Displaying all 15 publications

  1. Usuda S, Masukawa N, Leong KH, Okada K, Onuki Y
    Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 2021;69(9):896-904.
    PMID: 34470954 DOI: 10.1248/cpb.c21-00427
    This study investigated the effect of manufacturing process variables of mini-tablets, in particular, the effect of process variables concerning fluidized bed granulation on tablet weight variation. Test granules were produced with different granulation conditions according to a definitive screening design (DSD). The five evaluated factors assigned to DSD were: the grinding speed of the sample mill at the grinding process of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (X1), microcrystalline cellulose content in granules (X2), inlet air temperature (X3), binder concentration (X4) and the spray speed of the binder solution (X5) at the granulation process. First, the relationships between the evaluated factors and the granule properties were investigated. As a result of the DSD analysis, the mode of action of granulation parameters on the granule properties was fully characterized. Subsequently, the variation in tablet weight was examined. In addition to mini-tablets (3 mm diameter), this experiment assessed regular tablets (8 mm diameter). From the results for regular tablets, the variation in tablet weight was affected by the flowability of granules. By contrast, regarding the mini-tablets, no significant effect on the variation of tablet weight was found from the evaluated factors. From this result, this study further focused on other important factors besides the granulation process, and then the effect of the die-hole position of the multiple-tip tooling on tablet weight variation was proven to be significant. Our findings provide a better understanding of manufacturing mini-tablets.
  2. Hayashi Y, Shirotori K, Kosugi A, Kumada S, Leong KH, Okada K, et al.
    Pharmaceutics, 2020 Jun 28;12(7).
    PMID: 32605318 DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics12070601
    We previously reported a novel method for the precise prediction of tablet properties (e.g., tensile strength (TS)) using a small number of experimental data. The key technique of this method is to compensate for the lack of experimental data by using data of placebo tablets collected in a database. This study provides further technical knowledge to discuss the usefulness of this prediction method. Placebo tablets consisting of microcrystalline cellulose, lactose, and cornstarch were prepared using the design of an experimental method, and their TS and disintegration time (DT) were measured. The response surfaces representing the relationship between the formulation and the tablet properties were then created. This study investigated tablets containing four different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) with a drug load ranging from 20-60%. Overall, the TS of API-containing tablets could be precisely predicted by this method, while the prediction accuracy of the DT was much lower than that of the TS. These results suggested that the mode of action of APIs on the DT was more complicated than that on the TS. Our prediction method could be valuable for the development of tablet formulations.
  3. Ito T, Okada K, Leong KH, Hirai D, Hayashi Y, Kumada S, et al.
    Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 2019;67(3):271-276.
    PMID: 30828004 DOI: 10.1248/cpb.c18-00888
    The different states of water incorporated in wet granules were studied by a low-field benchtop 1H-NMR time-domain NMR (TD-NMR) instrument. Wet granules consisting different fillers [cornstarch (CS), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), and D-mannitol (MAN)] with different water contents were prepared using a high-speed granulator, and then their spin-spin relaxation time (T2) was measured using the NMR relaxation technique. The experimental T2 relaxation curves were analyzed by the two-component curve fitting, and then the individual T2 relaxation behaviors of solid and water in wet granules were identified. According to the observed T2 values, it was confirmed that the molecular mobility of water in CS and MCC granules was more restricted than that in the MAN granule. The state of water appeared to be associated with the drying efficiency and moisture absorption capacity of wet granules. Thus, it was confirmed that the state of water significantly affected the wet granulation process and the characteristics of the resultant granules. In the final phase of this study, the effects of binders on the molecular mobility of water in granulation fluids and wet granules were examined. The state of water in granulation fluids was substantially changed by changing the binders. The difference was still detected in wet granules prepared by addition of these fluids to the fillers. In conclusion, TD-NMR can offer valuable knowledge on wet granulation from the viewpoint of molecular mobility of water.
  4. Ougi K, Okada K, Leong KH, Hayashi Y, Kumada S, Onuki Y
    Eur J Pharm Sci, 2020 Nov 01;154:105502.
