Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 42 in total

  1. Nesaretnam K
    Cancer Lett, 2008 Oct 8;269(2):388-95.
    PMID: 18504069 DOI: 10.1016/j.canlet.2008.03.063
    Natural compounds with possible health benefits have become attractive targets for research in areas pertaining to human health. For both prevention and therapy of various human ailments, such compounds are preferred over synthetic ones due to their lesser toxicity. They are also easily absorbed and processed by our body. Vitamins are prominent among natural or endogenous compounds that are considered to be beneficial. The vitamin E group of compounds is among the better known of the vitamins due to their suggested health benefits including antioxidant and related protective properties. Among these, tocotrienols have gained prominence in recent years due to their potential applications and better protective effects in certain systems. These tocotrienols are vitamin E derivatives that are analogs of the more established forms of vitamin E namely tocopherols. In addition to their potent antioxidant activity, tocotrienols have other important functions, especially in maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system and a possible role in protection against cancer and other ailments.
  2. Nesaretnam K, Meganathan P
    Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2011 Jul;1229:18-22.
    PMID: 21793834 DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06088.x
    Inflammation is an organism's response to environmental assaults. It can be classified as acute inflammation that leads to therapeutic recovery or chronic inflammation, which may lead to the development of cancer and other ailments. Genetic changes that occur within cancer cells themselves are responsible for many aspects of cancer development but are dependent on ancillary processes for tumor promotion and progression. Inflammation has long been associated with the development of cancer. The distinct characteristics of cancer cells to proliferate, metastasize, evade apoptotic signals, and develop chemoresistance have been linked to the inflammatory response. Due to the involvement of multiple genes and various pathways, current drugs that target single genes have not been effective in providing a therapeutic cure. On the other hand, natural products target multiple genes and therefore have better success compared to drugs. Tocotrienols, the potent isoforms of vitamin E, are such a natural product. This review will discuss the relationship between cancer and inflammation with particular focus on the roles played by NF-κB, STAT3, and COX-2.
  3. Nesaretnam K, Sies H
    Antioxid Redox Signal, 2006 10 13;8(11-12):2175-7.
    PMID: 17034360
    The 6(th) COSTAM/SFRR (ASEAN/Malaysia) workshop, "Micronutrients, Oxidative Stress, and the Environment," was held from June 29 to July 2 at Holiday Inn Damai Beach Resort in Kuching, Sarawak. Two hundred twenty participants from 17 countries presented recent advances on natural antioxidants in the area of oxidative stress and molecular aspects of nutrition. Natural products and research are an important program in academic institutions and are experiencing unprecedented interest and growth by the scientific community and public health authorities. Progress is being driven by better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the relation between oxidative stress and micronutrient action. The gathering of scientists from around the world was fruitful, and we hope that future work will be developed by the formal and informal interactions that took place in this beautiful tropical setting.
  4. May CY, Nesaretnam K
    Eur J Lipid Sci Technol, 2014 Oct;116(10):1301-1315.
    PMID: 25821404
    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers (sn)-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil.
  5. Nesaretnam K, Dorasamy S, Darbre PD
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2000;51 Suppl:S95-103.
    PMID: 11271861
    The vitamin E component of palm oil provides a rich source of tocotrienols which have been shown previously to be growth inhibitory to two human breast cancer cell lines: responsive MCF7 cells and unresponsive MDA-MB-231 cells. Data presented here shows that the tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) of palm oil and individual fractions (alpha, gamma and delta) can also inhibit the growth of another responsive human breast cancer cell line, ZR-75-1. At low concentrations in the absence of oestrogen tocotrienols stimulated growth of the ZR-75-1 cells, but at higher concentrations in the presence as well as in the absence of oestradiol, tocotrienols inhibited cell growth strongly. As for MCF7 cells, alpha-tocopherol had no effect on growth of the ZR-75-1 cells in either the absence or presence of oestradiol. In studying the effects of tocotrienols in combination with antioestrogens, it was found that TRF could further inhibit growth of ZR-75-1 cells in the presence of tamoxifen (10(-7) M and 10(-8) M). Individual tocotrienol fractions (alpha, gamma, delta) could inhibit growth of ZR-75-1 cells in the presence of 10(-8) M oestradiol and 10(-8) M pure antioestrogen ICI 164,384. The immature mouse uterine weight bioassay confirmed that TRF could not exert oestrogen antagonist action in vivo. These results provide evidence of wider growth-inhibitory effects of tocotrienols beyond MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, and with an oestrogen-independent mechanism of action, suggest a possible clinical advantage in combining administration of tocotrienols with antioestrogen therapy.
