SUMMARY: The definition of distal arterial occlusion is however unclear, and we believe that a uniform nomenclature of distal arterial occlusions is essential for the design of robust randomized controlled studies. We undertook a systematic literature review and comprehensive analysis of 70 articles looking at distal arterial occlusions and previous attempts at classifying them as well as comparing their similarities and differences with a more selective look at the middle cerebral artery. Thirty-two articles were finally deemed suitable and included for this review. In this review article, we present 3 disparate classifications of distal arterial occlusions, namely, classical/anatomical, functional/imaging, and structural/calibre, and compare the similarities and differences between them.
KEY MESSAGES: We propose the adoption of functional/imaging classification to guide the identification of distal arterial occlusions with the M2 segment starting at the point of bifurcation of the middle cerebral artery trunk/M1 segment. With regards to the anterior temporal artery, we propose that it will be considered a branch of the M1 and only be considered as the M2 segment if it is a holo-temporal artery. We believe that this is a practical method of classification in the time-critical decision-making period.
RESULTS: Firstly, from the expression profiles of Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter, chloride channel protein 2, and ABC transporter, it turned out that the 24 h might be the most influenced duration in the short-term stress. We collected megalopa under different salinity for 24 h and then submitted to mRNA profiling. Totally, 57.87 Gb Clean Data were obtained. The comparative genomic analysis detected 342 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The most significantly DEGs include gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase-like, facilitated trehalose transporter Tret1, sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha, rhodanese 1-like protein, etc. And the significantly enriched pathways were lysine degradation, choline metabolism in cancer, phospholipase D signaling pathway, Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, and sphingolipid signaling pathway. The results indicate that in the short-term salinity stress, the megalopa might regulate some mechanism such as metabolism, immunity responses, osmoregulation to adapt to the alteration of the environment.
CONCLUSIONS: This study represents the first genome-wide transcriptome analysis of S. paramamosain megalopa for studying its stress adaption mechanisms under different salinity. The results reveal numbers of genes modified by salinity stress and some important pathways, which will provide valuable resources for discovering the molecular basis of salinity stress adaptation of S. paramamosain larvae and further boost the understanding of the potential molecular mechanisms of salinity stress adaptation for crustacean species.
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