Study of broodstock maturation diets is important in order to increase the quality of berried females, which indirectly improve the larval quantity in the hatchery production of cultured species. This paper reviewed the studies on the maturation diets for mud crab broodstock, genus Scylla and compared independently to identify their effect on reproductive performance and larval quality. The broodstock is usually caught from the wild and held in the spawning or maturation tank for further use of hatchery seed production. Mud crab broodstock was fed either natural diet, artificial diet or mixed diet. Trash fishes were commonly used as a natural feed for mud crab broodstock; meanwhile artificial diets are from formulated fish meal and various kinds of feed. The results indicated that mud crab broodstock has a high dietary requirement for lipids, fatty acids and protein which are to be used during the maturation and breeding processes. However, the natural diet produce better larval quality compared to the artificial diet. The mixed diet is the better diet which resulted in better reproductive performances such as growth, survival, fecundity and maturation processes. This review also discusses the problems in the previous studies for the potential future research to develop very high quality and cost-effective formulated diet for the enhancement of broodstock and seed production technology. Information from this review can be useful in developing a better quality of crustacean broodstock's diet for commercial hatchery production.
This data article includes raw and analyze data for molting duration and time of hardening of blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus instar at three different temperatures of 24 °C, 28 °C, and 32 °C. Two sets of experimental data are included: first, the recorded on time-lapse video of duration of successful molted crabs (from emergence of swimming legs to chelae); and second, the time interval of shell hardening up to before molting occurred. Shell hardening were calculated in 1 h interval with a unit of x hour molting crab-1, meanwhile the molting duration of the crabs were calculated in x second molting crab-1. Video files were then analyzed using the latest version of Solomon Coder software developed by A. Peter. Relationship between culture temperature and the time of molting and carapace hardening are also included in this article. The dataset is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.
This article investigated how crabs responded to different culture temperatures especially dislocation before molting using a combination of large recording files and computer software. In this novel approach of video recording portunid crab behavioral data, crab culture was recorded at five different acclimation temperatures of 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36 °C. Crabs were reared until the instar stage before being acclimatized for video recording. Large video files (MPEG-TS) were then analyzed using the latest version of Solomon Coder software developed by A. Peter and programmed with Embarcadero® Delphi® XE . Recorded data was analyzed by calculating and marking movements of crabs using the time sequence tool. Additionally, a total movement was counted 30 min before crabs molted from instar stage 8 to instar stage 9. Part of the data is associated with the research article "Thermal tolerance and locomotor activity of blue swimmer crab Portunus pelagicus instar reared at different temperatures" (Azra et al., 2018)  and provided here as raw data of Supplementary materials.
Family support has a strong impact on individuals and there is no exception in substance abuse
recovery process. Family support manages to play a positive role in substance abuse problems. The
present study deals with the developing model of family support substance abuser with the
combination method of Geographic Information System (GIS) and statistical models. The data used
for this study was collected from seven districts in Terengganu with a constant number of
respondents. 35 respondents for each district were involved in this study. It was then processed using
factor analysis (FA) to develop index of family support. By using the developed indices, GIS tool was
used to plot the distribution map of family support indices according to each form of family support.
The result indicated that the highest index for all form of family support abuser was located in Besut
district. High level of family support is essential as an effort for rehabilitation process of substance
The aim of this study was to investigate how various diets influence testis maturation stages in mud crab (Scylla olivacea)
broodstock. Morphological and histological assessments were performed in triplicate (10 male crabs each). Daily,
subject crabs were fed a squid (Loligo sp.) and a fish (Decapterus sp.) diet at 5-10% of body weight. Diets were analyzed
following methods from the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC). In comparison to control (wild) crabs, the
two diets generally did not cause significant differences (p>0.05) in body weight, carapace width and gonadosomatic
index (GSI), except in the GSI of squid-fed crabs (p<0.05). At the end of the experiment, crabs that reached Stage 3 testis
maturation included were 6 fish-fed individuals and 23 squid-fed individuals. Additionally, differences in crude protein
and fat levels across diets influenced the nature of male gonadal development. In conclusion, a squid diet was sufficient
to induce Stage 3 testis maturation in Scylla olivacea within 60 days of culture. Our results prove the usefulness in
developing appropriate feeding regimes for male Scylla olivacea broodstock.