  6. Mahalingam D, Radhakrishnan AK, Amom Z, Ibrahim N, Nesaretnam K
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2011 Jan;65(1):63-9.
    PMID: 20859299 DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.184
    Vitamin E is an essential fat-soluble vitamin that has been shown to induce favorable effects on animal and human immune systems. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) supplementation on immune response following tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine challenge in healthy female volunteers.
  7. Hafid SR, Radhakrishnan AK, Nesaretnam K
    BMC Cancer, 2010;10:5.
    PMID: 20051142 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-10-5
    Dendritic cells (DCs) have the potential for cancer immunotherapy due to their ability to process and present antigens to T-cells and also in stimulating immune responses. However, DC-based vaccines have only exhibited minimal effectiveness against established tumours in mice and humans. The use of appropriate adjuvant enhances the efficacy of DC based cancer vaccines in treating tumours.
  8. Nesaretnam K, Jin Lim E, Reimann K, Lai LC
    Toxicology, 2000 Oct 26;151(1-3):117-26.
    PMID: 11074306
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. The growth of breast cancer cells is either hormone-dependent or hormone-independent. Both types are represented in vitro by the estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) MCF-7 and the estrogen-receptor negative (ER-) MDA-MB-231 cell lines, respectively. The pS2 gene is an estrogen-regulated gene and serves as a marker for the ER+ tumours. Carotenoids are pigments with anti-cancer properties besides having pro-vitamin A, antioxidant and free-radical quenching effects. This study was designed firstly, to compare the effect of palm oil carotene concentrate with retinoic acid on the growth of the ER+ MCF-7 and the ER- MDA-MB-231 cells; and secondly to evaluate the effect of the palm oil carotene concentrate on the regulation of pS2 mRNA. The growth experiments were performed with monolayer cells seeded in phenol red free RPMI 1640 culture media and subsequently treated with varying concentrations of either retinoic acid or palm oil carotenoids. The cell numbers were determined at the start of each experiment and then at successive time intervals. The results showed that the palm oil carotene concentrate caused dose-dependent inhibition of estradiol-stimulated growth of MCF-7 cells but did not affect the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. Retinoic acid caused similar, albeit more potent effects, as significant inhibition was observed at lower concentrations than the palm oil carotenoids. In the pS2 gene expression experiment, cell monolayers were treated with the carotene concentrate (10(-6) M), either with or without supplemented estradiol (10(-8) M), and subsequently the RNA was extracted. Northern blotting was performed and the regulation of pS2 mRNA determined using a 32P-labelled pS2 cDNA probe. The results showed that the palm oil carotene concentrate did not affect the expression of pS2 mRNA and are therefore independent of the estrogen-regulated pathway.
  9. Ng JH, Nesaretnam K, Reimann K, Lai LC
    Int J Cancer, 2000 Oct 1;88(1):135-8.
