Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 62 in total

  1. Hashemi SM, Loh TC, Foo HL, Zulkifli I, Hair-Bejo M
    Iran J Vet Res, 2014;15(4):385-91.
    PMID: 27175136
    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary putrescine (PUT) on broiler's response fed low crude protein (CP) diets. A total of 192 male day old chicks were fed with four dietary treatments including two levels of PUT (0 and 0.03%) and two levels of CP (normal and low) with factorial combinations. Weekly growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology (at the age of 21 days) and liver and intestinal tissue polyamines content were measured. As a result of this study lower dietary CP had a significant (P<0.05) lower body weight gain (BWG) and improved protein efficiency ratio (PER). PUT improved energy efficiency ratio (EER) significantly (P<0.05). Dry matter (DM) digestibility was decreased by lower dietary CP whereas 0.03% PUT significantly (P<0.05) increased it. Low CP caused significant (P<0.05) greater calcium digestibility, while this effect was not found when PUT was added. PUT had no effect on intestine villous height and crypt depth. Polyamine content of intestine and liver was influenced by the age of the birds, while PUT had no effects on them. In conclusion, dietary PUT has beneficial effects on EER in chicks fed CP-deficient diet, indicating possible involvement of PUT in energy metabolism. PUT supplementation did not moderate the reduced BWG of the chicks fed low protein. Intestinal and liver polyamine concentration was mainly affected by dietary CP and age of the birds rather than dietary PUT.
  2. Saenphoom P, Liang JB, Ho YW, Loh TC, Rosfarizan M
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2013 Apr;26(4):537-44.
    PMID: 25049820 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2012.12463
    This study examined whether pre-treating palm kernel expeller (PKE) with exogenous enzyme would degrade its fiber content; thus improving its metabolizable energy (ME), growth performance, villus height and digesta viscosity in broiler chickens fed diets containing PKE. Our results showed that enzyme treatment decreased (p<0.05) hemicellulose and cellulose contents of PKE by 26.26 and 32.62%, respectively; and improved true ME (TME) and its nitrogen corrected value (TMEn) by 38% and 33%, respectively, compared to the raw sample. Average daily gain (ADG), feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of chickens fed on different dietary treatments in the grower period were not significantly different. Although there was no difference in feed intake (p>0.05) among treatment groups in the finisher period, ADG of chickens in the control (PKE-free diet) was higher (p<0.05) than in all treatment groups fed either 20 or 30% PKE, irrespective of with or without enzyme treatment. However, ADG of birds fed with 20% PKE was higher than those fed with 30% PKE. The FCR of chickens in the control was the lowest (2.20) but not significantly different from those fed 20% PKE diets while birds in the 30% PKE diets recorded higher (p>0.05) FCR. The intestinal villus height and crypt depth (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) were not different (p>0.05) among treatments except for duodenal crypt depth. The villus height and crypt depth of birds in enzyme treated PKE diets were higher (p<0.05) than those in the raw PKE groups. Viscosity of the intestinal digesta was not different (p>0.05) among treatments. Results of this study suggest that exogenous enzyme is effective in hydrolyzing the fiber (hemicellulose and cellulose) component and improved the ME values of PKE, however, the above positive effects were not reflected in the growth performance in broiler chickens fed the enzyme treated PKE compared to those received raw PKE. The results suggest that PKE can be included up to 5% in the grower diet and 20% in the finisher diet without any significant negative effect on FCR in broiler chickens.
  3. Maroufyan E, Kasim A, Ebrahimi M, Loh TC, Hair-Bejo M, Soleimani AF
    Poult Sci, 2012 Sep;91(9):2173-82.
    PMID: 22912451 DOI: 10.3382/ps.2012-02317
    This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio on immune response and performance of infectious bursal disease (IBD)-challenged broiler chickens. In total, 350 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 1 of the 6 dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were 3 n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios (45, 5.5, and 1.5) and 2 levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendation). The results showed that birds fed with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 had higher BW, lower feed intake, and superior FCR than other groups. However, the highest antibody response was observed in birds with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 1.5. Lowering n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio reduced bursa lesion score equally in birds fed with n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 and 1.5. Supplementation of methionine by twice the recommendation also improved FCR and reduced feed intake and bursa lesion score. However, in this study, the optimum performance (as measured by BW, feed intake, and FCR) did not coincide with the optimum immune response (as measured by antibody titer). It seems that dietary n-3 PUFA modulates the broiler chicken performance and immune response in a dose-dependent but nonlinear manner. Therefore, it can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (5.5) and methionine level (twice recommendation) might enhance immune response together with performance in IBD-challenged broiler chickens.