This study was aimed to determine the ovarian maturation stages of wild and captive orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea fed with different diets via gonadosomatic status, oocyte diameter and histological examinations. Captive crabs were fed with blood cockle, Anadara granosa, or fish, Decapterus spp. Through the histological examinations, ovarian maturation stages of wild and captive S. olivaceawas classified into four stages: Immature (Stage 1), Early maturing (Stage 2), Pre-maturing (Stage 3) and Fully matured (Stage 4). Gonadosomatic Index of wild and captive crabs remained low during immature and 2 but increased significantly (p<0.05) in pre-maturing and 4 ovaries. Oocytes size were significantly different (p<0.05) in all ovarian maturation stages of wild and captive crabs. Follicle cells surround the oocyte of immature ovary and small yolk globules start to appear in early maturing ovary with large nucleus size. Oocyte size increased significantly (p<0.05) and yolk globule obviously appeared in pre-maturing ovary. Large and fused yolk globules appeared in the oocytes of fully matured ovary with nucleus was barely visible. The present study revealed that, ovarian maturation stages of S. olivacea are closely related to its morphological appearance and cellular development.
Toxorhynchites splendens larvae are a natural predator of dengue vector mosquito larvae, Aedes albopictus. This study was carried out to evaluate the predation rate of Tx. splendens third instar larvae on Ae. albopictus larvae in 24 h. Each predator was offered prey at a density between 10 to 50 individuals. Predation rate of Tx. splendens were also tested with two manipulated factors; various types of container and different water volumes. The experiment was evaluated in man-made containers (tin cans, plastic drinking glasses and rubber tires) and natural container (bamboo stumps) which were filled with different water volumes (full, half full, 1/4 full, and 1/8 full). The prey density and the characteristics of the container were found as significant factors which influence the predation rate of Tx. splendens. The predator consumed significantly more prey at higher prey densities (40 and 50 preys) compared to the lowest density (10 preys) (F=3.935, df=4, p=0.008). The results showed significantly higher consumption in horizontal shaped container of rubber tire than in vertical shape of bamboo stumps (F=3.100, df=3, p=0.029). However, the water volume had no significant effect on predation rate of Tx. splendens (F=1.736, df=3, p=0.162). We generally suggest that Tx. splendens is best to be released in discarded tires or any other containers with horizontal shape design with wide opening since Tx. splendens can become more effective in searching prey in this type of container design. This predator is also a suitable biocontrol candidates to be introduced either in wet and dry seasons in Malaysia.
Emotion has a substantial influence on the cognitive processes in humans, including perception, attention, learning, memory, reasoning, and problem solving. Emotion has a particularly strong influence on attention, especially modulating the selectivity of attention as well as motivating action and behavior. This attentional and executive control is intimately linked to learning processes, as intrinsically limited attentional capacities are better focused on relevant information. Emotion also facilitates encoding and helps retrieval of information efficiently. However, the effects of emotion on learning and memory are not always univalent, as studies have reported that emotion either enhances or impairs learning and long-term memory (LTM) retention, depending on a range of factors. Recent neuroimaging findings have indicated that the amygdala and prefrontal cortex cooperate with the medial temporal lobe in an integrated manner that affords (i) the amygdala modulating memory consolidation; (ii) the prefrontal cortex mediating memory encoding and formation; and (iii) the hippocampus for successful learning and LTM retention. We also review the nested hierarchies of circular emotional control and cognitive regulation (bottom-up and top-down influences) within the brain to achieve optimal integration of emotional and cognitive processing. This review highlights a basic evolutionary approach to emotion to understand the effects of emotion on learning and memory and the functional roles played by various brain regions and their mutual interactions in relation to emotional processing. We also summarize the current state of knowledge on the impact of emotion on memory and map implications for educational settings. In addition to elucidating the memory-enhancing effects of emotion, neuroimaging findings extend our understanding of emotional influences on learning and memory processes; this knowledge may be useful for the design of effective educational curricula to provide a conducive learning environment for both traditional "live" learning in classrooms and "virtual" learning through online-based educational technologies.