    PMID: 10962451
    Oestrogen is important in the development of breast cancer. Oestrogen receptor positive breast cancers are associated with a better prognosis than oestrogen-receptor negative breast cancers since they are more responsive to hormonal treatment. Oestrone sulphate acts as a huge reservoir for oestrogens in the breast. It is converted to the potent oestrogen, oestradiol (E(2)) by the enzymes oestrone sulphatase and oestradiol-17beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (E(2)DH). Retinoic acid and carotenoids have been shown to have chemopreventive activity against some cancers. The aim of our study was to determine and compare the effects of retinoic acid and palm oil carotenoids on growth of and oestrone sulphatase and E(2)DH activities in the oestrogen receptor positive, MCF-7 and oestrogen receptor negative, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Retinoic acid and carotenoids inhibited MCF-7 cell growth but had no effect on MDA-MB-231 cell growth. Both retinoic acid and carotenoids stimulated oestrone sulphatase activity in the MCF-7 cell line. E(1) to E(2) conversion was inhibited by 10(-7) M carotenoids but was stimulated at 10(-6) M in the MCF-7 cell line. Retinoic acid had no effect on E(1) to E(2) conversion at 10(-7) M but stimulated E(1) to E(2) conversion at 10(-6) M. Retinoic acid and carotenoids had no effect on E(2) to E(1) conversion in the MCF-7 cell line. Retinoic acid stimulated E(1) to E(2) conversion in the MDA-MB-231 cell line but had no effect on oestrone sulphatase activity or E(2) to E(1) conversion in this cell line. Both oestrone sulphatase and E(2)DH activity were not affected by carotenoids in the MDA-MB-231 cell line. In conclusion, retinoic acid and carotenoids may prevent the development of hormone-dependent breast cancers since they inhibit the growth of the MCF-7 cell line.
  10. Nesaretnam K, Devasagayam TP, Singh BB, Basiron Y
    Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int., 1993 May;30(1):159-67.
    PMID: 8358328
    The effect of palm oil, a widely used vegetable oil, rich in tocotrienols, on peroxidation potential of rat liver was examined. Long-term feeding of rats with palm oil as one of the dietary components significantly reduced the peroxidation potential of hepatic mitochondria and microsomes. As compared to hepatic mitochondria isolated from rats fed control or corn oil-rich diet, those from palm oil-fed group showed significantly less susceptibility to peroxidation induced by ascorbate and NADPH. However, in microsomes, only NADPH-induced lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in rats fed palm oil rich-diet. Though the accumulation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in mitochondria from rats fed corn oil-rich diet supplemented with tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) of palm oil was similar to that of control rats, the initial rate of peroxidation was much slower than those from control or corn oil fed diets. Our in vitro studies as well as analyses of co-factors related to peroxidation potential indicated that the observed decrease in palm oil-fed rats may be due to increased amount of antioxidants in terms of tocotrienol as well as decrease in the availability of substrates for peroxidation.
  11. Nesaretnam K, Guthrie N, Chambers AF, Carroll KK
    Lipids, 1995 Dec;30(12):1139-43.
    PMID: 8614304
    The tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) of palm oil consists of tocotrienols and some alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T). Tocotrienols are a form of vitamin E having an unsaturated side-chain, rather than the saturated side-chain of the more common tocopherols. Because palm oil has been shown not to promote chemically-induced mammary carcinogenesis, we tested effects of TRF and alpha-T on the proliferation, growth, and plating efficiency (PE) of the MDA-MB-435 estrogen-receptor-negative human breast cancer cells. TRF inhibited the proliferation of these cells with a concentration required to inhibit cell proliferation by 50% of 180 microgram/mL whereas alpha-T had no effect at concentrations up to 1000 microgram/mL as measured by incorporation of [3H]thymidine. The effects of TRF and alpha-T also were tested in longer-term growth experiments, using concentrations of 180 and 500 microgram/mL. We found that TRF inhibited the growth of these cells by 50%, whereas alpha-T did not. Their effect on the ability of these cells to form colonies also was studied, and it was found that TRF inhibited PE, whereas alpha T had no effect. These results suggest that the inhibition is due to the presence of tocotrienols in TRF rather than alpha T.
  12. Loganathan R, Selvaduray KR, Nesaretnam K, Radhakrishnan AK
    Cell Prolif, 2013 Apr;46(2):203-13.
