Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

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  1. Ong HT, Ong LM, Ho JJ
    ISRN Cardiol, 2013;2013:478597.
    PMID: 24307952 DOI: 10.1155/2013/478597
    Context. Whether angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB) are useful in high risk patients without heart failure is unclear. We perform a meta-analysis of prospective randomized placebo-controlled ACEI or ARB trials studying patients with a combination of risk factors to assess treatment impact on all cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Method. A PubMed search was made for placebo-controlled trials recruiting at least 1,200 high risk patients randomized to either ACEI or ARB, with follow-up of at least 2 years. Meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5 program and Mantel-Haenszel analysis was done with a fixed effects model. Results. Ten trials recruiting 77,633 patients were reviewed. All cause mortality was significantly reduced by ACEI (RR 0.89; P = 0.0008), but not by ARB treatment (RR 1.00; P = 0.89). Cardiovascular mortality and nonfatal MI were also reduced in the ACEI trials but not with ARB therapy. Stroke was significantly reduced in the ACEI trials (RR 0.75; P < 0.00001) and more modestly reduced in the ARB trials (RR 0.90; P = 0.01). Conclusion. ACEI treatment reduced stroke, nonfatal MI, cardiovascular and total mortality in high risk patients, while ARB modestly reduced stroke with no effect on nonfatal MI, cardiovascular and total mortality.
  2. Ong HT, Ong LM, Kow FP
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Feb;67(1):7-11.
    PMID: 22582541 MyJurnal
    Beta-blockers are underutilised in heart failure because clinicians may be unsure whether all beta-blockers are useful, how therapy should be initiated and whether beta-blockers are contraindicated in some patients. Bisoprolol, carvedilol and metoprolol succinate have been clearly proven to reduce mortality and hospitalisation in patients with Class II to IV heart failure; limited evidence also support short-acting metoprolol tartrate and nebivolol. Initiating dose should be very low (1.25 mg bisoprolol, 3.125 mg carvedilol, 12.5 mg metoprolol succinate) and increased gradually over weeks. Treatment benefit appears proportional to magnitude of heart rate reduction and thus target dose should be the maximum tolerated for adequate bradycardia. Even in decompensated heart failure or those with coexisting bronchospasm, beta-blockers are not contraindicated although the dose may have to be reduced or withheld temporarily. The consistent trial data should reassure clinicians and encourage them to confidently initiate beta blockers in patients with systolic heart failure.
  3. Danial M, Sivasangari S, Arulappen A, Ong L
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2016;17(3):1363-8.
    PMID: 27039773
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection with serious medical, sexual, and relationship consequences. HPV vaccine protection is available globally but unfortunately vaccine uptake is inconsistent everywhere. From this study, it was observed that the awareness of cervical cancer, HPV virus and HPV vaccination in Malaysia is high, at 83.1%, 73.9% and 73.3% of respondents, respectively. However, a considerably low percentage had undergone HPV vaccination (8.6%) compared to those who had experienced a Pap smear (32.9%). Awareness between cervical cancer and HPV virus and vaccination was low. Health care providers and the governing bodies have to play a vital role in disseminating holistic information on the vaccine and the importance of getting vaccinated to the public more vigorously in Malaysia.
  4. Ong HT, Ong LM, Tan TE, Chean KY
    Med J Malaysia, 2013 Apr;68(2):189-94.
    PMID: 23629578 MyJurnal