  4. Loh TC, Lee YC, Liang JB, Tan D
    Bioresour Technol, 2005 Jan;96(1):111-4.
    PMID: 15364088
    Vermicomposting is commonly adopted for the treatment of livestock organic wastes. In the present study, two types of livestock manure were used for culturing of the earthworm, Eisenia foetida. Each treatment group consisted of six replicates and worm vermicasts were examined after 5 weeks. The concentrations of total C, P and K in goat manure vermicasts were higher than those in cattle manure vermicasts. Cattle vermicasts had a higher N content than goat vermicasts but the C:N ratio of fresh manure was higher than that of vermicasts for both materials. Earthworm biomass and reproductive performance, in terms of number of worms after 5 weeks of experiment, were higher in cattle manure than in goat manure. The cocoon production per worm in cattle manure was higher than in goat manure. However, the hatchability of cocoons was not affected by manure treatments. In conclusion, cattle manure provided a more nutritious and friendly environment to the earthworms than goat manure.
  5. Awad EA, Zulkifli I, Soleimani AF, Loh TC
    Poult Sci, 2015 Nov;94(11):2772-7.
    PMID: 26371331 DOI: 10.3382/ps/pev258
    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding low-protein diets fortified with individual non-essential amino acids (NEAA) on growth performance, serum metabolites (uric acid, UA; triglycerides, TG; total protein, TP; and albumin, Alb), organ weight, breast yield, and abdominal fat weight in broiler chicks raised under the hot and humid tropical climate. Eight isocaloric (3,017 kcal/kg) experimental diets were formulated and fed to male broiler chicks from d 1-21 as follows: 1) 22.2% crude protein (CP) (positive control; PC); 2) 16.2% CP + mixture essential amino acids (EAA) to meet or exceed the National Research Council (1994) recommendations (negative control; NC); 3) NC + glycine (Gly) to equal the total glycine + serine level in the PC; diets 4 through 7 were obtained by supplementing NC diet with individual glutamic acid, proline, alanine, or aspartic acid (Glu, Pro, Ala, or Asp, respectively); 8) NC + NEAA (Gly + Glu + Pro + Ala + Asp) to equal the total level of these NEAA in the PC. Fortifying NC diet with mixture NEAA resulted in a similar growth performance as PC. However, fortification of low-CP diet with individual NEAA failed to improve body weight (BW) (P < 0.0001), feed intake (FI) (P = 0.0001), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P = 0.0001). Serum uric acid (UA) was lower (P = 0.0356) in NC birds and NC diet supplemented with individual NEAA birds, whereas serum triglyceride (TG) (P = 0.007) and relative weight of abdominal fat (P = 0.001) were higher in these birds. In conclusion, no single NEAA fortification may compensate the depressed growth performance attributed to a low-CP diet. However, fortification with Gly may improve FCR. There is a possibility that broilers raised under the hot and humid climate require higher Gly fortification than the level used in this study.
  6. Zulkifli I, Che Norma MT, Chong CH, Loh TC
    Poult Sci, 2000 Mar;79(3):402-6.
    PMID: 10735209
    Stress and fear responses were evaluated in broiler chicks that were pretreated for 24 h with 0 ppm (control) or 1,200 ppm of L-ascorbic acid (AA) in their drinking water. The birds were subsequently subjected to either upright handling (UH) or inverted (IH) handling for about 45 s. Heterophil (H) counts, lymphocyte (L) counts, and H/L ratios (H/L) ratios were determined immediately (T0) and at 20 h (T20) following the handling treatment. The H/L ratios were similar for both groups at T0, whereas 20 h after the handling treatment, AA-supplemented birds had lower ratios than controls, resulting in a significant water treatment x time of blood sampling interaction. Inverted handling had negligible effect on H/L ratios but augmented tonic immobility (TI) durations as compared with UH. Irrespective of handling procedure, supplemental AA reduced underlying fearfulness, as measured by TI reaction. Neither water treatment nor handling method had significant effect on number of attempts to induce TI.