    PMID: 23510475 DOI: 10.1111/cpr.12014
    OBJECTIVES: Tocotrienols and tocopherols are members of the vitamin E family, with similar structures; however, only tocotrienols have been reported to achieve potent anti-cancer effects. The study described here has evaluated anti-cancer activity of vitamin E to elucidate mechanisms of cell death, using human breast cancer cells.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-cancer activity of a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) and a tocotrienol-enriched fraction (TEF) isolated from palm oil, as well as pure vitamin E analogues (α-tocopherol, α-, δ- and γ-tocotrienols) were studied using highly aggressive triple negative MDA-MB-231 cells and oestrogen-dependent MCF-7 cells, both of human breast cancer cell lines. Cell population growth was evaluated using a Coulter particle counter. Cell death mechanism, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and levels of NF-κB were determined using commercial ELISA kits.

    RESULTS: Tocotrienols exerted potent anti-proliferative effects on both types of cell by inducing apoptosis, the underlying mechanism of cell death being ascertained using respective IC50 concentrations of all test compounds. There was marked induction of apoptosis in both cell lines by tocotrienols compared to treatment with Paclitaxel, which was used as positive control. This activity was found to be associated with cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (a DNA repair protein), demonstrating involvement of the apoptotic cell death signalling pathway. Tocotrienols also inhibited expression of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), which in turn can increase sensitivity of cancer cells to apoptosis.

    CONCLUSION: Tocotrienols induced anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in association with DNA fragmentation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and NF-κB inhibition in the two human breast cancer cell lines.

  13. Loganathan R, Selvaduray KR, Nesaretnam K, Radhakrishnan AK
    Malays J Nutr, 2010 Aug;16(2):309-22.
    PMID: 22691935 MyJurnal
    The oil palm tree, Elaeis guineesis, is the source of palm oil, otherwise known as the "tropical golden oil". To date, Malaysia and Indonesia are the leading producers of palm oil. Palm oil is widely used for domestic cooking in Malaysia. Palm oil is a rich source of phytonutrients such as tocotrienols, tocopherol, carotene, phytosterols, squalene, coenzyme Q10, polyphenols, and phospholipids. Although the phytonutrients constitute only about 1% of its weight in crude palm oil, these are the main constituents through which palm oil exhibits its nutritional properties. Among the major health promoting properties shown to be associated with the various types of phytonutrients present in palm oil are anti-cancer, cardio-protection and anti-angiogenesis, cholesterol inhibition, brain development and neuro protective properties, antioxidative defence mechanisms, provitamin A activity and anti-diabetes.
  14. Teng KT, Chang CY, Chang LF, Nesaretnam K
    Nutr J, 2014;13:12.
    PMID: 24476102 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-12
    Obesity plays a pivotal role in the development of low-grade inflammation. Dietary fatty acids are important modulators of inflammatory responses. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been reported to exert pro-inflammatory effects. n-3 PUFA in particular, possess anti-inflammatory properties. Numerous clinical studies have been conducted over decades to investigate the impact of dietary fatty acids on inflammatory response in obese individuals, however the findings remained uncertain. High fat meals have been reported to increase pro-inflammatory responses, however there is limited evidence to support the role of individual dietary fatty acids in a postprandial state. Evidence in chronic studies is contradictory, the effects of individual dietary fatty acids deserves further attention. Weight loss rather than n-3 PUFA supplementation may play a more prominent role in alleviating low grade inflammation. In this context, the present review provides an update on the mechanistic insight and the influence of dietary fats on low grade inflammation, based on clinical evidence from acute and chronic clinical studies in obese and overweight individuals.
  15. Abdul Hafid SR, Chakravarthi S, Nesaretnam K, Radhakrishnan AK
    PLoS One, 2013;8(9):e74753.
