METHODS: This prospective observational study comprised 34 newly diagnosed unilateral vocal fold paralysis patients undergoing surgical interventions: injection laryngoplasty or medialisation thyroplasty. Voice assessments, including maximum vocal intensity and other acoustic parameters, were performed at baseline and at one and three months post-intervention. Maximum vocal intensity was also repeated within two weeks before any surgical interventions were performed. The results were compared between different time points and between the two intervention groups.
RESULTS: Maximum vocal intensity showed high internal consistency. Statistically significant improvements were seen in maximum vocal intensity, Voice Handicap Index-10 and other acoustic analyses at one and three months post-intervention. A significant moderate negative correlation was demonstrated between maximum vocal intensity and Voice Handicap Index-10, shimmer and jitter. There were no significant differences in voice outcomes between injection laryngoplasty and medialisation thyroplasty patients at any time point.
CONCLUSION: Maximum vocal intensity can be applied as a treatment outcome measure in unilateral vocal fold paralysis patients; it can demonstrate the effectiveness of treatment and moderately correlates with self-reported outcome measures.
DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive cross-sectional study in a tertiary center.
PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: The subjects are 274 audio files of voices of patients undergoing thyroid, parathyroid surgeries, and known VCP due to other neck surgeries. Voice assessments were done by three endocrine surgeons (A, B, and C) with 20, 12, and 4 years of surgical experience.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sensitivity and specificity of surgeon documented voice assessment in patients with underlying VCP. Subjects' acoustic analysis and Voice Handicap Index (VHI-10) were analyzed.
RESULTS: Raters A, B, and C have sensitivity of 63.6%, 78.8%, and 66.7%, respectively. Inter-rater reliability shows substantial agreement (ƙ = 0.67). VHI-10 has sensitivity of 75.8% and strong correlation of 0.707 (p value <0.001) to VCP. Subjects with VCP have notably higher jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio compared to normal subjects with sensitivity of 74.2%, 71.2%, and 72.7%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The results for surgeons documented voice assessment did not reach the desired sensitivity for a screening tool for patients with underlying VCP. Other tools such as VHI-10 and acoustic analysis may not be used as standalone tools in screening patients with underlying VCP. Routine preoperative laryngeal examination may be recommended for all patients undergoing thyroid, parathyroid, or other surgeries that places the laryngeal nerves at risk.
METHODS: The study population consisted of 53 participants, 23 patients with BVFI after endolaryngeal laser posterior cordectomy and 30 healthy volunteers. All of them had body plethysmography (airway resistance, Raw), spirometry (ratio of forced expiratory flow at 50% to forced inspiratory flow at 50%, FEF50/FIF50 and peak inspiratory flow, PIF), 6 min-walking-test (6MWT) and Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale measurements. The tests were repeated and reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation (ICC) and Spearman correlation.
RESULTS: The reliability of Raw was high with ICC of 0.92, comparable to the spirometry measurements: FEF50/FIF50(ICC = 0.72) and PIF (ICC = 0.97). The mean of Raw was significantly higher in patient group. A strong significant correlation between Raw and MRC dyspnea scale (r = 0.79; p<0.05) and a moderate negative correlation between Raw and 6MWT (r = 0.4; p<0.05) was demonstrated.
CONCLUSION: Body plethysmography (Raw) is a reliable tool in objective measurement of upper airway resistance that reflects the patient's perception of breathlessness. A larger number of participants are necessary to confirm this finding.
METHODS: CT scans of the neck of two hundred patients were analysed by two groups of raters. For thyrohyoid approach, mean distance from the superior border of the thyroid cartilage to the laryngeal cavity (THd) and mean angle from the superior border of the thyroid cartilage to mid-true cords (THa) were measured. For transthyroid approach, mean distance from mid-thyroid cartilage to mid-true cords (TTd) and Hounsfield unit (HU) at mid-thyroid cartilage (TTc) were measured. For cricothyroid approach, mean distance from the inferior border of the thyroid cartilage to the laryngeal cavity (CTd) and mean angle from the inferior border of the thyroid cartilage to mid-true cords (CTa) were measured.
RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between males and females for all measurements except for CTa (p 0.05). There was a significant fair positive correlation between age and TTc (p = 0.0002). For all measurements obtained, there were moderate to excellent inter-group consistency and intra-rater reliability.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated a significant sex dimorphism that may influence the three TIL approaches except for needle angulation in the cricothyroid approach. The knowledge of laryngeal dimension is important to increase success in TIL procedure.