  7. Lee CY, Song AA, Loh TC, Abdul Rahim R
    Poult Sci, 2020 Jun;99(6):2916-2925.
    PMID: 32475425 DOI: 10.1016/j.psj.2020.03.013
    Globally, the poultry industry is 1 of the most advanced livestock industries. Feed contributes to the biggest proportion (65-70%) of the production cost. Most feed ingredients in Malaysia are imported, which contributes to the high food bill annually, and alternative feed formulation may help decrease the cost of poultry feed. Feed formulation are improved to efficiently meet the dietary requirements of the broilers and 1 of the ways is by reducing the level of crude protein in the diet while supplementing essential amino acids. In this study, the effects of methionine and lysine, which are the 2 most limiting amino acids in the chicken diet, were supplemented in a low crude protein diet, and its effects on the growth and expression of immunity genes such as MUC2, SLC, GAL6, and LEAP-2 were studied. A total of 300 Cobb500 broilers were tested with 10 different dietary treatments. Experimental treatment diets consist of high, standard, and low levels of methionine and lysine in the diet with reduced crude protein. The control group consists of diet with standard levels of lysine, methionine, and crude protein as recommended for Cobb500 broilers. Ribonucleic acid was extracted from the jejunum, spleen, and liver for gene expression analysis which was performed with real-time polymerase chain reaction using SYBR Green chemistry. Results of the growth performance at 6 wk showed improved feed conversion ratio when lysine was increased by 0.2% in a low crude protein diet at 1.96 ± 0.11. Gene expression of MUC2 gene in the jejunum showed a significant increase across all experimental diets with the treatment with higher lysine in low crude protein diet with the highest increase of 3.8 times as compared with the control diet. The other genes expressed in the spleen and liver were mostly downregulated. It was concluded that supplementation of high lysine with standard methionine in a low crude protein diet performed better in terms of lowest feed conversion ratio and high upregulation of MUC2 gene.
  8. Thu TV, Loh TC, Foo HL, Yaakub H, Bejo MH
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2011 Jan;43(1):69-75.
    PMID: 20632092 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-010-9655-6
    A study was carried out to investigate the effects of feeding liquid metabolite combinations produced by Lactobacillus plantarum strains on growth performance, diarrhoea incidence, faecal pH, microfloral counts, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and intestinal villus height and crypt depth of postweaning piglets. A total of 120 piglets (26 days old) were randomly assigned evenly into five treatment groups treated with same basal diet: (1) -ve control (free antibiotic); (2) + ve control (0.03% of chlortetracycline); (3) Com 1 (0.3% metabolite of TL1, RG11 and RI11 strains); (4) Com 2 (0.3% metabolite of TL1, RG14 and RS5 strains); (5) Com 3 (0.3% metabolite of RG11, RG14 and RI11 strains). After 5 weeks, the average daily feed intake was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among the treatments and feed conversion ratio was the highest (P 
  9. Azizi MN, Loh TC, Foo HL, Teik Chung EL
    Animals (Basel), 2021 Jan 29;11(2).
    PMID: 33572711 DOI: 10.3390/ani11020338
    Palm kernel cake (PKC), a by-product of oil extracted from palm nuts through expeller press or solvent extraction procedures is one of the highest quantities of locally available and potentially inexpensive agricultural product. PKC provides approximately 14-18% of crude protein (CP), 12-20% crude fiber (CF), 3-9% ether extract (EE), and different amounts of various minerals that feasible to be used as a partial substitute of soybean meal (SBM) and corn in poultry nutrition. Poultry's digestibility is reported to be compromised due to the indigestion of the high fiber content, making PKC potentially low for poultry feeding. Nevertheless, solid-state fermentation (SSF) can be applied to improve the nutritional quality of PKC by improving the CP and reducing CF content. PKC also contains β-mannan polysaccharide, which works as a prebiotic. However, there is a wide variation for the inclusion level of PKC in the broiler diet. These variations may be due to the quality of PKC, its sources, processing methods and value-added treatment. It has been documented that 10-15% of treated PKC could be included in the broiler's diets. The inclusion levels will not contribute to a negative impact on the growth performances and carcass yield. Furthermore, it will not compromise intestinal microflora, morphology, nutrient digestibility, and immune system. PKC with a proper SSF process (FPKC) can be offered up to 10-15% in the diets without affecting broilers' production performance.