    PMID: 32750421 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejps.2020.105502
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of molecular mobility of water adsorbed by disintegrants on the hydrolytic degradation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Fourteen different disintegrants were tested. First, powdered disintegrants were stored at conditions of 40 °C/75% relative humidity ("humid conditions") and their T2 relaxation times were measured by time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance for examination of the molecular mobility of water adsorbed by the disintegrant. From the observed T2 values, the water molecular mobility was fully characterized. In particular, the molecular mobility of water adsorbed by crospovidones was much higher than the molecular mobility of water adsorbed by the other test disintegrants because of longer T2 values. The next study examined the hydrolytic degradation of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), a model moisture-sensitive API, stored under humid conditions. Physical mixtures of ASA and disintegrants or their model tablets were used as test samples, and they were stored for 7 d. The disintegrants contained in the samples clearly affected the ASA degradation: the most significant ASA degradation was observed for the crospovidone-containing samples. Finally, we analyzed the effect of the molecular mobility of water adsorbed by disintegrants on the ASA degradation by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) regression techniques. As in the T2 experiment, various properties of disintegrants (i.e., water content, pH, and water activity) were used in this experiment as the explanatory variables. From the Lasso analysis, we successfully showed that the higher molecular mobility of water adsorbed by disintegrants significantly enhanced ASA degradation. These findings provide profound insights into the chemical stability of moisture-sensitive APIs in tablets.
  5. Ougi K, Hayashi Y, Tsuji T, Ito T, Hoong Leong K, Usuda S, et al.
    Int J Pharm, 2021 Jun 07.
    PMID: 34111545 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120770
    The application of time-domain NMR (TD-NMR) analysis to quantify water content in pharmaceutical ingredients is demonstrated. The initial phase of the study employed a range of disintegrants with defined amounts of added water (0-30% of the total weight) as samples; the disintegrants included croscarmellose sodium, corn starch, low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose, and crospovidone. After acquisition of the T2 relaxation curves of the samples by TD-NMR measurements, these curves were analyzed by partial least squares (PLS) regression. According to the analysis, accurate and reliable PLS models were created that enabled accurate assessment of water content in the samples. A powder blend consisting of acetaminophen (paracetamol) and tablet excipients was also examined. Both a physical mixture of the powder blend and a wet granule prepared with a high-speed granulator were tested as samples in this study. Precise determination of water content in the powder blend was achieved by using the TD-NMR method. The accuracy of water content determination was equivalent to or better than that of the conventional loss on drying method. TD-NMR analysis samples were measured nondestructively and rapidly with low cost; thus, it could be a powerful quantitative method for determining water content in pharmaceuticals.
  6. Kosugi A, Leong KH, Tsuji H, Hayashi Y, Kumada S, Okada K, et al.
    J Pharm Sci, 2020 Aug;109(8):2585-2593.
    PMID: 32473211 DOI: 10.1016/j.xphs.2020.05.010
    The purpose of this study was to accumulate enhanced technical knowledge about the powder properties of direct compaction grades of mannitol that could lead to new tablet formulations. Fifteen different commercial direct compaction grades of mannitol were tested. Ten different powder properties representing flowability, particle size, specific surface area and manufacturing properties were measured. In addition, model tablets of each mannitol grade were prepared, and their disintegration time, friability, and tensile strength were measured. The data were analyzed by principle component analysis and a Kohonen self-organizing map to find correlations between powder properties. Self-organizing map clustering successfully classified the test grades into 5 distinct clusters having different powder properties. Each cluster was well characterized by statistical profiling. Subsequently, the contribution of the powder properties to the tablet properties was investigated by a least absolute shrinkage- and selection operator (Lasso) regression model. Mannitol grades with a larger particle size (D90) were prone to produce tablets with longer disintegration time, while a larger specific surface area of the particles was positively associated with tablets with higher mechanical strength. Our findings provide valuable information for the design of tablet formulations.
  7. Chiba Y, Okada K, Hayashi Y, Leong KH, Kumada S, Onuki Y
    Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 2022;70(2):162-168.
