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  1. Mohd Nor NH, Aziz Z
    J Dermatolog Treat, 2013 Oct;24(5):377-86.
    PMID: 22658322 DOI: 10.3109/09546634.2012.699179
    OBJECTIVE: Comparative trials of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) have yielded contradictory results on its effectiveness for acne vulgaris. The aim of the study was to synthesise the evidence for the effectiveness of BPO-containing topical products for facial acne vulgaris.
    DESIGN: Systematic review.
    METHODS: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and other relevant databases were searched without publication date or language restriction.
    RESULTS: We identified 22 trials involving 2212 participants; 12 trials compared BPO as single agent while the other 10 trials compared BPO in combination products. All trials reported lesion count as the outcome measure but only five trials provided numerical data. However, pooling of data from these trials was inappropriate due to variations between trials in terms of acne severity, comparator used and trial duration. Overall the study quality was fair but most studies had some bias particularly in method of random generation and allocation concealment. Although the results provide some evidence that BPO reduces acne-lesion count, the available evidence is not robust enough for firm conclusions.
    CONCLUSIONS: There is no high quality evidence that topical BPO improves facial acne vulgaris, and further research is needed.
  2. Hod R, Maniam S, Mohd Nor NH
    Molecules, 2021 Feb 19;26(4).
    PMID: 33669783 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26041105
    Equol is a soy isoflavone metabolite that can be produced by intestinal bacteria. It is lipophilic and resembles natural oestrogens with an affinity to oestrogen receptors. This review is focused on how equol affects breast cancer, as evidenced by in vivo and in vitro studies. Equol is considered chemoprotective in specific endocrine-related pathologies, such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and menopausal symptoms. In humans, not everyone can produce equol from gut metabolism. It is postulated that equol producers benefit more than non-equol producers for all the endocrine-related effects. Equol exists in two enantiomers of R-equol and S-equol. Earlier studies, however, did not specify which enantiomer was being used. This review considers equol's type and concentration variations, pathways affected, and its outcome in in vivo and in vitro studies.
  3. Doolaanea AA, Mansor N', Mohd Nor NH, Mohamed F
    J Microencapsul, 2014;31(6):600-8.
    PMID: 24697178 DOI: 10.3109/02652048.2014.898709
    The aim of this study is to investigate the cell uptake of Nigella sativa oil (NSO)-PLGA microparticle by neuron-like PC-12 cells in comparison to surfactants; hydrophilic (Tween 80 & Triton X100) and hydrophobic (Span 80). Solvent evaporation was used to precisely control the size, zeta potential and morphology of the particle. The results revealed varying efficiencies of the cell uptake by PC-12 cells, which may be partially attributed to the surface hydrophobicity of the microparticles. Interestingly, the uptake efficiency of PC-12 cells was higher with the more hydrophilic microparticle. NSO microparticle showed evidence of being preferably internalised by mitotic cells. Tween 80 microparticle showed the highest cell uptake efficiency with a concentration-dependent pattern suggesting its use as uptake enhancer for non-scavenging cells. In conclusion, PC-12 cells can take up NSO-PLGA microparticle which may have potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease.
  4. Doolaanea AA, Mansor N', Mohd Nor NH, Mohamed F
    J Microencapsul, 2016 Mar;33(2):114-26.
    PMID: 26982435 DOI: 10.3109/02652048.2015.1134689
    Alzheimer disease involves genetic and non-genetic factors and hence it is rational to be treated with genetic and non-genetic therapeutic agents. Nigella sativa has multiple therapeutic properties including neuroregeneration. Nigella sativa oil (NSO) was encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles and pDNA was loaded either by adsorption on chitosan-modified particles or encapsulation within PLGA nanoparticles. The particle size and zeta potential of NSO-pDNA-chitosan-PLGA nanoparticles were highly dependent on the medium and exhibited high burst release. Meanwhile, NSO-pDNA-PLGA nanoparticles were more consistent with lower burst release. The fabricated nanoparticles revealed the expected outcomes of both pDNA and NSO. The pDNA transfected N2a cell while the encapsulated NSO promoted neurite outgrowth that is crucial for neuroregeneration. Results from this study suggest that NSO could be added to the gene delivery carrier to enhance treatment benefits for Alzheimer disease.
  5. Mohd Nor NH, Berahim Z, Ahmad A, Kannan TP
    Curr Stem Cell Res Ther, 2017;12(1):52-60.
    PMID: 27538403
    Oral mucosa is a mucous membrane lining the oral cavity. Its main function is to protect the deeper structures against the external factors; thermal, chemical, mechanical and biological stimuli. Apart from that, it also plays a significant role during mastication, deglutition and speech. Some oral diseases or injuries to oral mucosa lead to impairment of the oral functions and aesthetics which eventually result in permanent defect of oral mucosa. In order to overcome this defect, different approaches for the development of reconstructed oral mucosa models have been employed including skin/autologous grafts, guided tissue replacement, vestibuloplasty etc. However, the finding of an acceptable source for the transplantations or autologous grafts seems a bit challenging. To overcome this problem, the development of oral mucosa using tissue engineering approach has been widely studied involving various cell lines from different sources. This paper aims to highlight various cell sources used in the development of tissueengineered oral mucosa models based on articles retrieved from PubMed and MEDLINE databases using the search terms "oral mucosa tissue engineering", regardless of time when published.
  6. Mohd Nor NH, Berahim Z, Azlina A, Kannan TP
    Clin Oral Investig, 2019 Nov;23(11):3959-3966.
    PMID: 30847574 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-019-02827-x
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to differentiate and characterize fibroblast-like cells from stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The differentiation of fibroblast-like cells from SHED was carried out by using specific human recombinant connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). To characterize fibroblastic differentiation, the induced cells were subjected to morphological changes, proliferation rate, gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence staining. The commercial primary human gingival fibroblasts served as positive control in this study.