  10. Dalia AM, Loh TC, Sazili AQ, Samsudin AA
    BMC Vet Res, 2020 Sep 29;16(1):365.
    PMID: 32993790 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-020-02587-x
    BACKGROUND: Several studies indicated that dietary organic selenium (Se) usually absorbed better than an inorganic source, with high retention and bioavailability. Dietary Se as an antioxidant element affects the immune system and hematological status in animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of bacterial selenium as an organic source on hematology, immunity response, selenium retention, and gut morphology in broiler chickens.

    RESULTS: The present results revealed that supplementation of inorganic Se was associated with the lowest level of RBC, HB, and PCV with significant difference than ADS18-Se. In the starter stage, both T2 and T5 were associated with the significantly highest IgG level compared to the basal diet, while all supplemented groups showed higher IgM levels compared to the control group. In the finisher phase, all Se supplemented groups showed significant (P ˂ 0.05) increases in IgG, IgA, and IgM levels compared to T1. Birds fed bacterial-Se showed high intestinal villus height and better Se retention more than sodium selenite. The organic selenium of ADS18 had a superior action in improving Se retention compared to ADS1 and ADS2 bacterial Se.

    CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial organic Se had a beneficial effect on the villus height of small intestine led to high Se absorption and retention. Thus, it caused a better effect of Se on hematological parameters and immunity response.

  11. Khatun J, Loh TC, Akit H, Foo HL, Mohamad R
    Anim Sci J, 2017 Sep;88(9):1406-1413.
    PMID: 28220633 DOI: 10.1111/asj.12775
    The present study assessed the effect of feeding palm oil (PO), sunflower oil (SO) and their combination on performance, fat deposition, fatty acid composition and lipogenic gene expression of broilers reared for 42 days. A total of 144 1-day-old broilers (Cobb500) were randomly allotted into four treatment diets with each having six replicates of six chicks in each replicate following a completely randomized design. Live weight gain and feed efficiency was significantly (P 
  12. Kareem KY, Loh TC, Foo HL, Asmara SA, Akit H
    Poult Sci, 2017 Apr 01;96(4):966-975.
    PMID: 28339522 DOI: 10.3382/ps/pew362
    This study examined the effects of different combinations of inulin and postbiotics RG14 on growth performance, cecal microbiota, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ileal cytokine expression in broiler chickens. Two-hundred-and sixteen, one-day-old chicks were allocated into 6 treatment groups, namely, a basal diet (negative control, NC), basal diet + neomycin and oxytetracycline (positive control, PC), T1 = basal diet + 0.15% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, T2 = basal diet + 0.3% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, T3 = basal diet + 0.45% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, and T4 = basal diet + 0.6% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, and fed for 6 weeks. The results showed that birds fed T1 and T3 diets had higher (P  0.05) among diets. The NC birds had higher (P
  13. Muhammad AI, Dalia AM, Loh TC, Akit H, Samsudin AA
    BMC Vet Res, 2021 Aug 21;17(1):281.
    PMID: 34419016 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-021-02964-0
    BACKGROUND: The oviduct of a hen provides a conducive environment for egg formation, which needs a large amount of mineral elements from the blood via trans-epithelial permeability. Eggshell is the calcified layer on the outside of an egg that provides protection and is critical for egg quality. However, little is known about the genes or proteins involved in eggshell formation, and their relationship to dietary microminerals. We hypothesized that dietary selenium supplementation in chickens will influence genes involved in eggshell biomineralization, and improve laying hen antioxidant capacity. The objective of this research was to investigate how organic and inorganic dietary selenium supplementation affected mRNA expression of shell gland genes involved in eggshell biomineralization, and selenoproteins gene expression in Lohman Brown-Classic laying hens.

    RESULTS: Shell gland (Uterus) and liver tissue samples were collected from hens during the active growth phase of calcification (15-20 h post-ovulation) for RT-PCR analysis. In the oviduct (shell gland and magnum) and liver of laying hens, the relative expression of functional eggshell and hepatic selenoproteins genes was investigated. Results of qPCR confirmed the higher (p 

  14. Loh TC, Foo HL, Abdul Wahab Z, Tan BK
    Malays J Nutr, 2002 Sep;8(2):125-35.