    The clycoxygenase (COX) enzyme forms locally active prostaglandins responsible for producing inflammation and pain. Classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) inhibit the COX-2 enzyme that produces inflammatory prostaglandins as well as the COX-1 enzyme that produces gastric mucosa protecting prostaglandins. By specifically inhibiting only the COX-2 enzyme, coxibs thus reduce pain but do not damage the gastric mucosa. However, COX-2 at the vascular endothelium produces antithrombotic prostaglandins, and so by inhibiting COX-2 enzyme, the coxibs promote thrombosis. Rofecoxib and valdecoxib have been withdrawn because of the adverse cardiovascular events they induce. Amongst presently available coxibs cardiovascular risk is highest with enterocoxib and lowest with celecoxib. NSAIDS also increase cardiovascular events, the risk is highest with diclofenac and lowest with naproxen. Paracetamol and corticosteroids induce hypertension, while steroids also adversely affect the heart from metabolic change as well as fluid retention. Aspirin is an anti-thrombotic agent because of its ability to inhibit the COX-1 enzyme that produces the pro-aggregatory thromboxane. However, it increases gastrointestinal bleeding, can promote fluid retention and is nephrotoxic, all of which may lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Patients at especially high risk of cardiovascular events from analgesic use include the elderly, and those with heart failure, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic renal disease, chronic obstructive airway disease and previous myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease or peripheral vascular disease. Adverse cardiovascular events can occur within a week of initiation of analgesic treatment.
  5. Ong LM, Punithavathi N, Lena YLL, Mahanim O, Leekha S, Storvas Clinical Trial Study Group
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Aug;66(3):214-9.
    PMID: 22111443
    A multicentre study was conducted to assess the long term efficacy and safety of a generic atorvastatin in the treatment of primary hypercholesterolaemia. Eighty five patients who received 10mg or 20 mg of atorvastatin for 8 weeks depending on target cholesterol goal were followed up by their own physicians and had final evaluation at 52 weeks. Reduction in mean low density Lipoprotein (LDL-C) was 36.5%, 37.9% and 32.2% at weeks 4, 8 and 52 respectively. LDL-C target was maintained in 81% and 69% of patients at week 8 and 52 respectively without drug related serious adverse events. Generic atorvastatin is safe and effective in usual clinical care setting.
  6. Ong HT, Oung LS, Ong LM, Tan KP
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Mar;65(1):18-20.
    PMID: 21265241 MyJurnal
    A study of residents at the Silver Jubilee Home for the Aged was conducted to determine the prevalence, awareness and control of hypertension in this elderly community in Penang, Malaysia. Prevalence of hypertension was 36%, with 81% of patients being initially aware of this diagnosis. This relatively low hypertension prevalence rate may be because residents have a fairly sheltered lifestyle with less social stress and a daily routine that incorporates adequate exercise. Similarly, the high hypertension awareness rate compared to reported figures in the community may be because residents are more regularly monitored by the attending medical care-givers. At the beginning of the study, only 34% of hypertensive patients were well controlled with a blood pressure less than 140/90 mm Hg. This proportion rose to 53% at the end of study period. Compliance is better at a residential home because medication is served by their care-givers and cost is absorbed in this charitable organization. Our study suggests that hypertension awareness and control can be reasonable for the elderly in a residential home.
  7. Punithavathi N, Ong LM, Lena YL, Leekha S, Storvas Clinical Trial Study Group
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Jun;64(2):150-4.
    PMID: 20058576 MyJurnal
    A multicenter study was conducted to assess the efficacy of a generic form of Atorvastatin (Ranbaxy's Storvas) in the treatment of Primary Hypercholesterolemia. One hundred and nineteen patients were given 10 mg of Storvas for four weeks and increased to 20 mg if target LDL-Cholesterol was not achieved. LDL-Cholesterol was reduced by 36.6% at four weeks and 37.5% at eight weeks from baseline. Total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly reduced. There were no drug-related serious adverse events. We conclude that the generic atorvastatin is safe and effective in the treatment of primary hypercholesterolaemia and the results are comparable to published data on innovator atorvastatin.
  8. Danial M, Hassali MA, Ong LM, Khan AH
    BMC Pharmacol Toxicol, 2018 Aug 29;19(1):52.
    PMID: 30157959 DOI: 10.1186/s40360-018-0243-0
    BACKGROUND: Accurate identification and routine preventive practices are crucial steps in lessening the incidence of medications and patients related adverse drug reactions (ADRs).

