Displaying all 8 publications

  1. Chai A, Wong YS, Ong SA, Aminah Lutpi N, Sam ST, Kee WC, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2021 Sep;336:125319.
    PMID: 34049168 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125319
    A pilot scale anaerobic degradation of sugarcane vinasse was carried out at various hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the Anaerobic Suspended Growth Closed Bioreactor (ASGCB) under thermophilic temperature. The performance and kinetics were evaluated through the Haldane-Andrews model to investigate the substrate inhibition potential of sugarcane vinasse. All parameters show great performance between HRT 35 and 25 days: chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction efficiency (81.6 to 86.8%), volatile fatty acids (VFA) reduction efficiency (92.4 to 98.5%), maximum methane yield (70%) and maximum biogas production (19.35 L/day). Furthermore, steady state values from various HRT were obtained in the kinetic evaluation for: rXmax (1.20 /day), Ks (19.95 gCOD/L), Ki (7.00 gCOD/L) and [Formula: see text] (0.33 LCH4/gCOD reduction). This study shows that anaerobic degradation of sugarcane vinasse through ASGCB could perform well at high HRT and provides a low degree of substrate inhibition as compared to existing studies from literature.
  2. Kee WC, Wong YS, Ong SA, Lutpi NA, Sam ST, Chai A, et al.
    Int J Environ Res, 2022;16(1):3.
    PMID: 34899925 DOI: 10.1007/s41742-021-00382-6
    Abstract: Photocatalytic degradation performance is highly related to optimized operating parameters such as initial concentration, pH value, and catalyst dosage. In this study, the impact of various parameters on the photocatalytic degradation of anaerobically digested vinasse (AnVE) has been determined through decolourization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction efficiency using zinc oxide (ZnO) photocatalyst. In this context, the application of photocatalytic degradation in treating sugarcane vinasse using ZnO is yet to be explored. The COD reduction efficiency and decolourization achieved 83.40% and 99.29%, respectively, under the conditions of 250 mg/L initial COD concentration, pH 10, and 2.0 g/L catalyst dosage. The phytotoxicity assessment was also conducted to determine the toxicity of AnVE before and after treatment using mung bean (Vigna radiata). The reduction of root length and the weight of mung bean indicated that the sugarcane vinasse contains enormous amounts of organic substances that affect the plant's growth. The toxicity reduction in the AnVE solution can be proved by UV-Vis absorption spectra. Furthermore, the catalyst recovery achieved 93% in the reusability test. However, the COD reduction efficiency and decolourization were reduced every cycle. It was due to the depletion of the active sites in the catalyst with the adsorption of organic molecules. Thus, it can be concluded that the photocatalytic degradation in the treatment of AnVE was effective in organic degradation, decolorization, toxicity reduction and can be reused after the recovery process.

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  3. Zainudin NF, Sam ST, Wong YS, Ismail H, Walli S, Inoue K, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2023 Jan 03;15(1).
    PMID: 36616587 DOI: 10.3390/polym15010237
    The ability of poly-ferric-silicate-sulphate (PFSS) synthesized via a co-polymerization process has been applied for the removal of diazo Congo red dye. A novel degradation pathway of diazo Congo red dye by using PFSS is proposed based on LC-MS analysis. Diazo Congo red dye was successfully removed using synthesized PFSS at lower coagulant dosages and a wider pH range, i.e., 9 mg/L from pH 5 to 7, 11 mg/L at pH 9, and 50 mg/L at pH 11. The azo bond cleavage was verified by the UV-Vis spectra of diazo Congo red-loaded PFSS and FTIR spectra which showed disappearance of the peak at 1584 cm-1 for -N=N- stretching vibrations. The synchronized results of UV-Vis spectra, FTIR, and the LC-MS analysis in this study confirmed the significance of the Si and Fe bond in PFSS towards the degradation of diazo Congo red dye. The successfully synthesized PFSS coagulant was characterized by FTIR, SEM, TEM, and HRTEM analysis. From this analysis, it was proven that PFSS is a polycrystalline material which is favorable for the coagulation-flocculation process. Based on all these findings, it was established that synthesized PFSS can be employed as a highly efficient polymeric coagulant for the removal of dye from wastewater.