    PMID: 22692472
    The effects of dietary fat during pregnancy and lactation on growth performance of pups, milk composition and very low density lipoprotein composition in rats were studied. A total of 33 dams were used in this study and each litter was adjusted to 8 pups per dam. The dams were fed on high fat (150 g fat/kg diet, HF), medium fat (75 g fat/kg of diet, MF) and low fat (2.5 g fat/kg diet, LF) diets. The body weights of dams increased during pregnancy and decreased after pregnancy. The HF pups had a higher body weight and higher weight gain than those of LF pups. The amount of feed intake of HF dams was significantly higher than LF and MF dams. The HF dams had significantly higher milk fat and water concentrations than LF dams. The milk protein was not significantly different among the treatment groups. All dams showed hypertriacylglycerolaemia in their very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in late pregnancy. The VLDL-protein concentrations increased during the first week after parturition. The HF dams showed a greater response to the dietary fat than that of LF and MF dams. The findings suggest that addition of fat in the diet during pregnancy and lactation may improve the milk quality through modifying the composition of VLDL contents, leading to better growth of pups.
  15. Muhammad AI, Dalia AM, Loh TC, Akit H, Samsudin AA
    Vet Res Commun, 2021 Nov 30.
    PMID: 34845583 DOI: 10.1007/s11259-021-09867-3
    This study compares the effects of sodium selenite, selenium yeast, and enriched bacterial organic selenium protein on antioxidant enzyme activity, serum biochemical profiles, and egg yolk, serum, and tissue selenium concentration in laying hens. In a 112-d experiment, 144 Lohman Brown Classic hens, 23-wks old were divided into four equal groups, each has six replicates. They were assigned to 4 treatments: 1) a basal diet (Con), 2) Con plus 0.3 mg/kg feed sodium selenite (SS); 3) Con plus 0.3 mg/kg feed Se-yeast (SY): 4) Con plus 0.3 mg/kg feed bacterial enriched organic Se protein (ADS18) from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteria. On d 116, hens were euthanized (slaughtered) to obtain blood (serum), liver organ, and breast tissue to measure antioxidant enzyme activity, biochemical profiles, and selenium concentration. The results show that antioxidant enzyme activity of hens was increased when fed bacterial organic Se (ADS18), resulting in a significant (P 
  16. Koyum KA, Foo HL, Ramli N, Loh TC
    Front Nutr, 2023;10:910537.
    PMID: 36875851 DOI: 10.3389/fnut.2023.910537
    Staple foods produced from composite flour are considered feasible to alleviate protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). However, one of the major limitations of composite flour is poor protein digestibility. The biotransformation process mediated by probiotics via solid-state fermentation (SSF) holds a promising potential to address the poor protein digestibility in composite flour. Yet, there is no report established in this regard to the best of our knowledge. Therefore, 4 strains of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus UP2 isolated from Malaysian foods that were previously reported to produce versatile extracellular hydrolytic enzymes were employed to biotransform gluten-free composite flour derived from rice, sorghum, and soybean. The SSF process was performed under 30-60% (v/w) moisture content for 7 days, where samples were withdrawn at 24 h intervals for various analyses such as pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), extracellular protease activity, soluble protein concentration, crude protein content, and in vitro protein digestibility. The pH of the biotransformed composite flour showed a significant reduction from the initial range of pH 5.98-6.67 to the final pH of 4.36-3.65, corresponding to the increase in the percentage of TTA in the range of 0.28-0.47% to 1.07-1.65% from days 0 to 4 and remained stable till day 7 of the SSF process. The probiotics strains exhibited high extracellular proteolytic activity (0.63-1.35 U/mg to 4.21-5.13 U/mg) from days 0 to 7. In addition, the treated composite flour soluble protein increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) (0.58-0.60 mg/mL to 0.72-0.79 mg/mL) from days 0 to 7, crude protein content (12.00-12.18% to 13.04-14.39%) and protein digestibility (70.05-70.72% to 78.46-79.95%) from days 0 to 4 of SSF. The results of biotransformation of 50% (v/w) moisture content were mostly comparable to 60% (v/w) moisture content, implying 50% (v/w) moisture content was the most suitable moisture content for the effective biotransformation of gluten-free composite flour mediated by probiotics via SSF since flour quality is better at lower moisture content. As for the overall performance, L. plantarum RS5 was ranked the best strain, attributed to the general improvement in the physicochemical properties of composite flour.