    METHODS: Three years retrospective study was conducted among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients at multi-wards in a tertiary healthcare center. Data collected included demographic characteristics, physical examination results, comorbid conditions, laboratory tests and medications taken. Only medication prescribed during the hospital stay were considered in this study.

    RESULTS: From this study only one ADR incident was definitely preventable and majority of other ADRs (88.3%) were possibly preventable. Type of renal replacement therapy (p = 0.023) and stages of renal function (p = 0.002) were significantly associated with survivability of the hospitalized CKD patients after ADRs. Highest percentage of mortality based on categories were 50-59 years (20.0%), male (16.3%), Indian ethnicity (23.7%), obese (15.0%), smoking (17.1%), consumes alcohol (17.4%), conservative management of renal disease (19.5%) and renal function of
  9. Punithavathi N, Ong LM, Irfhan Ali HA, Mohd Izmi IA, Dharminy T, Ang AH, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2014 Feb;69(1):16-20.
    PMID: 24814623 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Conventional Chest Physiotherapy (CCPT) remains the mainstay of treatment for sputum mobilization in patients with productive cough such as bronchiectasis and "Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease" (COPD). However CCPT is time consuming requires the assistance of a physiotherapist and limits the independence of the patient. Mechanical percussors which are electrical devices used to provide percussion to the external chest wall might provide autonomy and greater compliance. We compared safety and efficacy of a mechanical chest percusser devised by Formedic Technology with conventional chest percussion.
    METHODS: Twenty patients (mean age 64years) were randomly assigned to receive either CCPT or mechanical percussor on the first day and crossed over by "Latin square randomisation" to alternative treatment for 6 consecutive days and the amount of sputum expectorated was compared by dry and wet weight. Adverse events and willingness to use was assessed by a home diary and a questionnaire.
    RESULTS: There were 13 males and 7 females, eight diagnosed as bronchiectasis and 12 COPD. The mean dry weight of sputum induced by CCPT (0.54g ± 0.32) was significantly more compared with MP (0.40g + 0.11); p-value = 0.002. The mean wet weight of sputum with CCPT (10.71g ± 8.70) was also significantly more compared with MP (5.99g ± 4.5); p-value < 0.001. There were no significant difference in adverse events and majority of patients were willing to use the device by themselves.
    CONCLUSION: The mechanical percussor although produces less sputum is well tolerated and can be a useful adjunct to CCPT.
  10. Lim YN, Lim TO, Lee DG, Wong HS, Ong LM, Shaariah W, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Sep;63 Suppl C:5-8.
    PMID: 19230240
    The Malaysian National Renal Registry was set up in 1992 to collect data for patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT). We present here the report of the Malaysian dialysis registry. The objectives of this papar are: (1) To examine the overall provision of dialysis treatment in Malaysia and its trend from 1980 to 2006. (2) To assess the treatment rate according to the states in the country. (3) To describe the method, location and funding of dialysis. (4) To characterise the patients accepted for dialysis treatment. (5) To analyze the outcomes of the dialysis treatment. Data on patients receiving dialysis treatment were collected at initiation of dialysis, at the time of any significant outcome, as well as yearly. The number of dialysis patients increased from 59 in 1980 to almost 15,000 in 2006. The dialysis acceptance rate increased from 3 per million population in 1980 to 116 per million population in 2006, and the prevalence rate from 4 to 550 per million population over the same period. The economically advantaged states of Malaysia had much higher dialysis treatment rates compared to the less economically advanced states. Eighty to 90% of new dialysis patients were accepted into centre haemodialysis (HD), and the rest into the chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) programme. The government provided about half of the funding for dialysis treatment. Patients older than 55 years accounted for the largest proportion of new patients on dialysis since the 1990s. Diabetes mellitus has been the main cause of ESRD and accounted for more than 50% of new ESRD since 2002. Annual death rate averaged about 10% on HD and 15% on CAPD. The unadjusted 5-year patient survival on both HD and CAPD was about 80%. Fifty percent of dialysis patients reported very good median QoL index score. About 70% of dialysis patients were about to work full or part time. There has been a very rapid growth of dialysis provision in Malaysia particularly in the older age groups. ESRD caused by diabetes mellitus, despite being a preventable and treatable cause of ESRD--has increased and accounted for more than 50% of incident dialysis patients. Death and survival rates on dialysis are comparable to those from other countries.
  11. Goh BL, Ong LM, Sivanandam S, Lim TO, Morad Z, Biogeneric EPO Study Group
    Nephrology (Carlton), 2007 Oct;12(5):431-6.
    PMID: 17803464
    Treatment of renal anaemia with epoetin is well established. However, epoetin is expensive. Biogeneric epoetin with proven efficacy would reduce cost and improve access to therapy. We conducted this first ever comparative study of a biogeneric and the original product.
  12. Neelamegam M, Looi I, Cheah WK, Narayanan P, Hamid AM, Ong LM
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S77-9.
    PMID: 23295169 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.12.022
    This community based incidence study aims to report the stroke incidence in the south-west region of the Penang Island.
  13. Lee YF, Merican H, Nallusamy R, Ong LM, Mohamed Nazir P, Hamzah HB, et al.
    Am J Infect Control, 2016 06 01;44(6):e95-7.
    PMID: 26897697 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2015.12.031
    Hand hygiene auditing is mandatory for all Malaysian public hospitals; nonetheless, the burden of auditing is impacting the support and sustainability of the program. We report an alternative method to routinely measure hand hygiene compliance with the aim to test whether alcohol-based handrub purchase data could be used as a proxy for usage because human auditing has decreased validity and reliability inherent in the methodology.
  14. Kow FP, Adlina B, Sivasangari S, Punithavathi N, Ng KK, Ang AH, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2018 08;73(4):233-238.
    PMID: 30121686 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: As pharmacological treatment of hypertension has become a burden worldwide, the study looked into nonpharmacological ways of reducing blood pressure. The objective was to determine if music guided, slow and deep breathing will reduce the blood pressure among patients with hypertension in eight weeks.

