, Mohamed Z, Olivos Garcia A, et al.
    Clin. Vaccine Immunol., 2011 Nov;18(11):1913-7.
    PMID: 21918120 DOI: 10.1128/CVI.05356-11
    Serodiagnosis of amoebiasis remains the preferred method for diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess (ALA). However, the commercially available kits are problematic in areas of endemicity due to the persistently high background antibody titers. Human serum samples (n = 38) from patients with ALA who live in areas of endemicity were collected from Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia during the period of 2008 to 2010. Western blots using excretory-secretory antigen (ESA) collected from axenically grown Entamoeba histolytica were probed with the above serum samples. Seven antigenic proteins of ESA with various reactivities were identified, i.e., 152 kDa, 131 kDa, 123 kDa, 110 kDa, 100 kDa, 82 kDa, and 76 kDa. However, only the 152-kDa and 110-kDa proteins showed sensitivities above 80% in the Western blot analysis. All the antigenic proteins showed undetectable cross-reactivity when probed with healthy human serum samples (n = 30) and serum samples from other infections (n = 33). From the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-two-stage time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analysis, the proteins were identified as heavy subunits of E. histolytica lectin and E. histolytica pyruvate phosphate dikinase, respectively. Use of the E. histolytica lectin for diagnosis of ALA has been well reported by researchers and is being used in commercialized kits. However, this is the first report on the potential use of pyruvate phosphate dikinase for diagnosis of ALA; thus, this molecule merits further evaluation on its diagnostic value using a larger panel of serum samples.
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