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the commonest gynaecological cancer in North American and European women. Even though it has been shown that women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a three-fold increase in the risk of developing EC compared to women without PCOS, the precise molecular mechanisms which increase EC risk in women with PCOS remain unclear. Clinical strategies to prevent EC in PCOS are therefore not well researched and understood. Although raised estrogen levels, hyperinsulinaemia and, reduced apoptosis have been suggested as potential mechanisms, there is a lack of clarity about how these factors and other factors may interact to increase EC risk in PCOS. This article reviews the literature, on the potential molecular links between PCOS and EC but argues for a paradigm shift, to a systems biology-based approach in future research into the molecular links between PCOS and EC. The potential challenges of a systems biology-based approach are outlined but not considered insurmountable.
The present paper contains two datasets; i) the growth band count (GBC) of mud crab, Scylla olivacea collected from Setiu Wetlands, Terengganu coastal water, East coast of Peninsular Malaysia and ii) the increment sizes of body weight (BW) and carapace width (CW) of immature S. olivace after molting. The datasets presented here were associated with the research articles entitled i) "Study on carapace width growth band counts relationship of orange mud crab, S. olivacea (Herbst, 1796) from Terengganu Coastal Waters, Malaysia" (Hasyima-Ismail et al. 2017)  and ii) "Relationship between the carapace width and body weight increments and the confirmation of Stage 1 ovary after the molting of immature orange mud crabs, S. olivacea (Herbst, 1796), in captivity" (Amin-Safwan et al. 2019-2020) , and provided here as raw data of Supplementary materials. Raw datasets for GBC in the wild were generated by examination of the thin cross sectioning process of the gastric mill of S. olivacea. The GBC were measured for each individual crab wherein band counts ranged from 1 to 3. The analysis provides evidence that the GBC of the crabs can be determined through both mesocardiac and zygocardiac ossicles. This data is of importance to researchers for estimation of stock assessment and improvement of fisheries management to further improve policy. For the BW-CW increment data, a total of 135 immature crabs were sampled from Setiu Wetlands, Terengganu, Malaysia, and were introduced to limb autotomy technique in order to induced molt. Crabs were reared until successful molting and immediately prior to hardened shell, before final measurement of body weight and carapace width determination. Recorded data was analyzed by calculating the increment sizes, along with correlation and regression analysis between body weight and carapace width of mud crabs.
Owing to its potential market value, the blue swimmer crab Portunus pelagicus is of great economic importance. The temperature of water significantly affects the physiological function and production efficiency of these crabs. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the critical thermal minimum (CTMin), critical thermal maximum (CTMax), acclimation response ratio (ARR), escaping temperature (Tesc), and locomotor behavior of P. pelagicus instars at 20 °C, 24 °C, 28 °C, 32 °C, and 36 °C. The CTMax ranged from 39.05 °C to 44.38 °C, while the CTMin ranged from 13.05 °C to 19.30 °C, and both increased directly with temperature. The ARR ranged from 0.25 to 0.51. The movement of crabs (walking before molting) correlated positively with the acclimation temperature. These results indicate that the parameters evaluated varied with temperature. Furthermore, the high CTMax indicates the potential of this species to adapt to a wide range of temperatures. In addition, the implications of these findings for portunid crabs behavior and distribution in their natural habitat are also discussed.
Three hundred and five primigravid women were interviewed at term to assess the acceptability of epidural during labour, and reasons for the decisions. Data was collected on a prestructured proforma which consisted of background information, socio-economic status, knowledge about epidural analgesia, source of information and reasons for choice. Of the 305 patients only 17.3% were willing to receive epidural analgesia. This group consisted of 56.6% non-Malay women. Those employed in professional or skilled jobs (56.6%) also readily consented for epidural. Nearly half the women willing for epidural had received college (tertiary) education (43.3%) and more than a quarter (26.4%) were over 30 years of age. The majority of those who were unwilling had no prior knowledge about the procedure, and refused either out of fear, ignorance, resistance from husbands, on religious grounds or following poor feedback from friends. In order to advocate epidural analgesia, knowledge has to be targeted to the relatively less educated, unemployed women, mainly through the media or personally in the antenatal clinic by doctors and nurses. Services have to be improved as substandard analgesia may send out wrong messages and actually do more harm than good.