    RESULTS: The results from characterization analysis were compared with that of commercial cells to ensure that the cells differentiated from SHED were fibroblast-like cells. The results showed the inductive effect of CTGF for fibroblastic differentiation in SHED. SHED-derived fibroblasts were successfully characterized despite having similar morphological appearance, i.e., (i) significant proliferation rate between fibroblast-like cells and SHED, (ii) high expression of fibroblast-associated markers in qRT-PCR analysis, and (iii) positive staining against collagen type 1, fibroblast-specific protein 1, and human thymic fibroblasts in flow cytometry analysis and immunofluorescence staining. The same expression patterns were found in primary human gingival fibroblasts, respectively. SHED as negative control showed lower expression or no signal, thus confirming the cells differentiated from SHED were fibroblast-like cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the protocol adopted in this study suggests CTGF to be an appropriate inducer in the differentiation of SHED into fibroblast-like cells.

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The fibroblast-like cells differentiated from SHED could be used in future in vitro and in vivo dental tissue regeneration studies as well as in clinical applications where these cells are needed.

  7. Mohd Nor NH, Othman F, Mohd Tohit ER, Md Noor S
    Thrombosis, 2016;2016:5952910.
    PMID: 27051529 DOI: 10.1155/2016/5952910
    Coronary atherothrombotic diseases such as coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and heart failure are the serious concerns of the thrombus formed in blood vessels. Anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs are the cornerstones of the management of these diseases. To prevent the recurrence of these diseases, double antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin and clopidogrel has been the standard management in most hospitals. However, aspirin resistance and clopidogrel inefficient effects due to noncompliance with double drugs regimen can cause a sinister effect on patients. Medicinal plants serve as a greater resource for new medication and their potential currently became a topic of interest to the researchers all over the world. Traditionally, certain herbs have been used as a treatment for heart diseases but have been investigated for their antiplatelet properties. This current review explained few traditional antithrombotic herbals and their antiplatelet properties in vitro and in vivo and this is to be deeply discussed in further research.
  8. Mohd Nor NH, Berahim Z, Azlina A, Mokhtar KI, Kannan TP
    Curr Stem Cell Res Ther, 2017;12(8):675-681.
    PMID: 28969579 DOI: 10.2174/1574888X12666170929124621
    BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts are the common cells used in clinical regenerative medicine and dentistry. These cells are known to appear heterogeneous in vivo. Previous studies have only investigated the biological properties of these cell subpopulations in vitro. Despite sharing similarity in their spindle-shaped appearance, previous literatures revealed that they play distinguished functional and biological activities in the body.