  4. Lau YY, Wong YS, Ong SA, Lutpi NA, Sam ST, Teng TT, et al.
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 2023 Mar;46(3):359-371.
    PMID: 35796867 DOI: 10.1007/s00449-022-02743-7
    The under-treated wastewater, especially remaining carcinogenic aromatic compounds in wastewater discharge has been expansively reported, wherein the efficiency of conventional wastewater treatment is identified as the primary contributor source. Herein, the advancement of wastewater treatments has drawn much attention in recent years. In the current study, combined sequential and hybridized treatment of thermolysis and coagulation-flocculation provides a novel advancement for environmental emerging pollutant (EP) prescription. This research is mainly demonstrating the mitigation efficiency and degradation pathway of pararosaniline (PRA) hybridized and combined sequential wastewater treatment. Notably, PRA degradation dominantly via a linkage of reaction: thermal cleavage, deamination, silication and diazene reduction. Thermolysis acts as an initiator for the PRA decomposition through thermally induced bond dissociation energy (BDE) for molecular fragmentation whilst coagulation-flocculation facilitates the formation of organo-bridged silsesquioxane as the final degradation product. Different from conventional treatment, the hybridized treatment showed excellent synergistic degradability by removing 99% PRA and its EPs, followed by combined sequential treatment method with 86% reduction. Comprehensive degradation pathway breakdown of carcinogenic and hardly degradable aromatic compounds provides a new insight for wastewater treatment whereby aniline and benzene are entirely undetectable in effluent. The degradation intermediates, reaction derivatives and end products were affirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (GC-MS, FTIR and UV-Vis). This finding provides valuable guidance in establishing efficient integrated multiple-step wastewater treatments.
  5. Majib NM, Sam ST, Yaacob ND, Rohaizad NM, Tan WK
    Polymers (Basel), 2023 Feb 10;15(4).
    PMID: 36850157 DOI: 10.3390/polym15040873
    Agricultural wastes and leaves, which are classified as lignocellulosic biomass, have been used as substrates in the production of fungal foams due to the significant growth of the mushroom industry in recent years. Foam derived from fungi can be utilized in a variety of industrial applications, including the production of packaging materials. Here, white oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus florida) and yellow oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus citrinopileatus) were cultivated on rice husk, sawdust, sugarcane bagasse, and teak leaves. Fungal foams were produced after 30 days of incubation, which were then analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis (TGA), and chemical structure using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Mechanical testing examined the material's hardness, resilience, and springiness, and water absorption tests were used to determine the durability of the fungal foams. Our findings demonstrated that fungal foams made from rice husk and teak leaves in both mycelium species showed better mechanical properties, thermal stability, and minimal water absorption compared to the other substrates, and can thus have great potential as efficient packaging materials.
  6. Ten ST, Hashim U, Gopinath SC, Liu WW, Foo KL, Sam ST, et al.
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2017 Jul 15;93:146-154.