    PMID: 35110437 DOI: 10.1248/cpb.c21-00975
    NMR relaxometry measurement by time domain NMR (TD-NMR) is a promising technique for characterizing the properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). This study is dedicated to identifying the salt and free base of APIs by NMR relaxometry measured by the TD-NMR technique. Procaine (PC) and tetracaine (TC) were selected as model APIs to be tested. By using conventional methods including powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, this study first confirmed that the salt and free base of the tested APIs differ from each other in their crystalline form. Subsequently, measurements of T1 and T2 relaxation were performed on the tested APIs using TD-NMR. The results demonstrated that these NMR relaxometry measurements have sufficient capacity to distinguish the difference between the free base and salt of the tested APIs. Furthermore, quantification of the composition of the binary powder blends consisting of salt and free bases was conducted by analyzing the acquired T1 and T2 relaxation curves. The analysis of the T1 relaxation curves provided a partly acceptable estimation: a good estimation of the composition was observed from PC powders, whereas for TC powders the estimation accuracy changed with the free base content in the binary blends. For the analysis on T2 relaxation curves, a precise estimation of the composition was observed from all the samples. From these findings, the NMR relaxometry measurement by TD-NMR, in particular the T2 relaxation measurement, is effective for evaluating the properties of APIs having different crystalline forms.
  8. Tsuji T, Ono T, Taguchi H, Leong KH, Hayashi Y, Kumada S, et al.
    Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 2023;71(7):576-583.
    PMID: 37394606 DOI: 10.1248/cpb.c23-00214
    Time-domain NMR (TD-NMR) was used for continuous monitoring of the hydration behavior of hydrophilic matrix tablets. The model matrix tablets comprised high molecular weight polyethylene oxide (PEO), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The model tablets were immersed in water. Their T2 relaxation curves were acquired by TD-NMR with solid-echo sequence. A curve-fitting analysis was conducted on the acquired T2 relaxation curves to identify the NMR signals corresponding to the nongelated core remaining in the samples. The amount of nongelated core was estimated from the NMR signal intensity. The estimated values were consistent with the experiment measurement values. Next, the model tablets immersed in water were monitored continuously using TD-NMR. The difference in hydration behaviors of the HPMC and PEO matrix tablets was then characterized fully. The nongelated core of the HPMC matrix tablets disappeared more slowly than that of the PEO matrix tablets. The behavior of HPMC was significantly affected by the PEG content in the tablets. It is suggested that the TD-NMR method has potential to be utilized to evaluate the gel layer properties, upon replacement of the immersion medium: purified (nondeuterated) water is replaced with heavy (deuterated) water. Finally, drug-containing matrix tablets were tested. Diltiazem hydrochloride (a highly water-soluble drug) was employed for this experiment. Reasonable in vitro drug dissolution profiles, which were in accordance with the results from TD-NMR experiments, were observed. We concluded that TD-NMR is a powerful tool to evaluate the hydration properties of hydrophilic matrix tablets.
  9. Nakamoto H, Fujita T, Origasa H, Isono M, Kurumatani H, Okada K, et al.
    BMC Nephrol, 2014;15:153.
    PMID: 25233856 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2369-15-153
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is public health concern even in Asian countries. TRK-100STP, a sustained release tablet of an orally-active prostacyclin analogue, beraprost sodium, is suggested to suppress worsening of some parameters of renal filtration function, containing in slope of 1/serum creatinine (1/SCr) vs. time in a phase II clinical trial.
  10. Mpofu E, Alias A, Tomita K, Suzuki-Minakuchi C, Tomita K, Chakraborty J, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2021 Jun;273:129663.
    PMID: 33515965 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129663
    Azoxystrobin (AZ) is a broad-spectrum synthetic fungicide widely used in agriculture globally. However, there are concerns about its fate and effects in the environment. It is reportedly transformed into azoxystrobin acid as a major metabolite by environmental microorganisms. Bacillus licheniformis strain TAB7 is used as a compost deodorant in commercial compost and has been found to degrade some phenolic and agrochemicals compounds. In this article, we report its ability to degrade azoxystrobin by novel degradation pathway. Biotransformation analysis followed by identification by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (MS), high-resolution MS, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy identified methyl (E)-3-amino-2-(2-((6-(2-cyanophenoxy)pyrimidin-4-yl)oxy)phenyl)acrylate, or (E)-azoxystrobin amine in short, and (Z) isomers of AZ and azoxystrobin amine as the metabolites of (E)-AZ by TAB7. Bioassay testing using Magnaporthe oryzae showed that although 40 μg/mL of (E)-AZ inhibited 59.5 ± 3.5% of the electron transfer activity between mitochondrial Complexes I and III in M. oryzae, the same concentration of (E)-azoxystrobin amine inhibited only 36.7 ± 15.1% of the activity, and a concentration of 80 μg/mL was needed for an inhibition rate of 56.8 ± 7.4%, suggesting that (E)-azoxystrobin amine is less toxic than the parent compound. To our knowledge, this is the first study identifying azoxystrobin amine as a less-toxic metabolite from bacterial AZ degradation and reporting on the enzymatic isomerization of (E)-AZ to (Z)-AZ, to some extent, by TAB7. Although the fate of AZ in the soil microcosm supplemented with TAB7 will be needed, our findings broaden our knowledge of possible AZ biotransformation products.