This study aimed to investigate the chemical composition and potential sources of PM10 as well as assess the potential health hazards it posed to school children. PM10 samples were taken from classrooms at a school in Kuala Lumpur's city centre (S1) and one in the suburban city of Putrajaya (S2) over a period of eight hours using a low volume sampler (LVS). The composition of the major ions and trace metals in PM10 were then analysed using ion chromatography (IC) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. The results showed that the average PM10 concentration inside the classroom at the city centre school (82µg/m(3)) was higher than that from the suburban school (77µg/m(3)). Principal component analysis-absolute principal component scores (PCA-APCS) revealed that road dust was the major source of indoor PM10 at both school in the city centre (36%) and the suburban location (55%). The total hazard quotient (HQ) calculated, based on the formula suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), was found to be slightly higher than the acceptable level of 1, indicating that inhalation exposure to particle-bound non-carcinogenic metals of PM10, particularly Cr exposure by children and adults occupying the school environment, was far from negligible.
Vibrio tubiashii strain T33 was isolated from the coastal waters of Morib, Malaysia, and was shown to possess quorum-sensing activity similar to that of its famous relative Vibrio fischeri. Here, the assembly and annotation of its genome are presented.
Traditional Malay herbal medicine is still used in Malaysia especially in rural areas, instead of using modern medicine. Datura or "kecubung" has been used to treat allergic rhinitis in certain places. Inaccurate doses can potentially cause severe or fatal neurologic anti-cholinergic toxidromes. A good knowledge of toxidromes with optimization of supportive care can prevent fatal complications and lead to a more speedy recovery. We present a case of kecubung poisoning.
Drugs with complex pharmacology are used in the management of drug use disorder (DUD) and HIV/AIDS in Malaysia and in parts of South-East Asia. Their multiethnic populations suggest complexity due to the genetic polymorphism, such as CYP2B6 that metabolizes methadone and anti-retroviral.
People with tinnitus report anecdotal difficulties in mental concentration and psychological treatments for tinnitus advise on concentration difficulties and how to manage them. Yet the literature lacks any coherent discussion about what precise theoretical cognitive constructs might be mediating reported concentration problems. This review addresses this gap by describing and critically appraising the behavioural evidence for the effects of tinnitus on cognitive performance (namely working memory and attention). Empirical evidence is somewhat limited, but there is some support that tinnitus interferes with executive attention, and mixed support that it impairs working memory and selective attention. We highlight a number of methodological considerations to help drive the field forward and we propose a putative model of the complex inter-relationships between tinnitus, cognition and confounding factors. This model provides a basis for hypothesis testing.
Fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis is a differential diagnosis that can be considered in diabetic patients who present with a poorly healing ulcer. Although its prevalence is low, it can occur in patients with immunocompromised status. Here we report a case of a 70-year-old man with diabetes mellitus who presented with a 1-month history of an unhealed ulcer over the tip of his left middle finger. He experienced a cat bite over his left middle finger 1 month prior to the appearance of the lesion. A skin biopsy revealed the presence of Sporothrix schenckii. Oral itraconazole 200 mg twice daily was started empirically and the patient showed marked improvement in the skin lesion after 2 months of therapy.
The objective of this study is to synthesize and evaluate acute toxicity of the bacterial cellulose (BC)/acrylamide (Am) hydrogels as noncytotoxic and biocompatible oral drug delivery vehicles. A novel series of solubilized BC/Am hydrogels were synthesized using a microwave irradiation method. The hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), swelling ratio, porosity, drug release, and in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility experiments. FTIR spectra revealed that the BC crystallinity and gel fraction decreased as the NaOH concentration increased from 2% to 10% w/v, whereas the optical transparency, pH sensitivity, and porosity were enhanced with increasing alkali concentration. Theophylline was used as a model drug for drug loading and release studies. The percentage of drug released was higher at pH 7.4 compared to pH 1.5. In vitro cytotoxicity and hemolytic tests indicated that the BC/Am hydrogel is noncytotoxic and hemocompatible. Results of acute oral toxicity tests on ICR mice suggested that the hydrogels are nontoxic up to 2000 mg/kg when administered orally, as no toxic response or histopathological changes were observed in comparison to control mice. The results of this study demonstrated that the pH-sensitive smart hydrogel makes it a possible safe carrier for oral drug delivery.