    METHODS: A participant blinded, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial was conducted in which the participants in the intervention group (IG) practiced deep breathing exercise guided by sound cues and those in the control group (CG) listened to the music. The primary end point was reduction in blood pressure at eight weeks.

    RESULTS: 87 patients, 46 males and 41 females with mean age of 61.1 years were recruited and 93.1% of them successfully completed the study. There was significant reduction in systolic and diastolic Blood Pressure from baseline by 8 weeks in both groups. The reduction in Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the control arm was 10.5mmHg compared to 8.3mmHg (p<0.001) in intervention group. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) reduction in control and intervention groups were 5.2 mmHg (p<0.001) and 5.6 mmHg (p<0.001) respectively. The absolute difference in SBP reduction from baseline in IG & CG was -2.2 (95%CI: -7.8 to 3.5) and DBP was -0.4 (95%CI: -2.9 to 3.6). However, blood pressure reduction between the two groups was not significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both listening to music and deep breathing exercise were associated with a clinically significant reduction in SBP and DBP. However, deep breathing exercise did not augment the benefit of music in reducing BP.

  15. Mak WY, Ong LM, Goh BL, Bavanandan S, Mushahar L, Leong CT, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2019 03 08;9(3):e024589.
    PMID: 30852538 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024589
    INTRODUCTION: Peritonitis is a major complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), the risk of which is significantly influenced by the type of PD transfer system. Although the Y-disconnect and double-bag system is more efficient in preventing peritonitis compared with the spike system, little information is available to differentiate risks between different brands of the Y-disconnect double-bag system. A randomised controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a newly introduced system is needed to provide the necessary clinical evidence to guide policy decision-making.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study is an open-label randomised controlled trial. A total of 434 patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing CAPD will be enrolled and randomised to either the intervention group, Stay Safe Link, or the control group, Stay Safe. All study subjects will be followed up and monitored for 1 year. The primary safety outcome is the rate of peritonitis while the primary efficacy outcomes are the delivered dialysis dose and ultrafiltration volume.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Medical Research Ethics Committee, National Institute of Health Malaysia. A written informed consent will be obtained from all participating subjects prior to any trial-related procedure and the study conduct will adhere strictly to Good Clinical Practice. The findings will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03177031; Pre-results.