    OBJECTIVE: This paper highlights the similarities and differences among these cell subpopulations, particularly between intraoral fibroblasts (human periodontal ligament, gingival and oral mucosa fibroblasts) and dermal fibroblasts based on several factors including their morphology, growth and proliferation rate.

    RESULTS: It could be suggested that each subpopulation of fibroblasts demonstrate different positionspecified gene signatures and responses towards extracellular signals. These dissimilarities are crucial to be taken into consideration to employ specific methodologies in stimulating these cells in vivo.

    CONCLUSION: A comparison of the characteristics of these cell subpopulations is desired for identifying appropriate cellular applications.

  9. Mohd Nor NH, Othman F, Mohd Tohit ER, Md Noor S, Razali R, Ahmad Hassali H, et al.
    PMID: 31001352 DOI: 10.1155/2019/3245836
    Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The pathogenesis is mainly due to atherosclerosis, plaque rupture, and platelet thrombus formation. The main risk factors for coronary artery disease include obesity, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, diabetes, and high blood pressure. As a part of disease management, treatment options using anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs can be applied with addition to lipid-lowering medication. However, medicinal plants comprising antiatherothrombotic effects can be used as options to combat the disease rather than drug therapies with lesser adverse effects. Therefore, the haematological effect of Berberis vulgaris L., Teucrium polium L., and Orthosiphon stamineus Benth extracts was studied using in vitro model to prevent and to treat coronary atherothrombotic disease. The aqueous, methanol, and polysaccharide extracts of B. vulgaris, T. polium, and O. stamineus, respectively, were studied for their anticoagulant and antiplatelet effect on human whole blood. Extracts were subjected to the prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test for anticoagulant activity. The antiplatelet activity was investigated using an electrical impedance method. B. vulgaris aqueous extract (BVAE), B. vulgaris polysaccharide extract (BVPE), T. polium aqueous extract (TPAE), and T. polium polysaccharide extract (TPPE) significantly prolonged the coagulation time in a concentration-dependent manner (p<0.05). The administration of BVAE demonstrated the most effective antiplatelet activity against platelet aggregation caused by arachidonic acid (AA) and collagen. These antiplatelet activities may correspond to the presence of higher total phenolic compound, which thus inhibit the platelet aggregation activity. In conclusion, these findings provide strong evidence on the antiatherothrombotic effect of BVAE and TPAE.
  10. Ullah S, Mohd Nor NH, Daud H, Zainuddin N, Gandapur MSJ, Ali I, et al.
    Geospat Health, 2021 05 05;16(1).
    PMID: 33969966 DOI: 10.4081/gh.2021.961
    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the current worldwide pandemic as declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020. Being part of the ongoing global pandemic, Malaysia has recorded a total of 8639 COVID-19 cases and 121 deaths as of 30th June 2020. This study aims to detect spatial clusters of COVID-19 in Malaysia using the Spatial Scan Statistic (SaTScan™) to guide control authorities on prioritizing locations for targeted interventions. The spatial analyses were conducted on a monthly basis at the state-level from March to September 2020. The results show that the most likely cluster of COVID-19 occurred in West Malaysia repeatedly from March to June, covering three counties (two federal territories and one neighbouring state) and moved to East Malaysia in July covering two other counties. The most likely cluster shows a tendency of having moved from the western part to the eastern part of the country. These results provide information that can be used for the evidence- based interventions to control the spread of COVID-19 in Malaysia.
  11. Mohamad Asri SF, Soelaiman IN, Mohd Moklas MA, Mohd Nor NH, Mohamad Zainal NH, Mohd Ramli ES