    PMID: 27660016 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2016.09.035
    Surface acoustic wave mediated transductions have been widely used in the sensors and actuators applications. In this study, a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SHSAW) was used for the detection of food pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E.coli O157:H7), a dangerous strain among 225 E. coli unique serotypes. A few cells of this bacterium are able to cause young children to be most vulnerable to serious complications. Presence of higher than 1cfu E.coli O157:H7 in 25g of food has been considered as a dangerous level. The SHSAW biosensor was fabricated on 64° YX LiNbO3 substrate. Its sensitivity was enhanced by depositing 130.5nm thin layer of SiO2 nanostructures with particle size lesser than 70nm. The nanostructures act both as a waveguide as well as a physical surface modification of the sensor prior to biomolecular immobilization. A specific DNA sequence from E. coli O157:H7 having 22 mers as an amine-terminated probe ssDNA was immobilized on the thin film sensing area through chemical functionalization [(CHO-(CH2)3-CHO) and APTES; NH2-(CH2)3-Si(OC2H5)3]. The high-performance of sensor was shown with the specific oligonucleotide target and attained the sensitivity of 0.6439nM/0.1kHz and detection limit was down to 1.8femto-molar (1.8×10(-15)M). Further evidence was provided by specificity analysis using single mismatched and complementary oligonucleotide sequences.
  7. Kee WC, Wong YS, Ong SA, Lutpi NA, Sam ST, Dahalan FA, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2023 May;30(24):65364-65378.
    PMID: 37081370 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-023-27046-6
    Sugarcane vinasse has been reported as a high strength industrial wastewater that could cause severe environmental pollution due to its complex and bio-refractory compounds. Thus, the combined coagulation and sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) system was employed for the sugarcane vinasse treatment. This study aims to determine the recommended conditions of various parameters under coagulation and SBBR and investigate the effectiveness of combined processes. First, the approach of the coagulation process could achieve the maximum COD reduction and decolorization efficiencies of 79.0 ± 3.4% and 94.1 ± 1.9%, respectively, under the recommended conditions. Next, SBBR as an integrated biofilm reactor showed excellent synergistic biodegradability, removing 86.6 ± 4.3% COD concentration and 94.6 ± 3.8% color concentration at 3.0 g·COD/L of substrate loading concentration. The kinetic studies of SBBR revealed that the first-order kinetic model was the best fit for COD reduction efficiency. In contrast, the second-order kinetic model was the best fit for decolorization efficiency. The SBBR reaction was further investigated by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis). In the combined processes, SBBR followed by the coagulation process (SBBR-CP) showed greater COD reduction and decolorization efficiencies (97.5 ± 0.3 and 99.4 ± 0.1%) when compared to the coagulation process followed by SBBR (CP-SBBR). This study demonstrated the removal performance and potential application of the combined sequential process to produce effluent that can be reused for bioethanol production and fertigation. This finding provides additional insight for developing effective vinasse treatment using combined chemical and biological processes.
  8. Chai A, Wong YS, Ong SA, Lutpi NA, Sam ST, Wirach T, et al.
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 2023 Jul;46(7):995-1009.
    PMID: 37160769 DOI: 10.1007/s00449-023-02879-0
    Anaerobic co-digestion (co-AD) of agro-industrial waste, namely, palm oil mill effluent (POME) and sugarcane vinasse (Vn), with water hyacinth (WH) as co-substrate was carried out in two separate Anaerobic Suspended Growth Closed Bioreactors (ASGCBs) under thermophilic (55 °C) conditions. The highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) and soluble COD reduction in co-AD of POME-WH (78.61%, 78.86%) is slightly higher than co-AD of Vn-WH (75.75%, 78.24%). However, VFA reduction in co-AD of POME-WH (96.41%) is higher compared to co-AD of Vn-WH (85.94%). Subsequently, biogas production peaked at 13438 mL/day values and 16122 mL/day for co-AD of POME-WH and Vn-WH, respectively. However, the methane content was higher in the co-AD of POME-WH (72.04%) than in the co-AD of Vn-WH (69.86%). Growth yield (YG), maximum specific substrate utilization rate (rx,max) and maximum specific biomass growth rate (μmax) are higher in co-AD of POME-WH, as supported by the higher mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) and COD reduction efficiency compared to co-AD of Vn-WH. However, methane yield ([Formula: see text]) reported in the co-AD of POME-WH and Vn-WH are 0.2748 and 0.3112 L CH4/g CODreduction, respectively, which suggests that WH is a more suitable co-substrate for Vn compared to POME.
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