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  1. Ong MC, Gan SL
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2017 Nov 30;124(2):1001-1005.
    PMID: 28807418 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.08.019
    A study had been carried out to determine Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations in the muscle and fins of four elasmobranchs species namely spot-tail sharks, milk sharks, whitespotted bamboo sharks and whitespotted guitarfish from Pulau Kambing LKIM Fishery Complex, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. Zinc level was found to have the highest concentration whereas Cd had the lowest concentration in both organs. By comparing both organs, metals concentrations in fins of all elasmobranchs species were higher than muscle. Result obtained was compared with the guidelines set by Malaysian Food Regulation and the provisional tolerable weekly intake was also determined. Current study recommends that the muscle of whitespotted bamboo shark from Kuala Terengganu Waters is likely not to be consumed due to it exceeded the allowable consumption guideline. Finding of this paper is very useful as it provides the baseline data on the pollution status of elasmobranchs in Kuala Terengganu Waters.
  2. Kamaruzzaman BY, Ong MC, Zaleha K, Shahbudin S
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2008 Sep 15;11(18):2249-53.
    PMID: 19137835
    Muscle and feather in tissue of 40 juveniles and 40 adult green-lipped mussel Perna veridis (L.) collected from Muar Estuary, Johor were analyzed for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentration using a fast and sensitive Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). In this study, the average concentration of Cu was 8.96 microg g(-1) dry weights, Cd with 0.58 microg g(-1) dry weight, Pb averaging 2.28 microg g(-1) dry weights and Zn averaged to 86.73 microg g(-1) dry weight. The highest accumulation of metal studied was found in feather sample compared to the muscle. The positive relationship of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn with P. virdis length suggesting that the accumulation of these metals were formed in the mussel. In all cases, metal levels found were lower than the guideline of international standards of reference and the examined bivalve were not associated with enhanced metal content in their tissues and were safe within the limits for human consumption.
  3. Kamaruzzaman BY, Ong MC, Jalal KC, Shahbudin S, Nor OM
    J Environ Biol, 2009 Sep;30(5 Suppl):821-4.
    PMID: 20143712
    The accumulative partitioning of Pb and Cu in the Rhizophora apiculata was studied randomly in the Setiu mangrove forest, Terengganu. Samples of leaves, barks and roots were collected randomly from the selected studied species. Sediments between the roots of the sampled mangrove plants were also collected. The results from analysis for Rhizophora apiculata shows that the concentration of Pb and Cu were accumulated higher in root tissue compared to bark and leaf tissue but lower than surrounding sediment level. The average concentration of Cu for Rhizophora apiculata in leaf, bark, root and sediment was 2.73, 3.94, 5.21 and 9.42 mg I(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, the average concentration of Pb in leaf, bark, root and sediment was 1.43, 1.38, 2.05 and 11.66 mg l(-1), respectively. Results of concentration factors (CF) show that the overall the concentration of Pb and Cu were accumulated much higher in roots system of Rhizophora apiculata.
  4. Viswanathan S, Rose N, Arip M, Chai CH, Law WC, Sim R, et al.
    Mult Scler Relat Disord, 2018 Oct;25:300-308.
    PMID: 30172173 DOI: 10.1016/j.msard.2018.07.003
    We performed a retrospective observational analytical study looking at the frequencies and characteristics of multiple sclerosis(MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders(NMOSD) in consecutive patients with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease (IIDDs) attending three centers (2009-2017). Of 523 patients with IIDDs, there were 173 patients with NMOSD and 230 patients with MS. The percentage of NMOSD: IIDDs was 33%. The percentage of NMOSD:Total MS and NMOSD cohort was 43%. Of 141 seropositive NMOSD patients, 134(95%) were from the three main ethnic groups. The percentage of seropositive NMOSD to IIDDs and to combined MS and NMOSD was 26.9% and 35% respectively. Ratios of MS to NMOSD were nearly equal at 1.3 to 1.0, reinforcing the high ratio of NMOSD to MS in Asia. Nearly half of the Chinese cohort were seropositive ie; 71/141 (50%) with the remainder being Malays; 56/141 (39.7%) and Indians; 7/141 (5%). Amongst the other indigenous groups seropositivity was seen in 2 each of Iban, Bajau, Kadazan descent as well as one of Bidayuh origin. Comparatively, seropositivity in NMOSD is commoner amongst the Chinese compared to the Malays (p ≤ 0.005) and Indians, p ≤ 0.05 with ratios as high as 10:1. In the MS group of 230 subjects, 123(53.5%) were Malays (ratio of MS:NMOSD of 2:1), 41(17.8%) were Chinese, (ratio of MS:NMOSD of 0.5:1.0) and 54 (23.5%)were Indians (ratios of MS:NMOSD of 5:1 amongst the Indians). The remainder from East Malaysia were made up of 2 each of Kadazans, Ibans and Bajaus including 3 each of Bidayuh and Eurasian descent. Comparatively, in the NMOSD and MS cohorts a female preponderance was noted more so amongst Chinese NMOSD patients, with rare familial occurrence in both but more in Malay MS/NMOSD patients. This study also highlighted some of the inter-ethnic differences in presentation of MS and NMOSD amongst the 3 main ethnic races in Malaysia and confirms indigenous races having MS/NMOSD which needs further research. It also reviewed current literature on similar inter-ethnic differences world wide. To conclude, MS and NMOSD are the commonest demyelinating diseases seen in Malaysia with interesting inter-ethnic differences and similarities.