    PMID: 24069344 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074753
    Tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) from palm oil is reported to possess anti-cancer and immune-enhancing effects. In this study, TRF supplementation was used as an adjuvant to enhance the anti-cancer effects of dendritic cells (DC)-based cancer vaccine in a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer. Female BALB/c mice were inoculated with 4T1 cells in mammary pad to induce tumor. When the tumor was palpable, the mice in the experimental groups were injected subcutaneously with DC-pulsed with tumor lysate (TL) from 4T1 cells (DC+TL) once a week for three weeks and fed daily with 1 mg TRF or vehicle. Control mice received unpulsed DC and were fed with vehicle. The combined therapy of using DC+TL injections and TRF supplementation (DC+TL+TRF) inhibited (p<0.05) tumor growth and metastasis. Splenocytes from the DC+TL+TRF group cultured with mitomycin-C (MMC)-treated 4T1 cells produced higher (p<0.05) levels of IFN-γ and IL-12. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) assay also showed enhanced tumor-specific killing (p<0.05) by CD8(+) T-lymphocytes isolated from mice in the DC+TL+TRF group. This study shows that TRF has the potential to be used as an adjuvant to enhance effectiveness of DC-based vaccines.
  16. Radhakrishnan AK, Mahalingam D, Selvaduray KR, Nesaretnam K
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:782067.
    PMID: 23936847 DOI: 10.1155/2013/782067
    This study compared the ability of three forms of vitamin E [tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF), alpha-tocopherol (α-T), and delta-tocotrienol (δ-T3)] to enhance immune response to tetanus toxoid (TT) immunisation in a mouse model. Twenty BALB/c mice were divided into four groups of five mice each. The mice were fed with the different forms of vitamin E (1 mg) or vehicle daily for two weeks before they were given the TT vaccine [4 Lf] intramuscularly (i.m.). Booster vaccinations were given on days 28 and 42. Serum was collected (days 0, 28, and 56) to quantify anti-TT levels. At autopsy, splenocytes harvested were cultured with TT or mitogens. The production of anti-TT antibodies was augmented (P < 0.05) in mice that were fed with δ-T3 or TRF compared to controls. The production of IFN-γ and IL-4 by splenocytes from the vitamin E treated mice was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that from controls. The IFN-γ production was the highest in animals supplemented with δ-T3 followed by TRF and finally α-T. Production of TNF-α was suppressed in the vitamin E treated group compared to vehicle-supplemented controls. Supplementation with δ-T3 or TRF can enhance immune response to TT immunisation and production of cytokines that promote cell-mediated (TH1) immune response.
  17. Teng KT, Nagapan G, Cheng HM, Nesaretnam K
    Lipids, 2011 Apr;46(4):381-8.
    PMID: 21197586 DOI: 10.1007/s11745-010-3516-y
    Postprandial lipemia impairs insulin sensitivity and triggers the pro-inflammatory state which may lead to the progression of cardiovascular diseases. A randomized, crossover single-blind study (n = 10 healthy men) was designed to compare the effects of a high-fat load (50 g fat), rich in palmitic acid from both plant (palm olein) or animal source (lard) versus an oleic acid-rich fat (virgin olive oil) on lipemia, plasma glucose, insulin and adipocytokines. Serum triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations were significantly lower after the lard meal than after the olive oil and palm olein meals (meal effect P = 0.003; time effect P < 0.001). The greater reduction in the plasma non-esterified free fatty acids levels in the lard group compared to the olive oil meal was mirrored by the changes observed for serum TAG levels (P < 0.05). The magnitude of response for plasma glucose, insulin and adipocytokines [interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and leptin] were not altered by the type of dietary fats. A significant difference in plasma IL-1β was found over time following the three high fat loads (time effect P = 0.036). The physical characteristics and changes in TAG structure of lard may contribute to the smaller increase in postprandial lipemia compared with palm olein. A high fat load but not the type of fats influences concentrations of plasma IL-1β over time but had no effect on other pro-inflammatory markers tested in the postprandial state.
  18. Teng KT, Voon PT, Cheng HM, Nesaretnam K
    Lipids, 2010 May;45(5):385-92.