  17. Loh TC, Choe DW, Foo HL, Sazili AQ, Bejo MH
    BMC Vet Res, 2014;10:149.
    PMID: 24996258 DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-10-149
    Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that are able to colonize the host digestive system, increasing the natural flora and preventing colonization of pathogenic organisms and thus, securing optimal utility of the feed. However, commercial probiotic often do not meet the expected standards and the viability of the efficacy of these strains remains questionable. Another major issue has been highlighted in relation to the application of antibiotic resistant probiotics, the antibiotic resistant gene can be transferred between organisms. Recently, postbiotic metabolites produced from microbes have been extensively studied as feed additive in order to substitute in-feed antibiotics.
  18. Alshelmani MI, Loh TC, Foo HL, Lau WH, Sazili AQ
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:729852.
    PMID: 25019097 DOI: 10.1155/2014/729852
    Four cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacterial cultures were purchased from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Two experiments were conducted; the objective of the first experiment was to determine the optimum time period required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC), whereas the objective of the second experiment was to investigate the effect of combinations of these cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria on the nutritive quality of the PKC. In the first experiment, the SSF was lasted for 12 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC to moisture ratios. In the second experiment, fifteen combinations were created among the four microbes with one untreated PKC as a control. The SSF lasted for 9 days, and the samples were autoclaved, dried, and analyzed for proximate analysis. Results showed that bacterial cultures produced high enzymes activities at the 4th day of SSF, whereas their abilities to produce enzymes tended to be decreased to reach zero at the 8th day of SSF. Findings in the second experiment showed that hemicellulose and cellulose was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased, whereas the amount of reducing sugars were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the fermented PKC (FPKC) compared with untreated PKC.
  19. Alshelmani MI, Loh TC, Foo HL, Lau WH, Sazili AQ
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:689235.
    PMID: 24319380 DOI: 10.1155/2013/689235
    Nine aerobic cellulolytic bacterial cultures were obtained from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The objectives of this study were to characterize the cellulolytic bacteria and to determine the optimum moisture ratio required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC). The bacteria cultures were grown on reconstituted nutrient broth, incubated at 30°C and agitated at 200 rpm. Carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase activities were determined using different substrates and after SSF of PKC. The SSF was conducted for 4 and 7 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC concentration-to-moisture ratios: 1 : 0.2, 1 : 0.3, 1 : 0.4, and 1 : 0.5. Results showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1067 DSMZ, Bacillus megaterium 9885 ATCC, Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus 10248 DSMZ, and Paenibacillus polymyxa 842 ATCC produced higher enzyme activities as compared to other bacterial cultures grown on different substrates. The cultures mentioned above also produced higher enzyme activities when they were incubated under SSF using PKC as a substrate in different PKC-to-moisture ratios after 4 days of incubation, indicating that these cellulolytic bacteria can be used to degrade and improve the nutrient quality of PKC.
  20. Hasheimi SR, Zulkifli I, Somchit MN, Zunita Z, Loh TC, Soleimani AF, et al.
    J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl), 2013 Aug;97(4):632-8.
    PMID: 22533311 DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2012.01302.x
    The present study was conducted to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of Zingiber officinale and Zingiber zerumbet and to heat-stressed broiler chickens on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 density, plasma corticosterone concentration (CORT), heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (HLR) and body temperature. Beginning from day 28, chicks were divided into five dietary groups: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet +1%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ1%), (iii) basal diet +2%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ2%), (iv) basal diet +1%Z. officinale powder (ZO1%) and (v) basal diet +2%Z. officinale powder (ZO2%). From day 35-42, heat stress was induced by exposing birds to 38±1°C and 80% RH for 2 h/day. Irrespective of diet, heat challenge elevated HSP70 expression, CORT and HLR on day 42. On day 42, following heat challenge, the ZZ1% birds showed lower body temperatures than those of control, ZO1% and ZO2%. Neither CORT nor HLR was significantly affected by diet. The ZO2% and ZZ2% diets enhanced HSP70 expression when compared to the control groups. We concluded that dietary supplementation of Z. officinale and Z. zerumbet powder may induce HSP70 reaction in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress.
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