  11. Huang Y, Guo L, Xie L, Shang N, Wu D, Ye C, et al.
    Gigascience, 2024 Jan 02;13.
    PMID: 38486346 DOI: 10.1093/gigascience/giae006
    Commelinales belongs to the commelinids clade, which also comprises Poales that includes the most important monocot species, such as rice, wheat, and maize. No reference genome of Commelinales is currently available. Water hyacinth (Pontederia crassipes or Eichhornia crassipes), a member of Commelinales, is one of the devastating aquatic weeds, although it is also grown as an ornamental and medical plant. Here, we present a chromosome-scale reference genome of the tetraploid water hyacinth with a total length of 1.22 Gb (over 95% of the estimated size) across 8 pseudochromosome pairs. With the representative genomes, we reconstructed a phylogeny of the commelinids, which supported Zingiberales and Commelinales being sister lineages of Arecales and shed lights on the controversial relationship of the orders. We also reconstructed ancestral karyotypes of the commelinids clade and confirmed the ancient commelinids genome having 8 chromosomes but not 5 as previously reported. Gene family analysis revealed contraction of disease-resistance genes during polyploidization of water hyacinth, likely a result of fitness requirement for its role as a weed. Genetic diversity analysis using 9 water hyacinth lines from 3 continents (South America, Asia, and Europe) revealed very closely related nuclear genomes and almost identical chloroplast genomes of the materials, as well as provided clues about the global dispersal of water hyacinth. The genomic resources of P. crassipes reported here contribute a crucial missing link of the commelinids species and offer novel insights into their phylogeny.
  12. Kawarada O, Hozawa K, Zen K, Huang HL, Kim SH, Choi D, et al.
    Cardiovasc Interv Ther, 2020 Jan;35(1):52-61.
    PMID: 31292931 DOI: 10.1007/s12928-019-00602-z
    With technological improvements in the endovascular armamentarium, there have been tremendous advances in catheter-based femoropopliteal artery intervention during the last decade. However, standardization of the methodology for assessing outcomes has been underappreciated, and unvalidated peak systolic velocity ratios (PSVRs) of 2.0, 2.4, and 2.5 on duplex ultrasonography have been arbitrarily but routinely used for assessing restenosis. Quantitative vessel analysis (QVA) is a widely accepted method to identify restenosis in a broad spectrum of cardiovascular interventions, and PSVR needs to be validated by QVA. This multidisciplinary review is intended to disseminate the importance of QVA and a validated PSVR based on QVA for binary restenosis in contemporary femoropopliteal intervention.
  13. Nakamoto H, Yu XQ, Kim S, Origasa H, Zheng H, Chen J, et al.
    Ther Apher Dial, 2020 Feb;24(1):42-55.
    PMID: 31119846 DOI: 10.1111/1744-9987.12840
    TRK-100STP, a sustained-release preparation of the orally active prostacyclin analogue beraprost sodium, targets renal hypoxia. This study aimed to show the superiority of TRK-100STP over placebos in patients with chronic kidney disease (with either primary glomerular disease or nephrosclerosis) to determine the recommended dose. CASSIOPEIR (Chronic Renal Failure Asian Study with Oral PGI2 Derivative for Evaluating Improvement of Renal Function) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted at 160 sites in seven Asia-Pacific countries and regions. Eligible patients (n = 892) were randomized to TRK-100STP 120, 240 μg, or placebo for a treatment period of up to 4 years. The primary efficacy endpoint was time to first occurrence of a renal composite: doubling of serum creatinine or occurrence of end-stage renal disease. No significant differences were observed in composite endpoints between TRK-100STP and placebo (P = 0.5674). Hazard ratios (95% CI) in the TRK-100STP 120 and 240 μg vs. placebo groups were 0.98 (0.78, 1.22) and 0.91 (0.72, 1.14), respectively. The overall incidence of adverse events and adverse drug reactions was comparable between treatment arms.