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Oct 19;21(20).
    PMID: 33086468 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21207715
    Glucocorticoids are one of the causes of secondary osteoporosis. The aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum contains flavonoids that possess antioxidant effects. In this study, we determined the effects of aqueous Piper sarmentosum leaf extract on structural, dynamic and static histomorphometric changes from osteoporotic bones of rats induced with glucocorticoids. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into four groups-Sham control group given vehicles (intramuscular (IM) olive oil and oral normal saline); AC: Adrenalectomised (Adrx) control group given IM dexamethasone (DEX) (120 μg/kg/day) and vehicle (oral normal saline); AP: Adrx group administered IM DEX (120 μg/kg/day) and aqueous Piper sarmentosum leaf extract (125 mg/kg/day) orally; and AG: Adrx group administered IM DEX (120 μg/kg/day) and oral glycyrrhizic acid (GCA) (120 mg/kg/day). Histomorphometric measurements showed that the bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, osteoid and osteoblast surfaces, double-labelled trabecular surface, mineralizing surface and bone formation rate of rats given aqueous Piper sarmentosum leaf extract were significantly increased (p < 0.05), whereas the trabecular separation and osteoclast surface were significantly reduced (p < 0.05). This study suggests that aqueous Piper sarmentosum leaf extract was able to prevent bone loss in prolonged glucocorticoid therapy. Thus, Piper sarmentosum has the potential to be used as an alternative medicine against osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures in patients undergoing long-term glucocorticoid therapy.
  12. Mahdi O, Chiroma SM, Hidayat Baharuldin MT, Mohd Nor NH, Mat Taib CN, Jagadeesan S, et al.
    Biomedicines, 2021 Sep 19;9(9).
    PMID: 34572456 DOI: 10.3390/biomedicines9091270
    Neurotransmission and cognitive dysfunctions have been linked to old age disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aluminium is a known neurotoxic metal, whereas d-galactose (d-gal) has been established as a senescence agent. WIN55,212-2 (WIN), is a potent cannabinoid agonist which partially restores neurogenesis in aged rats. The current study aimed to explore the therapeutic potentials of WIN on Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) and d-gal-induced rat models with cognitive dysfunction. Healthy male albino Wistar rats weighing between 200-250 g were injected with d-gal 60 mg/kg intra peritoneally (i.p), while AlCl3 (200 mg/kg) was orally administered once daily for 10 consecutive weeks. Subsequently, from weeks 8-11 rats were co-administered with WIN (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg/day) and donepezil 1 mg/kg. The cognitive functions of the rats were assessed with a Morris water maze (MWM). Furthermore, oxidative stress biomarkers; malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and neurogenesis markers: Nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were also evaluated, as well as the histology of the hippocampus. The results revealed that rats exposed to AlCl3 and d-gal alone showed cognitive impairments and marked neuronal loss (p < 0.05) in their hippocampal conus ammonis 1 (CA1). Additionally, a significant decrease in the expressions of GFAP and Nestin was also observed, including increased levels of MDA and decreased levels of SOD and GSH. However, administration of WIN irrespective of the doses given reversed the cognitive impairments and the associated biochemical derangements. As there were increases in the levels SOD, GSH, Nestin and GFAP (p < 0.05), while a significant decrease in the levels of MDA was observed, besides attenuation of the aberrant cytoarchitecture of the rat's hippocampi. The biochemical profiles of the WIN-treated rats were normal. Thus, these findings offer possible scientific evidence of WIN being an effective candidate in the treatment of AD-related cognitive deficits.
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