METHODS: Site-directed mutagenesis and chloroplast transformation have been used to test the essentiality of these modifications by replacing each of the residues with alanine (Ala). Biochemical analyses were done to determine the specificity factors and kinetic constants.
RESULTS: Replacing the modified-residues in Chlamydomonas Rubisco affected the enzyme's catalytic activity. Substituting hydroxy-Pro-104 and methyl-Cys-256 with alanine influenced Rubisco catalysis.
CONCLUSION: This is the first study on these posttranslationally-modified residues in Rubisco by genetic engineering. As these forms of modifications/regulation are not available in plants, the modified residues could be a means to modulate Rubisco activity.
GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: With a better understanding of Rubisco structure-function, we can define targets for improving the enzyme.
RESULTS: A set of SREHP gene specific LAMP primers were designed for the specific detection of Entamoeba histolytica. This set of primers recorded 100% specificity when it was evaluated against 3 medically important Entamoeba species and 75 other pathogenic microorganisms. These primers were later modified for conventional PCR, nPCR and qPCR applications. Besides, 3 different post-LAMP analyses including agarose gel electrophoresis, nucleic acid lateral flow immunoassay and calcein-manganese dye techniques were used to compare their limit of detection (LoD). One E. histolytica trophozoite was recorded as the LoD for all the 3 post-LAMP analysis methods when tested with E. histolytica DNA extracted from spiked stool samples. In contrast, none of the PCR method outperformed LAMP as both qPCR and nPCR recorded LoD of 100 trophozoites while the LoD of conventional PCR was 1000 trophozoites.
CONCLUSIONS: The analytical sensitivity comparison among the conventional PCR, nPCR, qPCR and LAMP reveals that the LAMP outperformed the others in terms of LoD and amplification time. Hence, LAMP is a relevant alternative DNA-based amplification platform for sensitive and specific detection of pathogens.
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