  5. Ariffin MM, Adiana G, Bidai J, Hing LS, Nurulnadia MY, Ong MC, et al.
    Data Brief, 2019 Dec;27:104806.
    PMID: 31788520 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2019.104806
    Metals are natural elements existed in the environment. However, due to the rapid development of urbanisation and economic, high content of anthropogenic metals are being perceived in polluting the environment. The oceans are known to be a part of the sinking basin for anthropogenic metals ends. Dataset provided is purposely to give an overview of dissolved metals spatial distribution in the South China Sea off the east Peninsular of Malaysia during the pre-, post- and Northeast (NE) Monsoon period. Seawater samples were collected in a grid of 18 stations at 3 different water depth. Dissolved metals were pre-concentrated on-board ship using Chelex-100 resin and analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometry (ICPMS). The dataset shows the effect of NE Monsoon on dissolved metals spatial distribution mainly at the area closer to the land. Therefore, this dataset could reveal the past information on anthropogenic metals intrusion in the South China Sea, since Terengganu state was recently pointed to be one of the Malaysian waterfront city. Additionally, this dataset also could help in studying the cycle of metals in the southern South China Sea waters.
  6. Tengku Nur Alia TKA, Hing LS, Sim SF, Pradit S, Ahmad A, Ong MC
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2020 Apr;153:111009.
    PMID: 32275555 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111009
    Metallic contamination in seafood, especially fish, has been of increasing concern to human health. Moreover, with increasing dependency on farmed fish for fish resources, the metallic contamination in them is still questionable. This study aimed to investigate the effects of cooking (steaming) on heavy metal concentration in farmed fish and to estimate its potential human health risk. Farmed sea basses (Lates calcarifer) from Setiu Lagoon were used to study the difference in metal uptake through human consumption of raw and cooked (steamed) fish samples. Selected heavy metals, namely copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb), were measured using ICP-MS following Teflon bomb closed digestion of the fish samples. Cooking of the fish muscle by steaming was applied to investigate if cooking changes the concentration of heavy metals. Mercury and As were found accumulated more notably in the fish muscle, though only Hg was found to show significant (p > 0.05) increase when L. calcarifer is cooked. The amount of As in the fish muscle throughout its growth can be potentially harmful to humans, with the highest averaged concentration at 3.29 ± 0.65 mg/kg dw. above the standard set by the Malaysian Food Regulation (1985) of >1 mg/kg. All the other heavy metals were at relatively safe concentrations well below the standard set by both national and international guidelines. The PTWI per individual of L. calcarifer for As was at 0.84 mg/kg bw., which indicated that the amount of this fish safe for consumption without any adverse effect is 170 g/week. Therefore, long-term intake of these fish may pose a risk to human health due to the relatively higher Hg and As concentration found in these fishes.
  7. Zaini NM, Lee HW, Mohamed KN, Sabuti AA, Suratman S, Ong MC
    Data Brief, 2020 Aug;31:105900.
    PMID: 32642516 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2020.105900
    Heavy metal pollution in an aquatic environment has become of the main concern to the world due to their non-biodegradable properties, toxicity, persistence, and their ability to adsorb into food chains. With rapid industrialization and development nowadays, heavy metals are introduced continuously into the estuaries and coastal region through rivers, runoff, and land-based point sources. These heavy metals may degrade the aquatic environment and harm the living organisms and toward human indirection through secondary contact. The dataset provided is to give an overview of the spatial and temporal distribution of the heavy metals concentration in Merang River surficial sediment collected from September 2017 to July 2018, subsequently every two months dataset. Sediment samples were collected in 44 stations along the river and 20 stations in the coastal area, which total up to 64 stations. Teflon Bomb closed digestion method with mixed acid was used to digest the sediments. The concentration of heavy metals in the sediment were analysed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The spatial distribution of heavy metals shows the effect of monsoon and wet and dry seasons in the sampling area. Thus, this dataset reveals six months of information on natural and anthropogenic sources intrusion at the Merang River and may also help in monitoring the pollution in the area.
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