METHODS: The hMSCs derived from human Wharton's jelly umbilical cord (hWJMSCs; n = 6) were treated with RECA at different concentrations; 400, 800, 1200, 1600, 2000 and 2400 μg/ml. The cytotoxicity of RECA was evaluated via the MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and cell proliferation assays. The hWJMSCs were then induced to neural lineage for 9 days either with RECA alone or RECA in combination with neurotrophic factors (NF). Cell morphological changes were observed under an inverted microscope, while the expression of the neural markers S100β, p75 NGFR, MBP, GFAP and MOG was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. The cell cycle profile of differentiated and undifferentiated hWJMSCs was investigated through cell cycle analysis.
RESULTS: RECA exerted effects on both proliferation and neural differentiation of hWJMSCs in a dose-dependent manner. RECA reduced the proliferation of hWJMSCs and was cytotoxic to cells above 1600 μg/ml, with IC50 value, 1875 ± 55.67 μg/ml. In parallel with the reduction in cell viability, cell enlargement was also observed at the end of the induction. Cells treated with RECA alone had more obvious protein expression of the neural markers compared to the other groups. Meanwhile, gene expression of the aforementioned markers was detected at low levels across the experimental groups. The supplementation of hWJMSCs with RECA did not change the normal life cycle of the cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Although RECA reduced the proliferation of hWJMSCs, a low dose of RECA (400 μg/ml), alone or in combination of neurotrophic factors (NF + RECA 400 μg/ml), has the potential to differentiate hWJMSCs into Schwann cells and other neural lineage cells.
METHODS: This was a prospective randomized comparative trial. Women who required vacuum assisted vaginal delivery were randomized into the Kiwi Omnicup (KO) group and the Malmstrom metal cup (MM) group. The vacuum assisted deliveries were conducted according to hospital protocol. Details of the procedure and delivery outcomes including success and complications were analyzed.
RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-four women were recruited - 85 were assigned to vacuum assisted delivery using the KO and 79 the MM. One hundred percent delivery success was achieved with no significant differences between the two instruments in terms of maternal morbidity (P = 0.66). Six women in the MM group sustained post delivery complications in comparison to five in the KO group. Three babies were diagnosed with birth asphyxia in each group. More babies in the MM group were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) (10 babies versus 5 babies) and suffered complications (14 versus 12 babies), compared to the KO group, although the difference was not statistically significant. There were no intrapartum or neonatal deaths and of those admitted to the NICU, all were discharged within a week without any serious consequences.
CONCLUSION: Kiwi Omnicup is an effective alternative to the currently available Malmstrom metal cup for vacuum assisted delivery with no increase in maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality.
METHODS: Three segments of the whole UC, each 3 cm in length, were identified anatomically as the maternal, middle and fetal segments. The hWJMSCs from the different segments were analyzed via trypan blue exclusion assay to determine the growth kinetics and cell viability, flow cytometry for immunophenotyping and immunofluorescence and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for expression of stromal cell transcriptional factors. Furthermore, the trilineage differentiation potential (osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic) of these cells was also assessed.
RESULTS: hWJMSCs isolated from the maternal and fetal segments displayed greater viability and possessed a significantly higher proliferation rate compared with cells from the middle segment. Immunophenotyping revealed that hWJMSCs derived from all three segments expressed the MSC markers CD105, CD73, CD90, CD44, CD13 and CD29, as well as HLA-ABC and HLA-DR, but were negative for hematopoietic markers CD14, CD34 and CD45. Analysis of the embryonic markers showed that all three segments expressed Nanog and Oct 3/4, but only the maternal and fetal segments expressed SSEA 4 and TRA-160. Cells from all three segments were able to differentiate into chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic lineages with the middle segments showing much lower differentiation potential compared with the other two segments.
CONCLUSIONS: hWJMSCs derived from the maternal and fetal segments of the UC are a good source of MSCs compared with cells from the middle segment because of their higher proliferation rate and viability. Fetal and maternal segments are the preferred cell source for bone regeneration.
METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study done in University Hospital Fertility Clinic for one year duration. A total of 88 euthyroid women who underwent COH as part of planned in-vitro fertilization (IVF) were invited to participate in this study. Serum thyroid function of each women will be monitored before stimulation (T1), day 10-13 of cycle (T2), during oocyte retrieval (T3), one week following embryo transfer (T4), and at four weeks after embryo transfer (T5). Reproductive outcome of IVF will be observed and documented.
RESULTS: Nine women had ongoing singleton pregnancy, seven suffered from miscarriage, while the rest had implantation failure. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) increased throughout stimulation, peaking at 32-36 hours after hCG administration compared to baseline (1.250 vs. 1.740 mIU/L and 13.94 vs. 15.25 pmol/L). It remains elevated until one week following embryo transfer. The increment of serum TSH exceeded the upper limit, acceptable for first trimester (<1.60 mIU/L). However, the evolution of serum TSH and fT4 did not significantly differ with pregnancy outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: In euthyroid women, thyroid function changed significantly during COH, but these changes were not different between the three reproductive outcomes. Thus, we do not suggest continuous thyroid function monitoring during COH.
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