  14. Cannarella R, Shah R, Hamoda TAA, Boitrelle F, Saleh R, Gul M, et al.
    World J Mens Health, 2024 Jan;42(1):92-132.
    PMID: 37382284 DOI: 10.5534/wjmh.230034
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this meta-analysis is to study the impact of varicocele repair in the largest cohort of infertile males with clinical varicocele by including all available studies, with no language restrictions, comparing intra-person conventional semen parameters before and after the repair of varicoceles.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The meta-analysis was performed according to PRISMA-P and MOOSE guidelines. A systematic search was performed in Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase databases. Eligible studies were selected according to the PICOS model (Population: infertile male patients with clinical varicocele; Intervention: varicocele repair; Comparison: intra-person before-after varicocele repair; Outcome: conventional semen parameters; Study type: randomized controlled trials [RCTs], observational and case-control studies).

    RESULTS: Out of 1,632 screened abstracts, 351 articles (23 RCTs, 292 observational, and 36 case-control studies) were included in the quantitative analysis. The before-and-after analysis showed significant improvements in all semen parameters after varicocele repair (except sperm vitality); semen volume: standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.203, 95% CI: 0.129-0.278; p<0.001; I²=83.62%, Egger's p=0.3329; sperm concentration: SMD 1.590, 95% CI: 1.474-1.706; p<0.001; I²=97.86%, Egger's p<0.0001; total sperm count: SMD 1.824, 95% CI: 1.526-2.121; p<0.001; I²=97.88%, Egger's p=0.0063; total motile sperm count: SMD 1.643, 95% CI: 1.318-1.968; p<0.001; I²=98.65%, Egger's p=0.0003; progressive sperm motility: SMD 1.845, 95% CI: 1.537%-2.153%; p<0.001; I²=98.97%, Egger's p<0.0001; total sperm motility: SMD 1.613, 95% CI 1.467%-1.759%; p<0.001; l2=97.98%, Egger's p<0.001; sperm morphology: SMD 1.066, 95% CI 0.992%-1.211%; p<0.001; I²=97.87%, Egger's p=0.1864.

    CONCLUSIONS: The current meta-analysis is the largest to date using paired analysis on varicocele patients. In the current meta-analysis, almost all conventional semen parameters improved significantly following varicocele repair in infertile patients with clinical varicocele.

  15. Shah R, Agarwal A, Kavoussi P, Rambhatla A, Saleh R, Cannarella R, et al.
    World J Mens Health, 2023 Jan;41(1):164-197.
    PMID: 35791302 DOI: 10.5534/wjmh.220048
    PURPOSE: Varicocele is a common problem among infertile men. Varicocele repair (VR) is frequently performed to improve semen parameters and the chances of pregnancy. However, there is a lack of consensus about the diagnosis, indications for VR and its outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore global practice patterns on the management of varicocele in the context of male infertility.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty practicing urologists/andrologists from 23 countries contributed 382 multiple-choice-questions pertaining to varicocele management. These were condensed into an online questionnaire that was forwarded to clinicians involved in male infertility management through direct invitation. The results were analyzed for disagreement and agreement in practice patterns and, compared with the latest guidelines of international professional societies (American Urological Association [AUA], American Society for Reproductive Medicine [ASRM], and European Association of Urology [EAU]), and with evidence emerging from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Additionally, an expert opinion on each topic was provided based on the consensus of 16 experts in the field.

    RESULTS: The questionnaire was answered by 574 clinicians from 59 countries. The majority of respondents were urologists/uro-andrologists. A wide diversity of opinion was seen in every aspect of varicocele diagnosis, indications for repair, choice of technique, management of sub-clinical varicocele and the role of VR in azoospermia. A significant proportion of the responses were at odds with the recommendations of AUA, ASRM, and EAU. A large number of clinical situations were identified where no guidelines are available.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study is the largest global survey performed to date on the clinical management of varicocele for male infertility. It demonstrates: 1) a wide disagreement in the approach to varicocele management, 2) large gaps in the clinical practice guidelines from professional societies, and 3) the need for further studies on several aspects of varicocele management in infertile men.

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