  16. Hooi LS, Ong LM, Ahmad G, Bavanandan S, Ahmad NA, Naidu BM, et al.
    Kidney Int, 2013 Nov;84(5):1034-40.
    PMID: 23760287 DOI: 10.1038/ki.2013.220
    In this population-based study, we determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in West Malaysia in order to have accurate information for health-care planning. A sample of 876 individuals, representative of 15,147 respondents from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011, of the noninstitutionalized adult population (over 18 years old) in West Malaysia was studied. We measured the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (CKD-EPI equation); albuminuria and stages of chronic kidney disease were derived from calibrated serum creatinine, age, gender and early morning urine albumin creatinine ratio. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in this group was 9.07%. An estimated 4.16% had stage 1 chronic kidney disease (eGFR >90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and persistent albuminuria), 2.05% had stage 2 (eGFR 60-89 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and persistent albuminuria), 2.26% had stage 3 (eGFR 30-59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), 0.24% had stage 4 (eGFR 15-29 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), and 0.36% had stage 5 chronic kidney disease (eGFR <15 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)). Only 4% of respondents with chronic kidney disease were aware of their diagnosis. Risk factors included increased age, diabetes, and hypertension. Thus, chronic kidney disease in West Malaysia is common and, therefore, warrants early detection and treatment in order to potentially improve outcome.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2011)
  17. Yam MF, Ang LF, Salman IM, Ameer OZ, Lim V, Ong LM, et al.
    J Med Food, 2009 Oct;12(5):1089-97.
    PMID: 19857074 DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2008.0005
    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth., which is used as a gastroprotective herbal remedy in Malaysia, was assessed for its anti-ulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers in rats. Fifty percent methanol was used to extract the oven-dried O. stamineus leaves. The extract was then lyophilized with a rotary evaporator and freeze-dried. Oral administration of O. stamineus methanolic extract (OSME) (125, 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg) was found to significantly decrease the ulcer index (P < .01, P < .001, P < .001, and P < .001, respectively). Histological study of a section of the rat stomach also showed a marked improvement in the gastric mucosal damage in groups receiving OSME. In order to further investigate the gastroprotective mechanism of OSME, mucus secretion and lipid peroxidation level were estimated in vitro and ex vivo. OSME exhibited dose-dependent stimulation of mucus secretion (r = 0.718, P < .001) and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat gastric mucosal homogenates (both in vitro [r = 0.819, P < .05] and ex vivo [r = 0.981, P < .05]). It was concluded that the gastroprotective mechanism of OSME was partly due to its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation and stimulate gastric mucus secretion.
  18. Ong LM, Ch'ng CC, Wee HC, Supramaniam P, Zainal H, Goh BL, et al.
    Perit Dial Int, 2016 05 04;37(1):35-43.
    PMID: 27147287 DOI: 10.3747/pdi.2015.00141
    ♦ BACKGROUND: Peritonitis is one of the most common complications of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Understanding the risk factors of peritonitis in a multi-racial Asian population may help to improve outcomes on PD. ♦ METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study to identify risk factors for PD-related peritonitis over a 1-year period in 15 adult PD centers. All peritonitis episodes were independently adjudicated. ♦ RESULTS: A total of 1,603 participants with a mean age of 51.6 years comprising 52.7% females, 62.6% ethnic Malays, 27.0% Chinese, and 8.1% Indians were recruited. The overall peritonitis rate was 1 episode per 44.0 patient-months with 354 episodes recorded in 282 (17.6%) patients over 15,588 patient-months. Significant risk factors of peritonitis were severe obesity (incidence-rate ratio [IRR] 3.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30, 8.45), hypoalbuminemia (IRR 1.61, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.46), Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage (IRR 2.26, 95% CI: 1.46, 3.50), and use of Fresenius system (Fresenius Medical Care North America, Waltham, MA, USA) (IRR 2.49, 95% CI: 1.27, 4.89). The risk of peritonitis was lower in those on automated PD compared with standard PD (IRR 0.43, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.74), and in centers with a patient-staff ratio of 15 to 29.9 (IRR 0.67, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.90) and ≥ 30 (IRR 0.52, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.80). Prevalent patients and exit-site care with topical antibiotics were also protective against peritonitis. Peritonitis rates varied between racial groups. The IRRs of overall peritonitis and gram-positive peritonitis in Chinese versus other racial groups were 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.90) and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.24, 0.91), respectively. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Multiple patient, center, and PD-system factors influence the risk of peritonitis. In the Asian population, there are racial differences in the risk of peritonitis.
  19. Surendra NK, Abdul Manaf MR, Hooi LS, Bavanandan S, Mohamad Nor FS, Shah Firdaus Khan S, et al.
    BMC Nephrol, 2019 04 30;20(1):151.
    PMID: 31039745 DOI: 10.1186/s12882-019-1326-x
    BACKGROUND: Health related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important predictor of clinical outcomes for End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients and to establish quality adjusted life years (QALYs) for economic evaluation studies. This study aims to measure the health utilities and to identify socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with HRQOL for haemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 141 patients (77 HD and 64 CAPD) from 1 federal and four state hospitals participated in this cross-sectional study. Patients were randomly selected from the National Renal Registry (NRR) using a stratified random sampling. The EQ-5D-3 L questionnaire was used to measure HRQOL. Variables investigated include dialysis modalities, sociodemographic characteristics, co-morbidities and biochemical markers. Utilities are measured on an ordinal scale of 0-1, where 1 indicates full health and 0 indicates death.

    RESULTS: The mean utility scores were 0.854 ± 0.181 and 0.905 ± 0.124 (p > 0.05) and the mean Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores were 76.2 ± 12.90 and 77.1 ± 10.26 (p > 0.05) for HD and CAPD patients respectively. There was a significant difference in problems reported between HD (35.1%) and CAPD (15.6%) on usual activities dimension (p = 0.009). The proportion of patients having problems in the pain/discomfort domain in both modalities was high (34.0%). Haemoglobin (

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