    PMID: 20437207 DOI: 10.1007/s11745-010-3416-1
    Knowledge about the effects of dietary fats on subclinical inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk are mainly derived from studies conducted in Western populations. Little information is available on South East Asian countries. This current study investigated the chronic effects on serum inflammatory markers, lipids, and lipoproteins of three vegetable oils. Healthy, normolipidemic subjects (n = 41; 33 females, 8 males) completed a randomized, single-blind, crossover study. The subjects consumed high oleic palm olein (HOPO diet: 15% of energy 18:1n-9, 9% of energy 16:0), partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO diet: 7% of energy 18:1n-9, 10% of energy 18:1 trans) and an unhydrogenated palm stearin (PST diet: 11% of energy 18:1n-9, 14% of energy 16:0). Each dietary period lasted 5 weeks with a 7 days washout period. The PHSO diet significantly increased serum concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein compared to HOPO and PST diets (by 26, 23%, respectively; P < 0.05 for both) and significantly decreased interleukin-8 (IL-8) compared to PST diet (by 12%; P < 0.05). In particular PHSO diet, and also PST diet, significantly increased total:HDL cholesterol ratio compared to HOPO diet (by 23, 13%, respectively; P < 0.05), with the PST diet having a lesser effect than the PHSO diet (by 8%; P < 0.05). The use of vegetable oils in their natural state might be preferred over one that undergoes the process of hydrogenation in modulating blood lipids and inflammation.
  19. Weng-Yew W, Selvaduray KR, Ming CH, Nesaretnam K
    Nutr Cancer, 2009;61(3):367-73.
    PMID: 19373610 DOI: 10.1080/01635580802582736
    Previous studies have revealed that tocotrienol-rich fractions (TRF) from palm oil inhibit the proliferation and the growth of solid tumors. The anticancer activity of TRF is said to be caused by several mechanisms, one of which is antiangiogenesis. In this study, we looked at the antiangiogenic effects of TRF. In vitro investigations of the antiangiogenic activities of TRF, delta-tocotrienol (deltaT3), and alpha-tocopherol (alphaToc) were carried out in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). TRF and deltaT3 significantly inhibited cell proliferation from 4 microg/ml onward (P < 0.05). Cell migration was inhibited the most by deltaT3 at 12 microg/ml. Anti-angiogenic properties of TRF were carried out further in vivo using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and BALB/c mice model. TRF at 200 microg/ml reduced the vascular network on CAM. TRF treatment of 1 mg/mouse significantly reduced 4T1 tumor volume in BALB/c mice. TRF significantly reduced serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level in BALB/c mice. In conclusion, this study showed that palm tocotrienols exhibit anti-angiogenic properties that may assist in tumor regression.
  20. Yam ML, Abdul Hafid SR, Cheng HM, Nesaretnam K
    Lipids, 2009 Sep;44(9):787-97.
    PMID: 19655189 DOI: 10.1007/s11745-009-3326-2
    Tocotrienols are powerful chain breaking antioxidant. Moreover, they are now known to exhibit various non-antioxidant properties such as anti-cancer, neuroprotective and hypocholesterolemic functions. This study was undertaken to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) and individual tocotrienol isoforms namely delta-, gamma-, and alpha-tocotrienol on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. The widely studied vitamin E form, alpha-tocopherol, was used as comparison. Stimulation of RAW264.7 with lipopolysaccharide induced the release of various inflammatory markers. 10 mcirog/ml of TRF and all tocotrienol isoforms significantly inhibited the production of interleukin-6 and nitric oxide. However, only alpha-tocotrienol demonstrated a significant effect in lowering tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. Besides, TRF and all tocotrienol isoforms except gamma-tocotrienol reduced prostaglandin E(2) release. It was accompanied by the down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression by all vitamin E forms except alpha-tocopherol. Collectively, the data suggested that tocotrienols are better anti-inflammatory agents than alpha-tocopherol and the most effective form is delta-tocotrienol.
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